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Near Chivington in Kiowa County, Colorado — The American Mountains (Southwest)
 

Incriminations and Culpability

 
 
Incriminations and Culpability Marker image. Click for full size.
Photographed By Connor Olson, August 30, 2021
1. Incriminations and Culpability Marker
Inscription.   Accountings of a Massacre
Captain Soule and Lieutenant Cramer put their lives and careers in jeopardy when they refused to attack the Cheyenne and Arapaho at Sand Creek. Both men wrote letters detailing atrocities they witnessed and later gave testimony about it.

"I tell you Ned, it was hard to see little children on their knees have their brains beat out by men professing to be civilized”
Silas S. Soule (Letter to Major Edward “Ned” Wyncoop, December 14, 1865.)

Investigations
In 1865, Congress and the War Department each made inquiries into the attack at Sand Creek. Testimony from some soldiers and officers rebutted Chivington's official account. Each federal investigation determined Sand Creek was a massacre. Chivington and many others refused to accept these determinations and maintained the attack was a battle. Chivington resigned his commission in early 1865 and was never held accountable for massacre.

"From the suckling babe to the old warrior, all who were overtaken were deliberately murdered."
B.F. Wade, Chairman,
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Committee of the Conduct of War Report: Massacre of Cheyenne Indians. January 10, 1865.

A New Treaty, New Promises
During negotiations for the 1865 Treaty of the Little Arkansas, Peace Commissioners met with some Cheyenne and Arapaho survivors. The new treaty condemned the massacre, assigned blame to the Federal Government, and under Article 6 promised reparations to the survivors; however, no one was officially punished for the massacre. Although sympathetic in nature, the treaty required the Cheyenne and Arapaho to relinquish title to their lands in Colorado and relocate to a new reservation in Oklahoma.

ARTICLE 2: ...It is further agreed by the Indians parties hereto...that henceforth they will, and do hereby, relinquish all claims or rights in and to any portion of the United States or Territories, except such as embraced within the limits aforesaid, and more especially their claims and rights in and to the country bounded as follows...viz: (description of all lands allotted under the 1851 Fort Laramie Treaty and the Upper Arkansas Agency Reservation established under the 1861 Treaty of Fort Wise.)
 
Erected by National Park Service, Department of the Interior.
 
Topics. This historical marker is listed in this topic list: Wars, US Indian. A significant historical year for this entry is 1865.
 
Location.
Incriminations and Culpability Marker image. Click for full size.
Photographed By Connor Olson, August 30, 2021
2. Incriminations and Culpability Marker
38° 33.609′ N, 102° 31.612′ W. Marker is near Chivington, Colorado, in Kiowa County. Marker can be reached from County Highway W east of Chief White Antelope Way. Located on the Bluff Trail. Touch for map. Marker is in this post office area: Eads CO 81036, United States of America. Touch for directions.
 
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. An End to the Slaughter (here, next to this marker); Past, Present, and Future Come Together (here, next to this marker); Chaos, Disorder, and Disgust (approx. 0.2 miles away); Incredible Feats of Bravery (approx. 0.2 miles away); The Big Head Fight (approx. half a mile away); Conflict Within and Without (approx. half a mile away); Attack and Pursuit (approx. ¾ mile away); Troops Approach the Village (approx. ¾ mile away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Chivington.
 
 
Credits. This page was last revised on November 4, 2021. It was originally submitted on October 30, 2021, by Connor Olson of Kewaskum, Wisconsin. This page has been viewed 120 times since then and 25 times this year. Photos:   1, 2. submitted on October 30, 2021, by Connor Olson of Kewaskum, Wisconsin. • Andrew Ruppenstein was the editor who published this page.

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Jun. 23, 2024