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Teotihuacán de Arista in Municipality of Teotihuacán, Estado de Mexico, Mexico — The Central Highlands
 

The History of Teotihuacán

 
 
The History of Teotihuacán Marker image. Click for full size.
By J. Makali Bruton, June 28, 2017
1. The History of Teotihuacán Marker
Inscription.
La Historia de Teotihuacán
Alrededor del año 400 a.C., el Valle de Teotihuacán estuvo ocupado por varias comunidades rurales, con una población de aproximadamente 5000 habitantes, en una extensión de 4-6 Km2. Hacia 200 a.C., parte de la población del Sur de la Cuenca de México, emigra hacia el Norte del Lago de Texcoco; se genera entonces un reordenamiento en los asentamientos y se conforma un nuevo centro poblacional en el Valle. Así, se dio orígen al primer asentamiento urbano planificado en Mesoamérica. Durante las siguientes fases en el desarrollo de la Ciudad de Teotihuacán, se alcanza un alto grado de urbanización que se evidencia por un trazo urbano con calles y manzanas, regido por dos grandes ejes perpendiculares entre sí: la Calzada de los Muertos y la Calzada Este-Oeste; igualmente, por un sistema de drenaje y alcantarillado en unidades residenciales, edificios y plazas públicos, y por un estilo arquitectónico oficial caracterizado como de talud-tablero. En el apogeo de la Ciudad (450-650 d.C.), se ocupa una extensión cercana los 23 Km2, con una población de 175,000 habitantes. El incremento demográfico, el desarrollo económico y el alto grado de especialización que se requirió para satisfacer las necesidades de población, generaron grandes diferencias sociales asá como un importante desarrollo
The History of Teotihuacán Marker image. Click for full size.
By J. Makali Bruton, June 28, 2017
2. The History of Teotihuacán Marker
en las ciencias y artes. El principal elemento de gobierno fue la religión; se trataba de una sociedad teocrática que tuvo el control no sólo en el Valle de Teotihuacán sino también en los valles vecinos a la Cuenca de México.

Desde los comienzos de Teotihuacán, se traza la Calzada de los Muertos y se edifican los Pirámides del Sol y de la Luna y, poco tiempo después el Templo de la Serpiente Emplumada. Los templos y palacios que limitan la Calzada de los Muertos identifican las áreas político-administrativos y cívico-religiosas. Las unidades residenciales se localizan en la periferia del centro ceremonial. En toda la Ciudad se aprecian varios niveles constructivos, es decir, la Ciudad creció sobre sí misma durante nueve siglos; de esta manera, puede observarse la superposición de edificios que corresponden a diferentes etapas en el desarrollo de la Cultura Teotihuacana, hasta su caída hacia 700-750 d.C.

Después del abandono de la Ciudad y hasta la llegado de los Españoles, varios grupos culturales, como los Toltecas y los Aztecas, en diferentes etapas de la Epoca Prehispánica, la respetan como una Ciudad Sagrada. Llegan a establecer asentamientos en la periferia, reocupando las zonas habitacionales y las áreas agrícolas alimentados por los manantiales.

Náhuatl:
La Historia de Teotihuacán
Ic ipan in xihuitla 400 a.C.,
The northern face of the Pyramid of the Sun, seen from near the The History of Teotihuacán Marker image. Click for full size.
By J. Makali Bruton, June 28, 2017
3. The northern face of the Pyramid of the Sun, seen from near the The History of Teotihuacán Marker
… in Teotihuacan miyaque altepehuaque mochach …moctli tlatlaca acia ipan in 5000 altepetlaca, ipan in …4-6 Km2. Ipan in xihuitl 200 a.C., cequi tlatlaca … tlamayan in Mexico, yawe compic mictlan …; ihuan ohquion occepa motlayetlalla … occepa mochihua yacuic altepeyolo ipan … ipan in tle itoca Mesoamérica. Quicpa … mochichihuaya in altepet Teotihuacan, omacia … latecpaniliztli in quenin mochachantizque ihuan motho … motlatlazaya in otin ihuan in tlachantin, inin omotlatecpan … hueyi tlazaliztli: Ipan in mihcaoli ihuan ipan in otli … Tonatiuh-icalaquiyan Tonatiuh ihuan mochi, ipan ce …in ipan itec in apantin in ihuan ipan yolocaltecpantin, ihuan omochichiuh ica ce tlanahuatil catca ihueyiliz in atlepetl (450-650 d.C.), inin mozohuaya ipan 23 km2 tlalli, ihuan ica in 175,000 altepehuaque. Ipan ihueyiliz in altepechané, ipan ihueyiliz in tlatequipanoliztli ihuan in quenin omocecetilique in tequitl, mochi inin monequiaya tleka ohauion cuali catca in altepehuaque, ihuan ohquion omocecetilique in tlatlaca, ihuan mochihuaya ipan in teotlachihualiztli, ininque altepetlaca moteonahuatiaya, ihuan inin teotlanahuatiliztli amo zan catca ipan in tlamayan Teotihuacan, mochi inin omoxinachhui ipan occequi tlamayantin tlen catca ipan in hueyi tamayan in Mexico.

Ic cuac quinye pehuaya in altepetl Teotihuacan, omotlatecpan in mihcaotli ihuan mochi omochiuhque in tonatiuh teocalli ihuan in metztli teocalli, ihuan zatepan, in quetzalcoatl teocalli. In teocaltin ihuan in caltecpantin tlen quitzacuilia in mihcaotli, ompic mochihuaya onozo motlaliaya in teotlatecpaniliztli ihuan in teotlanahuatiliztli. Ihuan in caltepechantin quiyehualohuaya in yoloteotlamachiliztli. Ipan mochi in altepetl cuali mohta miyac tlatecpantin, tleca ohquion, ohuex in altepetl tleca motlatetecpantiaya ipan chicnahul tlen itoca siglos. Ihuan ohquion, cuali mohta in quenin motetecpaniaya in tlatecpanchichihualiztin, tlen mochichihuaya ipan occe Teotihuacan teoltlamachiliztli, ihuan ohquion aci cuac oyecauh ipan in xihuitl 700-750 d. C.

Zatepan, cuac oquicauhtehuaque in altepetl ihuan cuac huàcico in caltiltlaca, miyac tlaca, in quenin in Toltecatlaca ihuan mochi in. Aztecatlaca ipan cuac ayamo àcia nican in caxtiltlaca, tlen itoca Epoca Prehispánica, quimomalhuiya in quenin ce teoaltepetl. Cuali mochachantiaya ipan in cuali canin quiyehualohuaya, onozo occepa mochachantiaya in canin catca in chantin ihuan in tlatocatlaltin ompa canin catca in ameyaltin.

English translation:
The History of Teotihuacán
Around the year 400 BCE, the Teotihuacán Valley was occupied by several rural communities, with a population of approximately 5000 inhabitants living in an area of 4-6 km2. Around 200 BCE, part of the population living south of the Basin of Mexico migrates towards the north of Lake Texcoco. A reorganization is then generated in the settlements and a new population center is formed in the Valley. This was the origin of the first planned urban settlement in Mesoamerica. During the following phases in the development of the City of Teotihuacán, a high degree of urbanization is reached that is seen in the development of an urban area with streets and residential groups, with two great roads that run perpendicular to each other: the Calzada de los Muertos (the Avenue of the Dead) and the East-West Causeway. The area also has a drainage system, sewage drains in residential units, buildings and public squares, and an official architectural style characterized as “talud-tablero” (sloping panel). At the height of the city’s development (450-650 AD) it occupies an area of about 23 km2 with a population of 175,000. Demographic growth, economic development and the high degree of specialization required to meet the needs of the population led to large social differences as well as important developments in science and the arts. The main element of government was religion. A theocratic society had control, not only in the Valley of Teotihuacán, but also in the neighboring valleys of the Basin of Mexico.

Since the beginnings of Teotihuacán, the Calzada de los Muertos was laid out and the Pyramids of the Sun and Moon built. Shortly afterwards the Temple of the Feathered Serpent was also constructed. The temples and palaces that border the Calzada de los Muertos identify political-administrative and civic-religious areas. The residential units are located on the periphery of the ceremonial center. Throughout the city there are several levels of construction, that is to say, the city grew on and over itself for nine centuries. In this way, one can observe the superposition of buildings that correspond to different stages in the development of the Teotihuacan culture, until its fall towards the period of 700-750 CE.

After the abandonment of the city and until the arrival of the Spanish, several cultural groups, such as the Toltecs and the Aztecs, in different stages of the Prehispanic Age, respected it as a sacred city. They established settlements on the periphery, reoccupying residential areas and spring-fed farmland.
 
Location. 19° 41.669′ N, 98° 50.541′ W. Marker is in Teotihuacán de Arista, Estado de Mexico, in Municipality of Teotihuacán. Marker can be reached from Avenida San Francisco just west of Calle Tuxpan. Touch for map. The marker is near Gate 4 (Puerto 4) of the Teotihuacán Archaeological Site. Marker is in this post office area: Teotihuacán de Arista, Estado de Mexico 55880, Mexico.
 
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. The Importance of the Pyramid of the Sun (approx. 0.3 kilometers away); A Ceremonial Incense Burner (approx. 0.3 kilometers away); The Puma Mural (approx. 0.3 kilometers away); Late Occupation of Teotihuacan and the Mexica Presence (approx. 0.3 kilometers away); The Meaning of the Pyramid of the Sun (approx. 0.4 kilometers away); Miccoatli (approx. 0.4 kilometers away); Pyramid of the Sun (approx. 0.4 kilometers away); The Temple of Agriculture (approx. 0.4 kilometers away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Teotihuacán de Arista.
 
Categories. AnthropologyArchitectureMan-Made FeaturesNative Americans
 
 
Credits. This page was last revised on July 18, 2017. This page originally submitted on July 17, 2017, by J. Makali Bruton of Querétaro, Mexico. This page has been viewed 51 times since then. Photos:   1, 2, 3. submitted on July 18, 2017, by J. Makali Bruton of Querétaro, Mexico.
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