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“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
Tulelake in Siskiyou County, California — The American West (Pacific Coastal)
 

Lava Fortress

Captain Jack's Stronghold

 
 
Lava Fortress Marker image. Click for full size.
April 10, 2008
1. Lava Fortress Marker
Caption below the photo of LTC Wheaton:
“…one thousand men would be required to dislodge them from their almost impregnable position…” wrote Lt. Col, Frank Wheaton of the Modocs’ military skills after his garrison’s failed attack on the Stronghold, January 17, 1873.

Caption below the photo of Col. Gillem:
Col. Alven C. Gillem launched an intense two-day assault on the Stronghold that cut the Modocs’s water supply, forcing them out on the nights of April 16-17, 1873.

Caption below the photo of Captain Jack:
Modoc leader Kientpoos, known to local whites as Captain Jack
Inscription. “Peaceable if you can, forcibly if you must,” ordered Indian Agent T. B. Odeneal. The U.S. Army garrison’s task was to bring the Modocs and their leader, Captain Jack, back to the reservation. His refusal started the Modoc War in the fall of 1872.

In early December about 60 Modoc warriors retreated with their families to the lava formations just south of here. The jagged landscape formed a natural fortress where the Modocs withstood two major army assaults. But after the army severed their access to water at Tule Lake, the Modocs were forced from their position in April 1873. The area has since been called Captain Jacks Stronghold.
 
Erected by National Park Service.
 
Location. 41° 49.477′ N, 121° 30.037′ W. Marker is in Tulelake, California, in Siskiyou County. Marker can be reached from Monument Rim Road. Touch for map. Marker is located on the Captain Jack's Stronghold interpretive trail near the parking area. Marker is in this post office area: Tulelake CA 96134, United States of America.
 
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within 3 miles of this marker, measured as the crow flies. The Road to the Stronghold (a few steps from this marker); Shore of Tule Lake (a few steps from this marker);
Sign at Captain Jack's Stronghold image. Click for full size.
By Don Morfe, July 2, 2009
2. Sign at Captain Jack's Stronghold
Attack at Hospital Rock (approx. 1.6 miles away); Last Meeting of the Peace Commission (approx. 2.3 miles away); Canby Cross (approx. 2.3 miles away); Attracted to Water (approx. 2.8 miles away); War in the Lava Beds (approx. 2.9 miles away); Modoc War Casualties (approx. 2.9 miles away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Tulelake.
 
Also see . . .  Captain Jack’s Stronghold. Captain Jack's Stronghold, part of Lava Beds National Monument, is located at the Perez turnoff, off Highway 139 between Tule Lake and Canby, California. The lava beds made an outstanding stronghold for the Modocs because of the rough terrain, rocks that could be used in fortification, and irregular pathways to evade pursuers. The area originally served as a hunting and gathering area. It is now a national monument managed by the National Park Service. (Submitted on March 3, 2013.) 
 
Categories. Native AmericansWars, US Indian
 
Captain Jack's Stronghold image. Click for full size.
By Don Morfe, July 2, 2009
3. Captain Jack's Stronghold
Ranger on Duty at Captain Jack's Stronghold image. Click for full size.
By Don Morfe, July 2, 2009
4. Ranger on Duty at Captain Jack's Stronghold
Captain Jack's Stronghold image. Click for full size.
By Don Morfe, July 2, 2009
5. Captain Jack's Stronghold
Captain Jack's Stronghold image. Click for full size.
By Don Morfe, July 2, 2009
6. Captain Jack's Stronghold
Sign at the Site of Tule Lake Shoreline image. Click for full size.
By Don Morfe, July 2, 2009
7. Sign at the Site of Tule Lake Shoreline
This was the shoreline of Tule Lake in 1872-73. The Modoc Indians occupying the Stronghold obtained water at this point.

Once nearly 100,000 acres, the lake was drained between 1912 and 1958 to make fertile land available for homesteads.
Captain Jack's Stronghold and Tule Lake Site image. Click for full size.
April 10, 2008
8. Captain Jack's Stronghold and Tule Lake Site
In this photo, looking north from the marker, one can see fields, which were once part of the acreage of Tule Lake.
Sign Near the Stronghold image. Click for full size.
By Don Morfe, July 2, 2009
9. Sign Near the Stronghold
<i>The Modoc War - Captain Jack's Cave in the Lava Beds</i> image. Click for full size.
By Harper's weekly, v. 17, no. 861 (1873 June 28), p. 545, June 28, 1873
10. The Modoc War - Captain Jack's Cave in the Lava Beds
 
 
Credits. This page was last revised on June 16, 2016. This page originally submitted on February 10, 2013, by Don Morfe of Baltimore, Md 21234. This page has been viewed 475 times since then and 29 times this year. Photos:   1. submitted on March 3, 2013.   2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. submitted on February 10, 2013, by Don Morfe of Baltimore, Md 21234.   8. submitted on March 3, 2013.   9. submitted on February 10, 2013, by Don Morfe of Baltimore, Md 21234.   10. submitted on March 8, 2013. • Syd Whittle was the editor who published this page.
 
Editor’s want-list for this marker. Wide area view of the marker and its surroundings. • Can you help?
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