“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
West Village in Manhattan in New York County, New York — The American Northeast (Mid-Atlantic)

Jefferson Market Garden

Acres: 0.36

Jefferson Market Garden Marker image. Click for full size.
Photographed By Barry Swackhamer, May 20, 2012
1. Jefferson Market Garden Marker
Where some went to market, and some went to jail, today’s Greenwich Villagers tend the Jefferson Market Garden in the shade of the landmark Market Courthouse.

Named for Thomas Jefferson, third president of the United States, the Jefferson Market opened on this site in 1833, alongside a police court, a volunteer firehouse, and a jail. The market grew rapidly to include fishmongers, poultry vendors, and hucksters. It was razed in 1873 to make way for a new civic complex and courthouse.

The Jefferson Market Courthouse, with its fire-watch bell tower, and lighted clock dial, was designed by Fredrick Clarke Withers and Calvert Vaux, and built in 1877. The ornate courthouse struck the New York Times as inappropriate for such a shoddy neighborhood – “a jewel in a pig’s snout.” Nonetheless, architects polled in 1895 deemed the building to be the fifth most beautiful in the United States. While Vaux believed that the cells should be “strong, secure and entirely unattractive,: he created a six-tiered structure that allowed some light to penetrate and air to circulate. At the turn of the century, the triangular parcel between
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Sixth Avenue, Greenwich Avenue, and 10th Street was thus entirely occupied and connected to the rest of the city by the Gilbert Elevated Railway’s Sixth Avenue line, inaugurated in 1878.

In 1927 the jail, the market and the firehouse were demolished and replaced by the City’s only House of Detention for Women, an 11-story building designated in the French Art Deco style by Benjamin W. Levitan. By the time the Women’s House of Detention opened in 1931, the adjacent courthouse heard only cases with female defendants. Correction Commissioner Richard Patterson introduced the facility as “undoubtedly the best institution of its kind in the United States if not indeed the entire world.” Contemporaries noted the facility’s modern equipment, one of the most striking features being a turntable altar in the chapel, with sections fitted respectively for Protestant, Catholic, and Jewish services.

Use of public transportation declined during the Depression, and the clattering elevated railways were criticized for lowering property values. The 6th Avenue line was demolished in 1939. Amendments to the district court system in 1945 led to the abandonment of the courthouse, which was to be sold by auction in 1959, The Greenwich Village Association (GVA), led by Margot Gayle and Verna Small, campaigned forcefully to preserve the building, and won their first victory in 1961
Jefferson Market Garden Marker image. Click for full size.
Photographed By Barry Swackhamer, May 20, 2012
2. Jefferson Market Garden Marker
by saving the four-sided clock in the tower. A year later Mayor Wagner agreed to establish a Village branch of the New York Public Library in the Jefferson Market Courthouse.

The Board of Estimate transferred the site to Parks in 1974, and the Jefferson Market Garden Committee, Inc., composed of Village neighborhood associations and homeowners, was entrusted with its care. Landscape architect Pamela Berdan originally designed the garden in the spirit of Frederick Law Olmsted, who co-designed Central and Prospect Parks with Calvert Vaux. The garden was planted with 10 Star and Saucer Magnolia trees, 7 Yoshino Cherry trees, 2 American Yellowwoods, 7 Thornless Honey locusts, 10 Crabapple trees, 70 fairy hedge roses around the lawn, 60 pycarantha, and 56 holly bushes in clusters. Volunteers have since planted tulips, daffodils, and crocuses in garden.

In the late 1960s, GVA and Community Board 2 held town meetings to discuss the removal of the Women’s House of Detention and the creation of a “passive recreation area” on the site. At the time, friends and families of inmates lingered outside the House at all hours of the day or night, yelling their news and greetings. Nearby residents were disturbed by the noise. Gawkers came to watch the scene. The facility was overcrowded and had become obsolete. The Women’s House of Detention was demolished in 1973, after 42
Jefferson Market Triangle image. Click for full size.
from "Daytonian in Manhattan"., unknown
3. Jefferson Market Triangle
Original appearance, prior to the 1927 demolitions. The garden site is at the apex.
years of use.

A generous grant, one of the last made by the Vincent Astor Foundation, funded the new decorative steel fence, which recalls the design of the courthouse fence and unifies the site. On October 13, 1998 Mrs. Brook Astor dedicated the fence at a ceremony attended by members of the Greenwich Village community.
Erected 1999 by City of New York Parks & Recreation.
Topics and series. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: ArchitectureLaw EnforcementParks & Recreational AreasWomen. In addition, it is included in the Art Deco series list. A significant historical month for this entry is October 1918.
Location. This marker has been replaced by another marker nearby. It was located near 40° 44.07′ N, 73° 59.984′ W. Marker was in Manhattan, New York, in New York County. It was in West Village. Marker was on Greenwich Avenue. The Jefferson Market Garden is located on Greenwich Avenue between West 10th Street and Christopher Street. Touch for map. Marker was at or near this postal address: 9 Greenwich Avenue, New York NY 10011, United States of America. Touch for directions.
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this location. A different marker also named Jefferson Market Garden (a few steps from this marker); FDNY House 18 9/11 Memorial (within shouting distance of this marker); Jefferson Market Courthouse
Jefferson Market Garden image. Click for full size.
Photographed By Barry Swackhamer, May 20, 2012
4. Jefferson Market Garden
Jefferson Market Library in the background.
(within shouting distance of this marker); 4 Patchin Place / e.e. cummings (within shouting distance of this marker); 27 Christopher Street (about 500 feet away, measured in a direct line); Julius' Bar "Sip-In" (about 500 feet away); Charles Ives (about 500 feet away); Northern Dispensary (about 500 feet away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Manhattan.
Related marker. Click here for another marker that is related to this marker. This marker has been replaced by the linked marker.
Also see . . .  Jefferson Market Library. New York Architecture entry:
This article also describes the Jefferson Market Jail and Women's Detention Facilities. “In place of the wretched and desolate quarters of the old Jefferson Market Prison, at one time hailed as a remarkable step in advance, replacing the inhumane and dungeon-like city prison of early days, there stands a modern structure providing hygienic and wholesome environment, with most ample possibilities for segregation of types of offenders; splendid facilities for organized recreation, wholesome work rooms and medical equipment adapted to every need." (Submitted on July 5, 2012, by Barry Swackhamer of Brentwood, California.)
Jefferson Market Garden image. Click for full size.
Photographed By Barry Swackhamer, May 20, 2012
5. Jefferson Market Garden
The Jefferson Market Library is in the background.
Credits. This page was last revised on January 31, 2023. It was originally submitted on July 5, 2012, by Barry Swackhamer of Brentwood, California. This page has been viewed 506 times since then and 97 times this year. Photos:   1, 2. submitted on July 5, 2012, by Barry Swackhamer of Brentwood, California.   3. submitted on April 11, 2020, by Larry Gertner of New York, New York.   4, 5. submitted on July 5, 2012, by Barry Swackhamer of Brentwood, California. • Bill Pfingsten was the editor who published this page.

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May. 29, 2023