“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
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Mississippi Freedom Trail Historical Markers

Trail commemorates the heroes and events of Mississippi’s pivotal role in the American Civil Rights Movement.
Amzie Moore Marker (Rear) image, Touch for more information
By Mark Hilton, October 17, 2015
Amzie Moore Marker (Rear)
1 Mississippi, Bolivar County, Cleveland — 9 — Amzie Moore — Mississippi Freedom Trail —
Front Returning home from WWII, Cleveland businessman Amzie Moore (1911-1982) became a principal architect of early civil rights activism as a founding member of the Mississippi NAACP and the Regional Council of Negro Leadership. . . . Map (db m90128) HM
2 Mississippi, Bolivar County, Mound Bayou — 8 — T.R.M. Howard — Mississippi Freedom Trail —
Mound Bayou businessman and physician Theodore Roosevelt Mason Howard (1908-1976) founded and led Mississippi's pre-eminent civil rights organization in the 1950s, the Regional Council of Negro Leadership. A charismatic speaker and mentor to . . . Map (db m90148) HM
3 Mississippi, Coahoma County, Clarksdale — 16 — Aaron Henry — Mississippi Freedom Trail —
Front Aaron Henry (1922-1997), Clarksdale pharmacist, was a major early grassroots activist in the civil rights movement. As local NAACP president, he led the early 1960s Clarksdale boycott campaign, during which he was arrested and . . . Map (db m170477) HM
4 Mississippi, DeSoto County, Hernando — 24 — March Against Fear — Mississippi Freedom Trail —
Front James Meredith began his Memphis-to-Jackson "March Against Fear" on June 4, 1966, challenging a'the all-pervasive and overriding fear" that kept black Mississippians from registering to vote. On the second day, south of Hernando, . . . Map (db m141545) HM
5 Mississippi, Forrest County, Hattiesburg — 27 — Clyde Kennard — Mississippi Freedom Trail —
Forrest County native Clyde Kennard was a pioneer in the quest to desegregate higher education in Mississippi. His efforts to enroll at Mississippi Southern College (now USM) in 1955-1959 were obstructed by college president William D. McCain and . . . Map (db m118838) HM
6 Mississippi, Harrison County, Biloxi — 29 — Biloxi Beach Wade-In — Mississippi Freedom Trail —
Front On April 24, 1960, Gilbert R. Mason, Sr., M.D., led about 125 volunteers in a peaceful wade-in on segregated Biloxi Beach. Trained in non-violent passive resistance, they expected to be arrested. Instead they were attacked by a . . . Map (db m122359) HM
7 Mississippi, Hinds County, Clinton — 32 — The Clinton Massacre — Mississippi Freedom Trail —
On September 4, 1875, a political rally and debate turned violent on the grounds of the former Moss Hill plantation, near downtown Clinton. An exchange of gunfire between White Democrats and Black Republicans left seven dead and dozens . . . Map (db m184616) HM
8 Mississippi, Hinds County, Jackson — 28 — Bombings in Jewish Community — Mississippi Freedom Trail —
Front Rabbi Perry Nussbaum came to Beth Israel in 1954 and was an important voice for racial justice. Working with diverse ministers, he helped found the Committee of Concern, raising money for black churches burned by the Klan. In 1967, . . . Map (db m133848) HM
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9 Mississippi, Hinds County, Jackson — 25 — Jackson Municipal Library Sit-In — Mississippi Freedom Trail —
Front On March 27, 1961, nine African American Tougaloo students quietly sat in at the Jackson Municipal Library, which served only white patrons. Police ordered them to Carver Library, the "colored" library, and when they refused, . . . Map (db m109294) HM
10 Mississippi, Hinds County, Jackson — 2 — Medgar Evers Home — Mississippi Freedom Trail —
Front Medgar and Myrlie Evers moved into this home with their children - Darrell and Reena - in 1955 after Medgar became Mississippi's first NAACP Field Secretary. Son Van was born in 1960. Evers was an outspoken activist for . . . Map (db m115401) HM
11 Mississippi, Hinds County, Jackson — 30 — WLBT-TV — Mississippi Freedom Trail —
In 1964 a group of Jackson citizens and the United Church of Christ challenged Lamar Life Insurance Company's application for renewal of their WLBT license, charging racial discrimination. In 1971 the Federal Communications Commission granted a . . . Map (db m178458) HM
12 Mississippi, Hinds County, Jackson — 12 — Woolworth's Sit-in — Mississippi Freedom Trail —
(front) Woolworth's variety store was the scene of a pivotal event in the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement on May 28, 1963. When three black Tougaloo College students sat down at the white lunch counter seeking service, the nonviolent . . . Map (db m105565) HM
13 Mississippi, Hinds County, Jackson, Belhaven — 19 — Capitol Rally — Mississippi Freedom Trail —
Front On June 26, 1966, James Meredith's "March Against Fear" — led by Stokely Carmichael. Martin Luther King, Jr., Floyd McKissick, and others after Meredith was shot and wounded — ended its three-week trek from Memphis . . . Map (db m89745) HM
14 Mississippi, Hinds County, Jackson, Farish Street Historic District — 5 — Greyhound Bus Station — Mississippi Freedom Trail —
(front) On May 28, 1961, a Greyhound bus with nine Freedom Riders aboard arrived here, the third group of Riders into Jackson. The first two came on Trailways buses May 24. That summer 329 people were arrested in Jackson for integrating . . . Map (db m82000) HM
15 Mississippi, Hinds County, Jackson, Washington Addition — 23 — COFO Central Offices — Mississippi Freedom Trail —
Front From this building, COFO (Council of Federated Organizations) coordinated efforts of SNCC, NAACP, CORE, SCLC, and other activist groups from early 1963 through early 1965. Clarksdale's Aaron Henry was COFO president. Bob . . . Map (db m115397) HM
16 Mississippi, Hinds County, Jackson, Washington Addition — 6 — Jackson State Tragedy — Mississippi Freedom Trail —
Tragedy struck Jackson State College on May 15, 1970, when Jackson police and Mississippi Highway Patrol officers suppressed student unrest with intense gunfire. Phillip Lafayette Gibbs and James Earl Green were killed and many injured when bullets . . . Map (db m178451) HM
17 Mississippi, Hinds County, Jackson, Washington Addition — 6a — Jackson State Tragedy — Mississippi Freedom Trail —
Tragedy struck Jackson State College on May 15, 1970, when Jackson police and Mississippi Highway Patrol officers suppressed student unrest with intense gunfire. Phillip Lafayette Gibbs and James Earl Green were killed and many injured when . . . Map (db m109209) HM
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18 Mississippi, Hinds County, Tougaloo — 13 — Tougaloo College — Mississippi Freedom Trail — Reported unreadable
Front The courage of Tougaloo College students, faculty, and staff fueled the Jackson Civil Rights Movement. Inspired by the bravery and resolve of Medgar Evers, students and faculty attempted to integrate Jackson's main public library, . . . Map (db m115722) HM
19 Mississippi, Humphreys County, Belzoni — 11 — The Reverend George Lee — Mississippi Freedom Trail —
Front The Reverend George Lee (1903-1955), a pioneer in the early Mississippi civil rights movement, was a vice president of the Regional Council of Negro Leadership, a co-founder of the Belzoni NAACP branch, and a powerful public . . . Map (db m77408) HM
20 Mississippi, Lafayette County, University — 7 — University of Mississippi — Mississippi Freedom Trail —
Front On October 1, 1962, James Meredith broke the rigid segregation in Mississippi's higher education when he became the first African American student at the University of Mississippi. Though federal courts had ordered his admission, . . . Map (db m102580) HM
21 Mississippi, Leflore County, Greenwood — 10 — "Black Power" Speech — Mississippi Freedom Trail —
Front On June 16, 1966, SNCC chairman Stokely Carmichael, released from jail after defying City of Greenwood orders by putting up tents to house participants of the James Meredith “March Against Fear,” made his famous . . . Map (db m77423) HM
22 Mississippi, Leflore County, Money — 1 — Bryant's Grocery — Mississippi Freedom Trail —
Front Fourteen-year-old Emmett Till came to this site to buy candy in August 1955. White shopkeeper Carolyn Bryant accused the black youth of flirting with her, and shortly thereafter, Till was abducted by Bryant's husband and his half . . . Map (db m77418) HM
23 Mississippi, Madison County, Canton — 21 — Madison County Movement — Mississippi Freedom Trail —
(front) CORE Activists David Dennis, Matheo Suarez, and George Raymond opened a Madison County office in 1963 to register black voters, the majority in white~controlled Canton. Co~directors Raymond and Suarez were joined by Annie Devine and . . . Map (db m105553) HM
24 Mississippi, Marshall County, Holly Springs — 18 — Rust College — Mississippi Freedom Trail —
Front In 1960 Rust College students, under the leadership of President E. A. Smith, boycotted the segregated HollyTheater, a protest that in 1962 evolved into a Rust chapter of the NAACP. The chapter offices were installed by Medgar . . . Map (db m116163) HM
25 Mississippi, Pike County, McComb — 15 — C.C. Bryant — Mississippi Freedom Trail —
Side 1 Elected president of the Pike County branch of the NAACP in 1954, Curtis Conway Bryant (1917-2001) played a major role in early civil rights activism of southwest Mississippi. He campaigned to expand membership in the NAACP, led large . . . Map (db m108990) HM
26 Mississippi, Quitman County, Marks — 20 — Marks Mule Train and Poor Peoples Campaign — Mississippi Freedom Trail —
In March 1968 Martin Luther King Jr. visited Marks to get support for a Poor People's Campaign. He envisioned masses converging on Washington in a plea for new anti-poverty projects. King wanted the march to begin in Mississippi, with mules and . . . Map (db m174171) HM
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27 Mississippi, Sunflower County, Ruleville — Fannie Lou Hamer — Mississippi Freedom Trail —
In 1962 at age 44, Hamer tried to register to vote; the next day she was fired from her job on the plantation east of here. She became a civil rights activist, opening her Ruleville home to Freedom Summer workers and other activists. She earned . . . Map (db m174198) HM
28 Mississippi, Sunflower County, Ruleville — 26 — William Chapel — Mississippi Freedom Trail —
The historic William Chapel Missionary Baptist Church, established in 1922, was a longtime meeting place for civil rights activists before the organization of the modern civil rights movement. In 1962 the Reverend J. D. Story was the pastor . . . Map (db m174174) HM
29 Mississippi, Tippah County, Blue Mountain — 17 — Carpenters for Christmas — Mississippi Freedom Trail — Reported unreadable
(obverse) In October 1964 the Antioch Missionary Baptist Church was destroyed by fire after a Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party rally there led by Fannie Lou Hamer. On December 22 church members and other volunteers, along with Oberlin . . . Map (db m171654) HM
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Jun. 10, 2023