“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
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Black Hawk War Historical Markers

A series of markers documenting the Black Hawk War.
Plum River Falls Marker image, Touch for more information
By David Seibert, August 9, 2010
Plum River Falls Marker
1Illinois (Carroll County), Savanna — Plum River Falls
Steamboats once navigated to this point, where Plum River Falls powered saw, powder, grist, and flour mills at various times between 1836 and 1885. Near here the Rock Island Military and Prophetstown Trails to Galena were intersected as early as the . . . Map (db m34261) HM
2Illinois (Cass County), Beardstown — Captain Abraham LincolnLooking for Lincoln
Rejecting a treaty, Black Hawk, a leader of the Sauk and Fox, led his hungry people back into Illinois from Iowa in early 1832, intending to plant corn. Black Hawk also hoped to form an alliance with the Winnebago and Pottawatomie. . . . Map (db m57691) HM
3Illinois (Cass County), Beardstown — Lincoln and BlackhawkLooking for Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln and his men were among the 1,500 or so volunteers who had poured into Beardstown for basic military drills. These men had answered Gen. John Reynolds' call to drive Black Hawk and his people out of Illinois. The military . . . Map (db m57689) HM
4Illinois (DeKalb County), Shabbona — Chief Shabbona
It was 1775, one year before the American Revolution that an Indian boy was born near the banks of the Kankakee River. A boy who would grow up to befriend the new nation's people. His Ottawa parents named him “Shab-eh-nay” (Shabbona), which means . . . Map (db m78301) HM
5Illinois (DeKalb County), Shabbona — Shabbona
In the early 1800's Shabbona was a principal chief of the Ottowa, Potawatomi, and Chippewa group of tribes which banded together to form "The Three Fires." Shabbona camped briefly in a large grove one-half mile south of here. He fought with the . . . Map (db m31672) HM
6Illinois (DuPage County), Addison — Army Trail Road
This road followed an Indian trail that began in Chicago and went through DuPage, Kane, De Kalb, Boone, and Winnebago Counties to a Winnebago Village at Beloit, Wisconsin. In August, 1832, during the Black Hawk War, United States Army reinforcements . . . Map (db m47438) HM
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7Illinois (DuPage County), Naperville — Fort Payne
Near this site in 1832 a 100-foot square stockade enclosed by wooden pickets, with two blockhouses on diagonal corners, was built. Here Captain Morgan L. Payne and his company of forty-five men protected the settlers from roaming Sauk Indians during . . . Map (db m97574) HM
8Illinois (LaSalle County), Oglesby — Fort Wilbourn
On the eminence to the southwest stood Fort Wilbourn, where the Third Army of Illinois volunteers was mustered in for service in the Black Hawk War. Here on June 16, 1832 Abraham Lincoln enlisted as a private in Jacob M. Early's company, his third . . . Map (db m184997) HM
9Illinois (LaSalle County), Ottawa — Fort Johnston
. . . Map (db m185029) HM WM
10Illinois (Lee County), Dixon — Lincoln in the Black Hawk War
On May 12, 1832 Captain Abraham Lincoln's company of Illinois volunteers camped one mile west. Lincoln re-enlisted in two other companies and was frequently in Dixon. Discharged from service near Fort Atkinson, Wisconsin, on July 10, Lincoln passed . . . Map (db m78300) HM
11Illinois (Rock Island County), Hillsdale — Black Hawk War Campsite
In 1832 when Black Hawk and his Sauk and Fox followers returned to Illinois, 1500 mounted volunteers advanced along the banks of the Rock River to capture them. 505 men under Colonel Zachary Taylor followed in supply boats and late at night on May . . . Map (db m78266) HM
12Illinois (Rock Island County), Milan — Lincoln and the Black Hawk War
On May 8, 1832, while encamped approximately one mile west of this point, Abraham Lincoln was mustered into the military service of the United States. Captain Lincoln's company was mustered into state service at Beardstown April 28, the day before . . . Map (db m32972) HM
13Illinois (Rock Island County), Rock Island — Fort Armstrong
Fort Armstrong was built in 1816-1817. Its riverside was protected by limestone bluffs and its other sides were formed in part by the rear walls of barracks and storehouses. Blockhouses, like the replica, stood at three corners. The pyramid of . . . Map (db m33225) HM
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14Illinois (Shelby County), Strasburg — Strasburg Veterans Memorial
Center Panel Strasburg Veterans Memorial All Gave Some + Some Gave All (Seals of United States Branches of Military) * Killed In Action Left Panel * * * Revolutionary War * * * John Jenkins • . . . Map (db m31021) WM
15Indiana (Montgomery County), Crawfordsville — Montgomery County's Tribute to her Heroic Dead
(Front Side - in Stone): Montgomery County's Tribute to her Heroic Dead Mexican War 1846 - 1948 Men Enrolled 98 War for the Union 1861 - 1865 Men Enrolled 2,971 Spanish American War 1898 Men Enrolled 264 (Under . . . Map (db m9394) WM
16Kentucky (Boyle County), Danville — 2244 — John Todd Stuart, 1807-1885
Abraham Lincoln’s friend and 1st law partner was born on Nov. 10, 1807, in Fayette Co. The son of a Presbyterian minister & Mary Todd Lincoln’s aunt, Stuart graduated from Centre College in 1826. Two years later he became a lawyer in Springfield, . . . Map (db m49746) HM
17Wisconsin (Crawford County), Prairie du Chien — 431 — Black Hawk's Surrender
On August 2, 1832, the Black Hawk War effectively ended when the U.S. Military massacred many followers of Sauk Indian leader Black Hawk at the Battle of Bad Axe, located about 35 miles north of here. Black Hawk, known as Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak, . . . Map (db m43531) HM
18Wisconsin (Crawford County), Prairie du Chien — 432 — Site of the Second Fort Crawford1829 – 1856
The first Fort Crawford was built in 1816, and stood on the site now occupied by the "Villa Louis." After a decade of Mississippi River flooding, the U. S. Army relocated Fort Crawford to this site, constructing the new fort of locally quarried . . . Map (db m43532) HM
19Wisconsin (Crawford County), Rising Sun — 10 CVP — Black Hawk Trail
700 Sac Indians July 31, 1200 Soldiers Aug. 1, 1832 followed this ridge west into Vernon County over this ground. _____________________ Two human skeletons were found at a spring west of Wilder's Hotel, Rising Sun in 1852. . . . Map (db m32003) HM
20Wisconsin (Crawford County), Soldiers Grove — 405 — Soldiers Grove Origin
In late July, during the Black Hawk War of 1832, Sac Indian leader Black Hawk led his starving followers through this area in their escape from the General Henry Atkinson and his military forces. After Black Hawk's brilliant delaying tactics at the . . . Map (db m31659) HM
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21Wisconsin (Dane County), Blue Mounds — 29 — Blue Mounds Fort
The onset of the Black Hawk War in northwestern Illinois in April, 1832 triggered panic in southwestern Wisconsin's lead mining region, prompting erection of over a dozen stockades. On an open prairie knoll 3/4 mile south of this marker, area miners . . . Map (db m35412) HM
22Wisconsin (Dane County), Blue Mounds — Site of Blue Mounds Fort
Built in May 1832 by the miners and settlers of the neighborhood and garrisoned by them as volunteer members of General Henry Dodge's Iowa-Michigan Brigade from May 20 to September 20, 1832 during the Black Hawk War This site was donated . . . Map (db m36980) HM
23Wisconsin (Dane County), Madison — Black HawkSauk Chief
Black Hawk, Sauk chief, retreated through these grounds July 21, 1832 pursued by militia and U.S. regulars.Map (db m32247) HM
24Wisconsin (Dane County), Madison — 1 — Black HawkLake Monona: Change
Madison changed with great speed in the 1830s: from Ho-Chunk home to war zone to capital city. Powerful forces were gathering against the Ho-Chunks. To gain more land, southwest Wisconsin lead miners pressured the U.S. government to remove the . . . Map (db m35314) HM
25Wisconsin (Dane County), Madison — 397 — Third Lake Passage
On July 20th, during the Black Hawk War of 1832, Black Hawk led about 700 Sac, Fox and Kickapoo Indians past this point and through the “Third Lake Passage,” the juncture of the Yahara River and Lake Monona. By sunset, the military also . . . Map (db m167062) HM
26Wisconsin (Dane County), Madison — 396 — Tragedy of War
On July 21, 1832, during the Black Hawk War, the U.S. Militia "passed through the narrows of the four lakes," Madison's Isthmus, in pursuit of Sac Indian leader Black Hawk and his band. Near this location, the Militia shot and scalped an old Sac . . . Map (db m31700) HM
27Wisconsin (Dane County), Marxville — 399 — Indian Lake Passage
On July 21, 1832, during the Black Hawk War, Sac Indian leader Black Hawk and his band left Pheasant Branch, west of Madison, retreating ahead of the military forces commanded by Colonels Ewing and Dodge. The band fled north following a route past . . . Map (db m31806) HM
28Wisconsin (Dane County), Mazomanie — Wisconsin Heights Battlefield
Near this site the Sauk chieftain Black Hawk and his band were overtaken by Wisconsin and Illinois troops on July 21, 1832Map (db m37087) HM
29Wisconsin (Dane County), Middleton — 398 — Pheasant Branch Encampment
On the night of July 20th, during the Black Hawk War of 1832, Sac Indian leader Black Hawk and his followers camped near this location. Desperate for food and frightened by the approaching military, the Indians fled northwest towards the Wisconsin . . . Map (db m31753) HM
30Wisconsin (Dane County), Sauk City — 395 — Battle of Wisconsin Heights
On July 21, 1832, during a persistent rainstorm, the 65-year old Sac Indian leader, Black Hawk, led 60 of his Sac and Fox and Kickapoo warriors in a holding action against 700 United States militia at this location. The conflict, known as the . . . Map (db m32301) HM
31Wisconsin (Iowa County), Dodgeville — 403 — Dodge's Grove and Fort Union
Arriving in Dodgeville in 1827, Henry Dodge, later renowned as a Black Hawk War military leader, territorial governor and state senator, began his Wisconsin career as a miner. In circa 1830, Dodge established living quarters and a large two-furnace . . . Map (db m32450) HM
32Wisconsin (Iowa County), Mineral Point — 335 — Fort Defiance
Fort Defiance was one of the last garrisoned stockade forts constructed in territorial Wisconsin. Located in the booming lead mining region, an area of early settlement, the fort was built by local settlers in 1832 when developing tensions over . . . Map (db m32043) HM
33Wisconsin (Iowa County), Mineral Point — 472 — Site of Fort Jackson
In June, 1832, an alarm spread throughout the mining region that Black Hawk and his band were on the march north from Illinois. Hastily built stockades were erected throughout the lead region. Fort Jackson was built on this site using vertically . . . Map (db m32065) HM
34Wisconsin (Iowa County), Spring Green — 404 — Military River Crossing
In this vicinity, during the Black Hawk War of 1832, General Henry Atkinson and approximately 1,000 soldiers crossed the Wisconsin River in pursuit of Sac Indian leader Black Hawk and his followers. On July 26th, at the old abandoned Village of . . . Map (db m19150) HM
35Wisconsin (Iowa County), Spring Green — Site of Old Helena
A thriving and important town of the lead-mining days, here on July 28, 1832 troops crossed the Wisconsin River in pursuit of Indians under Black Hawk Among officers of the Army here present these later became distinguished Gen. Henry . . . Map (db m35333) HM
36Wisconsin (Jefferson County), Fort Atkinson — 407 — Black Hawk War Encampment"Burnt Village"
A large Ho-Chunk (Winnebago) Village dating from the 1700s once stood in this vicinity. Just before the 1832 Black Hawk War, the village was burned during an intra-tribal battle. On July 6th and 8th, the United States Military camped at this site in . . . Map (db m31764) HM
37Wisconsin (Jefferson County), Fort Atkinson — 152 — Fort Koshkonong
"Whilst lying here we have thrown up a stockade work flanked by four block houses for the security of our supplies and the accomodation of the sick," wrote General Henry Atkinson of this spot in his army report to General Winfield Scott on July 17, . . . Map (db m31765) HM
38Wisconsin (Jefferson County), Palmyra — 408 — Black Hawk War Encampment
During the Black Hawk War of 1832, General Atkinson camped near this location on two occasions. On July 7th, Atkinson led his entire militia, including future President's Abraham Lincoln and Zachary Taylor here. On July 19th, Atkinson returned . . . Map (db m31762) HM
39Wisconsin (Jefferson County), Watertown — 409 — Trail Discovery
On July 18th, during the Black Hawk War of 1832, Little Thunder – a Ho-Chunk (Winnebago) Indian guide to the U.S. Militia – discovered Black Hawk’s Band crossed the Rock River in this vicinity. After receiving the news, Gen. James D. . . . Map (db m35453) HM
40Wisconsin (Lafayette County), Town of Wiota — 547 — Battle of Pecatonica
Blackhawk Memorial Park is on the site of the Battle of Pecatonica, the first of three military engagements fought in present-day Wisconsin during the American-Indian conflict of 1832, known as the Black Hawk War. On June 16, 1832, following attacks . . . Map (db m68810) HM
41Wisconsin (Lafayette County), Town of Wiota — The Battle of the Pecatonica
At this place on June 16, 1832 between Wisconsin pioneers, under Colonel Henry Dodge, and a band of Black Hawk’s Sacs was fought the Battle of the Pecatonica. “The annals of Indian warfare offer no parallel to this battle.” Of the . . . Map (db m68809) HM
42Wisconsin (Lafayette County), Wiota — Fort Hamilton
Built by Col. Wm. Hamilton, youngest son of the renowned American statesman, Alexander Hamilton. Col. Hamilton was the founder of Hamilton Diggings, now Wiota. He was born in New York, August 4, 1797. He spent 3 years at West Point after which he . . . Map (db m67297) HM
43Wisconsin (Richland County), Boaz — 402 — Ocooch Mountains
During the Black Hawk War of 1832, Black Hawk's band and the pursuing military ventured into this unknown terrain of steep ridges and valleys. Following nearby Mill Creek, some of the band headed over these rugged hills known as the Ocooch . . . Map (db m43534) HM
44Wisconsin (Richland County), Gotham — 400 — The Pursuit West
During the Black Hawk War of 1832, Black Hawk and his band fled down the Wisconsin River after the July 21st Battle of Wisconsin Heights. Two miles west of here, where the Pine River flows into the Wisconsin, the band left the Wisconsin River and . . . Map (db m18997) HM
45Wisconsin (Richland County), Rockbridge — 401 — Troop Encampment
According to local tradition, on the night of July 29, 1832, during the Black Hawk War, General Atkinson’s troops camped at this location. The next day, the troops proceeded up the West Branch of the Pine River, only to abandon their supply wagon in . . . Map (db m18742) HM
46Wisconsin (Rock County), Beloit — 406 — Black Hawk at Turtle Village / The U.S. Military at Turtle Village
Black Hawk at Turtle Village Turtle Village, a large and important Ho-Chunk (Winnebago) Indian village, once stood on the east side of the Rock River near its confluence with Turtle Creek. During the Black Hawk War of 1832, the Ho-Chunk . . . Map (db m129313) HM
47Wisconsin (Rock County), Beloit — 159 — Black Hawk War
In the spring of 1831, the Sauk Indians led by Chief Keokuk left their ancestral home near the mouth of the Rock River and moved across the Mississippi, to fulfill the terms of a treaty signed in 1804. On April 6, 1832, a dissatisfied faction . . . Map (db m22758) HM
48Wisconsin (Rock County), Janesville — 93 — Route of Abraham Lincoln1832 and 1859
Twice in his lifetime Abraham Lincoln is known to have traveled within sight of the Rock River east of this marker. Lincoln passed this way July 2, 1832, as a private in a mounted company of Illinois militia accompanying forces under General . . . Map (db m22738) HM
49Wisconsin (Rock County), Janesville — 462 — The Black Hawk War / Black Hawk's Grove
The Black Hawk War In April 1832, unhappy about their forced relocation to Iowa and misadvised by tribal chiefs, about 1,000 Sac, Fox and Kickapoo men, women and children followed Sac war leader Black Hawk back to their Illinois home where . . . Map (db m22757) HM
50Wisconsin (Rock County), Milton — 229 — Storrs Lake Milton
On July 1, 1832, here beside Storrs Lake, Brigadier General Henry Atkinson and 4,500 soldiers camped overnight in their pursuit of Black Hawk, Sac Indian chief, who was fleeing northward up the east side of Rock River with 400 warriors and 1200 . . . Map (db m22727) HM
51Wisconsin (Sauk County), Spring Green — 410 — Western Escape
On July 22, during the Black Hawk War of 1832, Sac Indian leader Black Hawk and about 700 followers escaped down the Wisconsin River after the Battle of Wisconsin Heights. Traveling the river in hastily built canoes and rafts or on foot along the . . . Map (db m35337) HM
52Wisconsin (Trempealeau County), Galesville — 81 — Decorah Peak
The rock-crested hill to the east was named after One-Eyed Decorah, a Winnebago chief who, according to tradition, took refuge in a cave near the peak after being wounded in a Chippewa attack on his village. He remained in hiding throughout the . . . Map (db m23186) HM
53Wisconsin (Vernon County), De Soto — 33 — Battle of Bad Axe
After holding off his pursuers at the Battle of Wisconsin Heights (about 1½ miles south of present Sauk City) Black Hawk led his people over unfamiliar country toward the Mississippi. In the meantime, the Army alerted Fort Crawford at Prairie . . . Map (db m23630) HM
54Wisconsin (Vernon County), De Soto — 8 CVP — Black Hawk WarBattle Bluff · Battle Hollow · Battle Island
Battle Bluff ↑ Elv 1139ft Battle Hollow → Severe fighting 1 mile east between Gen. Henry's 300 Ill. militia and 300 Sac Indians Aug. 2 1832. ← Battle Island Hard fighting opposite. 1200 white soldiers . . . Map (db m24501) HM
55Wisconsin (Vernon County), De Soto — 6 CVP — Head of Battle Isle
← Head of Battle Isle. _____________________ On the eve of Aug. 1, 1832, Black Hawk and his men with a flag of truce, went to the head of this island to sur- render to the captain of steamer "Warrior." Whites on . . . Map (db m32351) HM
56Wisconsin (Vernon County), Red Mound — 5 CVP — Black Hawks Outpost
August 2 1832 twenty picked Sacs were station- ed here to decoy the US Army northward and per- mit the Indian main body with women and children to escape across the riv- er. Fourteen of the out- post were shot here wh- ile . . . Map (db m32171) HM
57Wisconsin (Vernon County), Retreat — 4 CVP — Black Hawk and Winnebago Trail
Two trails across Dr. Bean's door yard, the Black Hawk Retreat and the Winnebago Trail which ran from Winne- shiek's (De Soto) village to large Winnebago town above the forks of the Kickapoo at Manning prior to 1840. . . . Map (db m32170) HM
58Wisconsin (Vernon County), West Prairie — 2 CVP — Black Hawk Trail
On night of August 1 and 2 1832, Gen. Atkinson's army of 1200 mounted men in pursuit of Black Hawk encamped on this area from 8 p.m. until 3 a.m. The spring from which men and horse drank is 140 rods northwest. No. 2 CVP . . . Map (db m32114) HM
59Wisconsin (Vernon County), West Prairie — 3 CVP — Black Hawk Trail
At shallow pond 115 rods due south Blackhawk's 700 Sac Indians encamped July 31 1832. Soldiers found six decrepit Indians there and "left them behind." Lee Sterling in 1846 found a handfull of silver brooches there. Hence . . . Map (db m32117) HM
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Dec. 4, 2022