“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
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Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission Historical Markers

The official history agency of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania administers a program of historical markers to capture the stories of people, places, events, and innovations that have affected the lives of Pennsylvanians over the centuries.
Penn State Fruit Research and Extension Center Marker image, Touch for more information
By Devry Becker Jones, February 19, 2022
Penn State Fruit Research and Extension Center Marker
1Pennsylvania (Adams County), Butler Township — Penn State Fruit Research and Extension Center
Founded in 1918, FREC was established in response to management challenges faced by Pennsylvania fruit growers. Originally located in Arendtsville, the center moved here in 1971. Groundbreaking research has been conducted at . . . Map (db m192372) HM
2Pennsylvania (Adams County), Butler Township — Russell Tavern
The original building in which George Washington lodged in October, 1794, while engaged in quelling the Whiskey Rebellion is standing just west within view of this point.Map (db m63676) HM
3Pennsylvania (Adams County), Cumberland Township — Gettysburg Address
Nearby, Nov. 19, 1863, in dedicating the National Cemetery, Abraham Lincoln gave the address which he had written in Washington and revised after his arrival at Gettysburg the evening of November 18.Map (db m8025) HM
4Pennsylvania (Adams County), Cumberland Township — Gettysburg Campaign
Gen. Rodes' Confederate troops marched down this road July 1, 1863, on their way from Carlisle. At this point they turned right along the ridge to Oak Hill, to attack the Union flank.Map (db m27022) HM
5Pennsylvania (Adams County), Cumberland Township — Gettysburg Campaign
The Union Army 11th Corps, crossing from the Emmitsburg Road, July 1, 1863, turned north here toward Gettysburg. The Union 2nd Corps camped here on the same night.Map (db m43640) HM
6Pennsylvania (Adams County), Cumberland Township — Gettysburg Campaign
On July 4, 1863, the Confederate Army began an orderly retreat by the Fairfield Road to the Potomac. They began crossing the river on the night of July 13, after a delay caused by high water.Map (db m180622) HM
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7Pennsylvania (Adams County), Cumberland Township — Gettysburg Campaign
The Union Army 1st Corps camped here June 30, 1863, on the way to Gettysburg. Followed later by the 11th and 3rd Corps, they marched next morning to relieve Buford's cavalry, already in action west of the town.Map (db m204287) HM
8Pennsylvania (Adams County), Cumberland Township — McAllister's MillUnderground Railroad Station
At their grist mill on nearby Rock Creek, James McAllister and his family provided temporary shelter to hundreds of fugitive slaves. Now in ruin, it was part of one of the earliest UGRR networks through which freedom seekers passed on . . . Map (db m61438) HM
9Pennsylvania (Adams County), Cumberland Township — Rural Electrification
In 1936 seventy-five percent of Pennsylvania farms had no electric service. During the next five years, with Federal support, 14 consumer-owned cooperatives were formed in this Commonwealth. Adams Electric Cooperative at Gettysburg, serving members . . . Map (db m26818) HM
10Pennsylvania (Adams County), Cumberland Township — Sachs Covered Bridge
Located just SE of here on the intersecting road. Built in 1852 by David S. Stoner, this lattice-truss bridge (based on a design patented by Connecticut architect Ithiel Town) extends 100 feet across Marsh Creek. Both Union and Confederate troops . . . Map (db m11771) HM
11Pennsylvania (Adams County), East Berlin — Studebaker Home
Built ca. 1790 by David Studebaker, carpenter, farmer, and minister. He was related to the family that later built wagons and automobiles. The house is privately maintained as a museum.Map (db m11638) HM
12Pennsylvania (Adams County), Fairfield — Field Hospital
Wounded of the Sixth U.S. Cavalry and Sixth Virginia Cavalry C.S.A. were cared for in this church building after a severe engagement that took place two miles north of here on July 3, 1863.Map (db m10773) HM
13Pennsylvania (Adams County), Franklin Township — Gettysburg Campaign
Crossing South Mountain from Chambersburg, Gen. Hill's Corps of Lee's army assembled here on June 29-30, 1863. On July 1, his advance guard moved up from near Marsh Creek and met Union Troops west of Gettysburg.Map (db m5814) HM
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14Pennsylvania (Adams County), Franklin Township — Manor of Maske(Western boundary)
Surveyed in 1766. Named for an estate in England. The Manor was about 6 miles wide and 12 miles long with the southern boundary at present Mason-Dixon Line. It was the second largest reserved estate of the Penns in Pennsylvania. The western boundary . . . Map (db m11623) HM
15Pennsylvania (Adams County), Franklin Township — Mary Jemison(1743-1833)
In 1758, during the French & Indian War, a party of French soldiers and Shawnee took Mary Jemison from her home 3 miles north of here. Although most of her family and neighbors were killed, Mary was adopted by two Seneca women. Jemison lived with . . . Map (db m11620) HM
16Pennsylvania (Adams County), Freedom Township — Pennsylvania
Founded 1681 by William Penn as a Quaker Commonwealth. birthplace of The Declaration of Independence and The Constitution of The United StatesMap (db m8055) HM
17Pennsylvania (Adams County), Germany Township — Pennsylvania
Founded 1681 by William Penn as a Quaker Commonwealth. Birthplace of The Declaration of Independence and The Constitution of the United StatesMap (db m95201) HM
18Pennsylvania (Adams County), Gettysburg — Adams County
Formed January 22, 1800 out of York County. The name honors President John Adams. Important center of fruit growing industry. County seat of Gettysburg, incorporated 1806, was site in 1863 of key Civil War battle and President Abraham Lincoln's . . . Map (db m19252) HM
19Pennsylvania (Adams County), Gettysburg — Battle of GettysburgEast Cemetery Hill — July 2, 1863 —
This hallowed ground witnessed a furious struggle in a climactic moment on July 2, 1863, during the Battle of Gettysburg. Confederate forces attacked and briefly broke the Union line here. After a fierce struggle, the Confederates were forced to . . . Map (db m105076) HM
20Pennsylvania (Adams County), Gettysburg — Daniel Alexander Payne(1811-1893)
Born a free African-American. He taught the Colored people at this college, 1837, while a student at the Lutheran Seminary. A historian, he was elected bishop of the A.M.E. Church, 1852, and was president of Wilberforce University, 1863-76.Map (db m40951) HM
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21Pennsylvania (Adams County), Gettysburg — 226 — Dobbin HouseAmerican Presbyterian and Reformed Historical Site
Built in 1776 by the Rev. Alexander Dobbin. In use for some 25 years as one of the first classical schools west of the Susquehanna River. It is now a museum refurnished in keeping with the early period.Map (db m122380) HM
22Pennsylvania (Adams County), Gettysburg — Dwight D. Eisenhower
The future President of the U.S., General of the Army, and Supreme Commander in Europe in WW II lived in this house with his wife Mamie and infant son Icky in the spring and summer of 1918. An Army captain, he was then commanding Camp Colt at . . . Map (db m6179) HM
23Pennsylvania (Adams County), Gettysburg — Eddie Plank (1875-1926)
Baseball great. One of the most dominant pitchers of the twentieth century. "Gettysburg Eddie" compiled a record of 326-194 throughout his career (1901-17), mostly with the Philadelphia Athletics. He won 20 Games or more eight times and helped the . . . Map (db m8651) HM
24Pennsylvania (Adams County), Gettysburg — Gettys Crossroads and Tavern
Here the Shippensburg-Baltimore and the Philadelphia-Pittsburgh Roads crossed. Near the crossroads, stood the tavern of Samuel Gettys. In 1775, troops gathered here for Continental service.Map (db m17045) HM
25Pennsylvania (Adams County), Gettysburg — Gettysburg Address
Nearby, Nov. 19, 1863, in dedicating the National Cemetery, Abraham Lincoln gave the address which he had written in Washington and revised after his arrival at Gettysburg the evening of November 18.Map (db m15129) HM
26Pennsylvania (Adams County), Gettysburg — Lincoln Cemetery
Established in 1867 by the Sons of Good Will for the proper burial of Gettysburg’s African American citizens and Civil War veterans. Some thirty members of the US Colored Troops are buried here, having been denied burial in the National Cemetery . . . Map (db m31189) HM
27Pennsylvania (Adams County), Gettysburg — Old Courthouse
First courthouse for Adams County stood in old Center Square from 1804 to 1859. The land for the Square was given by James Gettys.Map (db m32472) HM
28Pennsylvania (Adams County), Gettysburg — Thaddeus Stevens
Lawyer, congressman, abolitionist, ironmaker, and defender of free public schools in Pennsylvania, lived in a house that stood on this site. He moved from here in 1842.Map (db m18114) HM
29Pennsylvania (Adams County), Gettysburg — Wills House
Abraham Lincoln was a guest of David Wills in this house, Nov. 18 and 19, 1863. Here he met Governor Curtin and others, greeted the public, and completed his Gettysburg Address.Map (db m32477) HM
30Pennsylvania (Adams County), Hamiltonban Township — "Tapeworm Railroad"
Begun in 1836 by the State of Pennsylvania, largely through the efforts of Thaddeus Stevens. The meandering railroad's nickname was provided by its opponents. It was put up for sale in 1842. Just west of here stands its granite stone viaduct.Map (db m10767) HM
31Pennsylvania (Adams County), Highland Township — Lower Marsh Creek Church
Present building erected 1790 by a Presbyterian congregation dating from 1748. Later remodeled, its exterior preserves much of the old-style design.Map (db m10774) HM
32Pennsylvania (Adams County), Huntington Township — Rock Chapel
This is the oldest Methodist place of worship in this region. Built originally in 1773. Rebuilt in 1849, the second building is still standing about a mile north of this point on the side road.Map (db m10358) HM
33Pennsylvania (Adams County), Mount Joy Township — Gettysburg Campaign
Gen. George G. Meade, who had replaced Hooker as Union commander, June 28, 1863, traveled this road from Taneytown to Gettysburg the night of July 1. He made his headquarters just south of Gettysburg.Map (db m10826) HM
34Pennsylvania (Adams County), Mount Joy Township — Gettysburg Campaign
The Union Army 12th Corps arrived here the afternoon of July 1, 1863; and later moved into battle line on Culp's Hill. On July 2, the 6th Corps arrived by this same road, and the 5th Corps by the Hanover Road.Map (db m11716) HM
35Pennsylvania (Adams County), Oxford Township — Conewago Chapel
Four miles south of New Oxford. Original Jesuit chapel built 1787 still in use and one of oldest in the United States. The mission was founded 1730. First Sacred Heart church in Pennsylvania.Map (db m44548) HM
36Pennsylvania (Adams County), Oxford Township — Gettysburg Campaign
Part of Gen. Early's Confederate army, under Gen. J.B. Gordon, passed here June 27, 1863, to York. Early's main force followed a parallel route through Hampton and East Berlin. Both entered York the following day.Map (db m43996) HM
37Pennsylvania (Adams County), Reading Township — Gettysburg Campaign
Part of General Jubal Early's Confederate Division, marching by Mummasburg and Hunterstown, passed here June 27, 1863, on the way to York. Returning June 30, they passed a little to the north, toward Heidlersburg.Map (db m43956) HM
38Pennsylvania (Adams County), Straban Township — Gettysburg Campaign
Near Hunterstown on July 2, 1863, Union cavalry led by Gen. Judson Kilpatrick attacked a Confederate cavalry brigade under Gen. Wade Hampton. Union troops commanded by George A. Custer and Elon J. Farnsworth engaged Hampton's brigade a quarter mile . . . Map (db m192375) HM
39Pennsylvania (Adams County), Straban Township — Manor of Maske[Eastern boundary]
Surveyed in 1766. Named for an estate in England. The Manor was about 6 miles wide and 12 miles long with the southern boundary at present Mason-Dixon Line. It was the second largest reserved estate of the Penns in Pennsylvania. The eastern boundary . . . Map (db m13939) HM
40Pennsylvania (Adams County), Tyrone Township — Gettysburg Campaign
Gen. Early's Confederate troops, marching from York to join Lee's army, camped, June 30, three miles to the east. Arriving here next morning, they turned south toward Gettysburg, on orders of General Ewell.Map (db m10840) HM
41Pennsylvania (Adams County), Tyrone Township — Gettysburg Campaign
Gen. Rodes' Confederate troops, returning from Carlisle to join Lee's army, camped here the night of June 30. The next morning, July 1, they marched west toward Biglerville, then known as Middletown.Map (db m10842) HM
42Pennsylvania (Adams County), Tyrone Township — 372 — John Studebaker
Had his wagon works 2.5 miles SE of here, 1830 to 1836, when he moved west. In 1852 his sons formed the Studebaker Company, the world's largest maker of horse-drawn vehicles and, in 1897, a pioneer in the automobile industry.Map (db m26026) HM
43Pennsylvania (Adams County), Union Township — Christ Reformed Church
Known as "Mother of Reformed Churches" of this region. Congregation organized, May 1747, marking settlement of German pioneers in southern part of Conewago Valley. Section of present building erected, 1798. Many notable persons lie buried in the . . . Map (db m10848) HM
44Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Avalon — Davis Island Lock and Dam
Below this bridge was the first lock and dam built (1878-1885) on the Ohio River. This was the world's largest movable dam yet constructed, and included the world's first rolling lock gate and widest lock chamber. Built and operated by the United . . . Map (db m40201) HM
45Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Bethel Park — 58 — Bethel Presbyterian ChurchAmerican Presbyterian and Reformed Historical Site
Founded 1776, in the Old Stone Manse in South Park, by Reverend John McMillan, pioneer minister and educator. It is the mother of five nearby churches and has given its name to the community. In the cemetery, 14 Revolutionary War soldiers from this . . . Map (db m122311) HM
46Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Braddock — The Great Steel Strike of 1919
In the largest work stoppage to that date, over 350,000 U.S. workers went off the job. Reverend Adalbert Kazincy, pastor of Saint Michael's here, championed the strikers and provided the church as a meeting place. The strike failed after 15 weeks.Map (db m47044) HM
47Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Carnegie — Honus Wagner(1874-1955)
The "Flying Dutchman" was hailed as baseball's greatest shortstop and one of its finest all-around players. A lifelong Carnegie resident, born to German immigrants. Played for Louisville Colonels, 1897-1899, and the Pittsburgh Pirates from . . . Map (db m40682) HM
48Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Collier Township — Neville House
Known as Woodville. Built 1785 by General John Neville; later occupied by his son, Colonel Presley Neville. Refuge of General Neville's family when some Whiskey Rebels burned his home at Bower Hill, July 17, 1794.Map (db m40979) HM
49Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Collier Township — William T. Kerr(1868-1953)
Known as “The Father of Flag Day,” he founded the American Flag Day Association and served as its president for fifty years. President Truman signed the Act of Congress that officially designated June 14 as Flag Day, with Kerr at his . . . Map (db m40980) HM
50Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Crafton — Hand's Hospital
On this site was located the isolation hospital erected in 1777 by General Edward Hand to care for troops at Fort Pitt. Blockhouses protected the original two-story log structure.Map (db m40394) HM
51Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Crescent Township — Shousetown Boatyard
Founder Peter Shouse, built "Kentuckian," its first steamboat, in 1829. Sold 1837 to E. & N. Porter. By 1866 over 80 steamboats had been launched. The last was the 1727-ton "Great Republic," famed on the Mississippi River for its size and elegance.Map (db m201462) HM
52Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Duquesne — Duquesne Steel Works
Plant here began in 1886. Acquired by Andrew Carnegie in 1890, then by United States Steel in 1901. Workers here implemented advances in rolling mill and blast furnace processes before 1914; in pollution control, 1953. At peak of operations they . . . Map (db m45001) HM
53Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), East Pittsburgh — George Westinghouse
Inventor of air brake and some 400 other devices. Developed AC transmission of electric current. Spent creative years in Pittsburgh and founded the industry which bears his name.Map (db m40648) HM
54Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Edgewood — Jane Grey Swisshelm
Renowned editor, abolitionist, Civil War nurse, advocate of women's rights and temperance. Also author of "Half a Century, 1815-1865." Born Jane Grey Cannon at Pittsburgh December 6, 1815; died in old homestead on this site on July 22, 1884.Map (db m45002) HM
55Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Edgeworth — Ethelbert Nevin
Composer of "Narcissus," "The Rosary," and other well-known musical works, was born November 25, 1862, at Vineacre, a property adjoining the far end of this street. Died February 17, 1901, at New Haven, Connecticut.Map (db m39943) HM
56Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Elizabeth — Elizabeth
Here were the boatyards of John and Samuel Walker, a major center for building boats for western waters. A ship launched in 1793 at these yards reached Philadelphia via New Orleans.Map (db m41772) HM
57Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Forest Hills — Pioneer Short-Wave Station
On this site in 1923, Westinghouse opened a special radio facility to experiment with long-distance transmissions. Led by Frank Conrad, engineers here demonstrated the vital role of high-frequency short waves in sending broadcasts around the world.Map (db m40901) HM
58Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Forest Hills — Pittsburgh
Gateway to the West and steel center of the world. Named for William Pitt by General Forbes after the fall of French Fort Duquesne in 1758. Laid out as a town by John Campbell in 1764. Incorporated as a city, 1816.Map (db m75099) HM
59Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Forest Hills — Westinghouse Atom Smasher
The world’s 1st industrial Van de Graaff generator was created by Westinghouse Research Labs in 1937 as an early experiment with atomic energy. The 5-story pear-shaped structure is located here. The company remained active in establishing US . . . Map (db m47038) HM
60Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Forward Township — Monongahela River Navigation System
One of the nation's earliest and most successful river navigation systems, its series of locks and dams, begun in 1838, has provided year-round navigation between Pittsburgh and Fairmont, West Virginia. Millions of tons of coal shipped through the . . . Map (db m56942) HM
61Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Franklin Park — Kuskusky Path
Hunters, traders, warriors, militia, war captives, and diplomats all used this early Native American path, which passed this location, for most of the 1700s as part of a regional network of trails. It provided a direct route between Fort . . . Map (db m40355) HM
62Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Heidelberg — Heidelberg Raceway and Sports Arena
Opened in 1948, this former Pittsburgh Racing Association racetrack was the site of the 1956 final performance of Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey Circus under the Big Top. Rising railroad costs, changing technology, labor troubles, space . . . Map (db m57519) HM
63Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Heidelberg — Old Saint Luke's Church
Oldest Episcopal Church in southwestern Pennsylvania, founded after the French and Indian War by veteran Major William Lea on his land grant. Francis Reno was the first vicar. Church members included General John Neville, the unpopular tax collector . . . Map (db m40978) HM
64Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Homestead — Bost Building
Completed, early 1892. Through that summer, it was headquarters for the strike committee of the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers. Telegraph lines installed here transmitted the news from journalists who were covering the Homestead . . . Map (db m44871) HM
65Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Homestead — Frances Perkins
United States Secretary of Labor, 1933-1945. Visited Homestead July 1933 to discuss New Deal policy. Local authorities barred her from meeting with aggrieved steelworkers in nearby Frick Park. Undeterred, she moved the assembly to federal property . . . Map (db m44867) HM
66Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Homestead — Mary Harris "Mother" Jones
Labor leader, workers' advocate. Arrested and jailed in Homestead for speaking to striking steelworkers, 1919. When a judge asked who gave her a permit to speak publicly, she replied, "Patrick Henry. Thomas Jefferson. John Adams!"Map (db m44869) HM
67Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Homestead — The Homestead Grays
Legendary baseball team that dominated the Negro Baseball Leagues during the first half of the 20th century. Founded by steelworkers in 1900, the Grays inspired African Americans locally and across the nation. Led by Cumberland Posey Jr., they won . . . Map (db m40890) HM
68Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Jefferson Hills — Yohogania Courthouse
Governmental and judicial center for Yohogania, a county erected by Virginia in asserting its claim to western Pennsylvania from 1777 to 1780. The site is on the hilltop opposite.Map (db m44986) HM
69Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Leet Township — D.T. Watson Home for Crippled Children
Founded here in 1917 at Sunny Hill, the former home of David and Margaret Watson, it began as a residential school for disabled children. In 1952, Dr. Jonas Salk, assisted by medical director Dr. Jessie Wright, began the first human testing of his . . . Map (db m129888) HM
70Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), McKees Rocks — McKees Rocks Mound
Largest Native American burial mound in Western Pennsylvania (16 feet high & 85 feet wide). It was hand-built by the Adena people between 200 BC and 100 AD and later used by the Hopewell people. Late 19th century excavations uncovered 33 skeletons . . . Map (db m40899) HM
71Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), McKeesport — Helen Richey(1909-1947)
In 1934 this McKeesport native became the 1st woman to pilot a commercial airliner. Discriminated against because she was a woman, she resigned within a year and went on to become the 1st woman licensed instructor by the Civil Aeronautics . . . Map (db m47040) HM
72Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), McKeesport — Kennedy-Nixon Taft-Hartley Debate
On April 21, 1947, John F. Kennedy and Richard M. Nixon debated the Taft-Hartley Labor-Management Relations Act at the Penn-McKee Hotel. The first debate between the two House Labor Committee members was a precursor to the iconic Kennedy-Nixon . . . Map (db m54922) HM
73Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), McKeesport — National Tube Works
Incorporated 1869, the works began production here, 1872. By 1901, when it became a subsidiary of United States Steel, this was the world's largest pipe producer. Major advances in inspection techniques originated here. Plant operations ceased in . . . Map (db m47041) HM
74Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), McKeesport — Queen Aliquippa
An influential leader of the Seneca Nation in this area and ally of the British during the time of the French & Indian War. Encamped near here when George Washington paid respects to her, 1753. Died, 1754; according to legend, buried nearby.Map (db m47042) HM
75Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Monroeville — William D. Boyce(1858-1929)
Inspired by the good turn of an English Scout, he brought the Scouting movement to the United States. His efforts led to the incorporation of Boy Scouts of America in Washington, D.C., on February 8, 1910, and to its chartering by Congress on June . . . Map (db m40917) HM
76Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Moon Township — Joshua Meeks(1731-1818)
A militia captain during the American Revolution and civic leader in the early republic, Meeks was a petitioner to create Allegheny County in 1787. While making his living as a farmer, he took up arms to defend western Pa. during conflict and war. . . . Map (db m40221) HM
77Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Moon Township — Mooncrest
Designed and built in 1943 by the federal government as defense worker housing. Mooncrest residents produced armor plate, munitions, and ships at the nearby Dravo Corporation during World War II. Operated by U.S. Air Force after 1945; homes sold to . . . Map (db m40222) HM
78Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Munhall — Carnegie Library of Homestead Swim Team
Carnegie Library opened here 1898. Host to athletic club that included world-renowned swimmers. Coached by Jack Scarry, Olympic medal winners were Susan Laird and Jo McKim, 1928, and Lenore Kight Wingard, 1932 and 1936. Anna Mae Gorman competed in . . . Map (db m44870) HM
79Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Munhall — Homestead Strike
On the morning of July 6, 1892, on orders of the Carnegie Steel Company, 300 Pinkerton agents attempted to land near here; strikers and citizens repulsed them. Seven workers and three Pinkertons were killed. 8,000 state militia arrived July 12; by . . . Map (db m39901) HM
80Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Munhall — Homestead Strike Victims
In these two adjoining cemeteries are buried six of the seven Carnegie Steel Company workers killed during the “Battle of Homestead” on July 6, 1892. The graves of Peter Ferris, Henry Striegel, and Thomas Weldon are here in Saint Mary's . . . Map (db m40891) HM
81Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Neville Township — Dravo Corporation Shipyard
During World War II, Dravo's shipyard here was a leader in the manufacture of Landing Ship Tanks--LSTs--for the United States Navy. Dravo's over 16,000 workers produced a total of 145 LSTs. This and four other inland yards, all using techniques . . . Map (db m40280) HM
82Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), North Braddock — Braddock's Defeat
July 9, 1755, General Braddock's British forces en route to capture Fort Duquesne were ambushed and routed by French and Indians within present limits of Braddock and North Braddock, forcing retreat and failure of the expedition.Map (db m59177) HM
83Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), North Braddock — Braddock's Field
Known as the high tide of the Whiskey Rebellion, the rendezvous of militias from Pennsylvania's four western counties took place here, August 1-2, 1794. This was the largest armed resistance to the national government between the Revolutionary and . . . Map (db m59178) HM
84Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), O'Hara Township — General Matthew B. Ridgway(1895-1993)
United States Army officer; he rose to the rank of general, 1951. In World War II, commanded the 82nd Airborne Division (famed for its invasion of Sicily), 1942-44; and 18th Airborne Corps, 1944-45. Supreme commander, United Nations forces in Korea, . . . Map (db m47552) WM
85Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Penn Hills — Bouquet Camp
Bouquet Camp, supply base in the Forbes' campaign against the French holding Fort Duquesne in 1758, was near here. Named in honor of Colonel Bouquet, second-in-command and builder of Forbes Road.Map (db m40879) HM
86Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — 1st Drive-In Filling Station
At this site in Dec. 1913, Gulf Refining Co. opened the first drive-in facility designed and built to provide gasoline, oils, and lubricants to the motoring public. Its success led to construction of thousands of gas stations by different oil . . . Map (db m40872) HM
87Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — Allegheny Arsenal
Designed by Benjamin H. Latrobe and constructed in 1814. The Arsenal was used as a military garrison, in the manufacture and storing of supplies during the Civil War, Indian Wars, and Spanish American War.Map (db m40874) HM
88Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — Allegheny Cotton Mill Strikes
Major strikes by women cotton factory workers protesting 12-hour work-days occurred nearby in Allegheny City in 1845 and 1848. The strikes led to an 1848 state law limiting workdays to 10 hours and prohibiting children under twelve years of age from . . . Map (db m40301) HM
89Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — Allegheny County
Formed September 24, 1788 out of Westmoreland and Washington counties. Named for the Allegheny River. County seat of Pittsburgh was laid out in 1764 and became a city in 1816. A center of the iron, steel and other industries and “Workshop of . . . Map (db m40937) HM
90Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — Allegheny Observatory
Part of the University of Pittsburgh. Chartered 1860; located here since 1912. At the original site nearby, Professor Samuel P. Langley conducted experiments that would lead to the first sustained, mechanically powered flight in 1896.Map (db m42219) HM
91Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — Andrew Carnegie(1835-1919)
A poor Scottish immigrant, Carnegie became a millionaire steel magnate and proponent of the "Gospel of Wealth." Seeking to benefit society with his fortune, he built over 2,500 libraries and endowed institutions advancing education and peace.Map (db m40875) HM
92Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — Art Blakey(1919-1990)
A founder of the “hard-bop” school of jazz, drummer Blakey grew up here, and got his start with Billy Eckstine's band. Blakey’s group, “The Jazz Messengers,” featured Hank Mobley, Freddie Hubbard, Horace Silver, and Wynton . . . Map (db m48883) HM
93Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — August Wilson(1945-2005)
Co-founder of Pittsburgh’s Black Horizon Theater and the author of a cycle of ten plays that have been hailed as a unique triumph in American literature. The plays cover each decade of the 20th century and most focus on African American life in the . . . Map (db m48884) HM
94Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — Avery College
To the south, at Nash and Avery Streets, stood Avery College. Founded in 1849 by Charles Avery (1784-1858), Methodist lay preacher, philanthropist, abolitionist, to provide a classical education for Negroes.Map (db m41046) HM
95Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — Barney Dreyfuss(1865-1932)
Owner of the Pittsburgh Pirates, 1900-1932, and legendary baseball leader influential in initiating the first modern World Series, 1903. He led Pirates to 6 National League and 2 World Series titles and was vital to building Forbes Field here, 1909.Map (db m199602) HM
96Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — Bethel A.M.E. Church
Founded 1808 & known as the African Church. Chartered in 1818. Located nearby in early years, church was site of area's first school for colored children, 1831, and statewide civil rights convention, 1841. Congregation moved to Wylie Avenue, 1872; . . . Map (db m42023) HM
97Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — Billy Eckstine(1914-1993)
African American jazz balladeer and bandleader whose innovative style and sponsorship of new talent helped revolutionize jazz in the 1940s. One of the nation's most popular vocalists, he had 11 gold records. He grew up in this house.Map (db m54980) HM
98Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — Charles Martin Hall(1863-1914)
Hall's invention of electrolytic manufacture of aluminum was first applied to commercial production in 1888 by the Pittsburgh Reduction Company, which later became Alcoa. This process, developed here, made the commercial use of aluminum possible.Map (db m73628) HM
99Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — Charles Taze Russell(1852-1916)
Pastor Russell formed a Bible study group in Allegheny City in the 1870's; developed it into the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society. It became the legal corporation for Jehovah's Witnesses. He lived in the Bible House nearby, 1894-1909; spoke here . . . Map (db m40173) HM
100Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — Clinton Furnace
Pittsburgh’s first successful blast furnace for making pig iron. Operations began near here, 1859, using Connellsville coke as fuel. The furnace’s technology initiated a new era, leading to more advanced furnaces capable of producing huge amounts of . . . Map (db m15138) HM

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Sep. 25, 2022