Established in 1849 by Doss brothers. Operated 1859-1878 by William F. Lange; 1878-1888 by Julius Lange. Its products were famed throughout the region. One of the last of the old burr mills in Texas; one of few in as perfect a state of preservation. . . . — — Map (db m91745) HM
Ten charter members constituted Squaw Creek Primitive Baptist Church in 1901, and Elder S.N. Redford served as pastor from 1901 until 1907. Services were held in homes and in the Squaw Creek School until 1911, when members began meeting in the . . . — — Map (db m91743) HM
Organized by German Lutherans in September 1896 under a brush arbor at nearby Lange’s Mill, this church has been part of Gillespie County history for over 100 years. A frame church building erected in 1898 was replaced by this Gothic Revival . . . — — Map (db m91744) HM
During Fredericksburg’s 150th anniversary, we celebrate the enduring friendship between the Comanche Nation and the people of Gillespie County.
We honor the Comanches who helped to create and preserve this relationship and their descendants . . . — — Map (db m94228) HM
Early settlers in Fredericksburg worshiped together in a community church, the Vereins Kirche. On March 27, 1887, the Rev. John Heinzelmann and about 80 families organized a separate congregation known as Die Evangelische Kirche (The . . . — — Map (db m35863) HM
Typical early Fredericksburg home built 1866 by Carl Basse. Property of the Henke family since 1873. Heinrich Henke, early settler, Confederate freighter, had butcher counter on front porch; meat processing was done in back yard; there the horses . . . — — Map (db m94092) HM
School classes for the children of German immigrants in the Cherry Spring community were held in homes until 1885, when this limestone schoolhouse was completed on land donated by H. Bratherich. On dedication day, students formed a parade to the new . . . — — Map (db m91632) HM
German Lutherans in the community of Cherry Spring began meeting together for worship in the 1850s. Diedrich Rode (1828-1925), a licensed lay minister, provided space in his home for worship services and Sunday school. Christ Church congregation was . . . — — Map (db m91642) HM
Several black families were residing in Gillespie County by the 1870s. A schoolhouse was built in 1877 on property adjacent to this later church site. Blacks probably met in the school for worship services before this church was completed 10 years . . . — — Map (db m111261) HM
The Commanding Officer was the highest ranking officer on this frontier post. As such, his life was a mixture of meager privileges and grave responsibility. The commanding officer was entrusted with the security and defense of the post and, . . . — — Map (db m122976) HM
This two-story stone structure served as the fourth jail for Gillespie County, organized in 1848. It was constructed by the firm of C.F. Priess and Bro. in 1885. The ground floor housed a holding area and living quarters for the jailer. The second . . . — — Map (db m94291) HM
German immigrants who came to Fredericksburg in the late 1840s and who later settled in this area erected a native limestone school which opened in 1878 with about 40 students. The land was donated by farmer Mathias Schmidt who according to local . . . — — Map (db m91631) HM
This marl and limestone hill, elevation 1,915 feet, was an Indian signal point, advancing news of the intrusions of white settlers. The hill was first recorded and described by the German geologist, Dr. Ferdinand Roemer in 1847. A timber cross found . . . — — Map (db m71921) HM
This group of building was constructed by German native Diedrich Rode (1828-1905). The three-story limestone residence was completed in 1880 and featured a third floor storage area for wool and cotton produced on the land. A Lutheran, Rode served as . . . — — Map (db m91644) HM
The original part of this stone structure containing a cellar with a vault ceiling, was built in the early 1850s on property owned by John Schmidtzinsky, a pioneer area settler. Once used as a pharmacy, it housed H. R. Richter's Jewelry store in the . . . — — Map (db m61849) HM
Fredericksburg, the county seat of Gillespie County, is steeped in history.
Deriving its name from Prince Frederick of Prussia, this Texas town was founded on May 8, 1846, by 120 German immigrants under the auspices of the . . . — — Map (db m94093) HM
Pintado made six war patrols in enemy waters, during which she disposed of five naval vessels and ten merchantmen of the Empire of Japan, sunk or otherwise disabled, totaling 132,900 tons of enemy shipping. During her fifth patrol, she . . . — — Map (db m42424) HM
... was born in Fredericksburg, Texas on October 16, 1858. Anxiety about the Civil War caused the family to return to their native city of Antwerp, Belgium. There young Frank studied music under masters and made his first public debut of his . . . — — Map (db m94229) HM
Born in Florida. Graduated from West Point. Fought in Mexican War. On the Texas frontier in the 1850s, commanded Camps Belknap, Cooper and Colorado.
In 1860 and many years afterwards was a partner of J. M. Hunter of Fredericksburg in a . . . — — Map (db m117735) HM
The trails of roving Indians
crossed these hills
Settled by German pioneers
A group of Mormons settled
at Zodiac in 1847.
Created February 23, 1848
Organized June 5, 1848
Named for Richard Addison Gillespie
A Texan . . . — — Map (db m94337) HM
“I bore you on eagle wings and brought you unto myself”
Dedicated to all Gillespie County citizens who gave their life in the armed services of our country
World War I
Louis J. Jordan • Henry Koch • Edward H. . . . — — Map (db m94230) WM
From 1846 to the 1970’s, forty-four school districts served the educational needs of the children of Gillespie County. This marker honors the history of public education in Gillespie County and the Vereins Kirche, the first public school established . . . — — Map (db m94226) HM
This congregation traces its origins to the first Protestant services held in Fredericksburg by the Rev. Henry Basse in 1846. Members worshiped at the old Vereins Kirche until 1888 when Carl Priess gave this lot for a new building. The first portion . . . — — Map (db m94293) HM
Born and educated in Plattenhardt, Germany. Came to Texas in 1846 and settled in Gillespie County. He became the second school teacher of the Vereins Kirche. He was also involved in the development of Gillespie County by serving as county surveyor, . . . — — Map (db m94227) HM
To be a Texan, Meusebach gave up title of baron in 1845. As commissioner-general, German-Emigration Company, he founded Fredericksburg in 1846 as gateway to Fisher-Miller land grant, hunting ground of the Comanche. By emptying his firearms, he won . . . — — Map (db m91648) HM
This limestone building was constructed about 1870 when the property was owned by John Adams Alberthal. It was designed with a commercial area on the front and a two-story residential section in the back. Christian Kloth purchased the home in 1878, . . . — — Map (db m111262) HM
John O. Meusebach, German settler and founder of Fredericksburg, and Penatuka Comanche chief, Santanna share a peace pipe on May 7, 1847, at the signing of the treaty between the People of Fredericksburg and the Comanche Nation. The standing . . . — — Map (db m35884) HM
Lt. Col. Jack K. Lee
Fallen Hero’s Memorial
U.S. Air Force
Nov. 16, 1924 - Aug. 5, 2004
WWII - Korea - Viet Nam
For God and Country
Capt. Andrew R. Houghton
A Troop, 3rd Plt., 1st Sqd., 4th U.S. Cav.,
1st Inf. Div., U.S. . . . — — Map (db m94094) WM
The main mast of the USS Foote (DD-511) mounts the SC-1 air and surface search radar known as the “bedspring”.
USS Foote (DD-511), a Fletcher-class destroyer, was the third ship of the United States Navy to be named for Rear Admiral . . . — — Map (db m94294) HM
This Square, originally a two-block area which included what is now called the Courthouse Square, has been at the center of Fredericksburg since the city's founding in 1846. The area was still heavily forested when the town's Vereins Kirche . . . — — Map (db m35862) HM
Johann Nicholas Mosel (1839-1904) was granted a 100’ x 200’ lot in Fredericksburg by the German Emigration Company in 1847. Here he built a rough limestone structure (now the northeast rooms), which might have served later as a Sunday house when he . . . — — Map (db m94292) HM
The original portion of this house probably was built between 1848 and 1850 by Willis Wallace, who was granted the land by the German Immigration Company. Of fachwerk construction, the two-room home later was acquired by German farmer Heinrich . . . — — Map (db m111263) HM
This property was purchased by Charles Henry Nimitz, Sr., in 1855. By 1860 the Nimitz Hotel was established, hosting frontier travelers and providing a home for the large Nimitz family. Expanded in the 1870s to feature a steamboat shaped facade, . . . — — Map (db m42425) HM
Soldiers lived a rough life on the Texas frontier. Even though rank had its privileges, Fort Martin Scott offered few amenities. Private quarters and privies were the only noticeable luxuries officers enjoyed at the fort.
There were six . . . — — Map (db m118454) HM
The Cherry Spring community was founded by German immigrants about 1850. Classes for schoolchildren were held in private homes. In 1859 German nobleman Wilhelm Marschall von Bieberstein deeded ten acres of land to L. Schneider, H. Bradhering, W. . . . — — Map (db m91645) HM
Erected 1881-1882 in term of County Judge Wm. Wahrmund and Commissioners J. Dechert, F. Kneese, J. Larson and J.P. Mosel. Architect was Alfred Giles.
Native limestone structure is distinctive in fine balance and symmetry. Second courthouse . . . — — Map (db m94289) HM
Born at Dillenburg, Nassau, Germany
May 26, 1812.
Commissioner-General of the Society for
the Protection of German Immigrants in Texas
who became a citizen of the Republic of Texas
under the name of John O. Meusebach.
Founder of . . . — — Map (db m35893) HM
Several bands of Comanche and Lipan Apache Indians lived in the region of Texas in which the Germans established Fredericksburg. Interaction between the German immigrants and the Native Americans was inevitable and potentially hostile. The . . . — — Map (db m118487) HM
Origin of the Pinta Trail is attributed to nomadic Plains Indian tribes. Early Spanish and Mexican expeditions followed the general route of the trail, which extended from San Antonio de Bexar to the San Saba River near present Menard. A survey by . . . — — Map (db m126960) HM
Built before 1880, this house was purchased by John Schandua, a local merchant, shortly after his marriage to Bertha (Klein) in 1883. The front room, called "die stube", served as a bedroom and living area. The back room was used as a bedroom for . . . — — Map (db m88111) HM
Established by the United States Army
December 5, 1848
as a protection to travelers and
settlers against Indian attack.
Named in honor of Major Martin Scott,
Brevet Lieutenant Colonel,
5th United States Infantry,
killed at Molino . . . — — Map (db m126961) HM
Pioneer families of Crabapple organized this church in the 1880s. Members met in a school building before erecting this sanctuary in 1897. Elder Julius Rusche supervised the design, carpentry, and native limestone masonry construction. An excellent . . . — — Map (db m91630) HM
Hot and crowded in the summer, cold and drafty in the winter, the enlisted men's quarters faced north and were across the parade ground from Officer's Row. Each of the four sparsely furnished barracks had three rooms and could house a company . . . — — Map (db m118504) HM
In 1870, seventeen years after the Army decommissioned and abandoned Fort Martin Scott, Johann Wolfgang Braeutigam bought the 640 acre property from John Twohig for $1,650. With several of the original buildings in decline, Braeutigam set . . . — — Map (db m118473) HM
Throughout the 1700s, the Comanche Indians continually thwarted the imperial efforts of the Spaniards, who moved north from Mexico in an attempt to claim the Great Plains. After horses entered Comanche culture, a company of Spanish infantry . . . — — Map (db m118469) HM
Blazing on the hills around Fredericksburg each Easter eve, combined with a local pageant these fires recall an old tale.
In March 1847, when Comanches and whites signed a major peace treaty, the Indians lighted huge signal fires on these . . . — — Map (db m88112) HM
In 1882, Frederick Baag donated this tract of land for the third Grapetown schoolhouse. Completed in 1884, the structure was built with labor and materials donated by the community. All seven grades were taught by one teacher. In 1905, the facility . . . — — Map (db m71924) HM
This stone building, with walls eighteen inches thick, is the only original structure of Fort Martin Scott. It was built in 1849 out of native limestone, and served as the post’s guardhouse where soldiers were jailed for crimes and . . . — — Map (db m118503) HM
Members of the families of two former German noblemen, related by marriage, are buried in this cemetery. John O. Meusebach (1812-97), who came to the Republic of Texas in 1845 as leader of the German Emigration Company, established (1846) the town . . . — — Map (db m91647) HM
The original section of this two-story limestone residence was constructed about 1850 by pioneer area settlers Albert and Doris Meinhardt. A widow in 1879, Doris sold the property to her former son-in-law G. Adolph Pfeil (d. 1926), a local cotton . . . — — Map (db m94290) HM
Of the first soldiers to arrive at Fort Martin Scott, none were natives of Texas. Many came from eastern states or were from Europe. Having traded familiar surroundings for the Texas wilderness, soldiers could identify with the newly arrived . . . — — Map (db m118477) HM
Erected in 1897 of hand-hewn limestone, this structure was the home of John (d. 1900) and Bertha (Klein) Schandua (d. 1943). They lived upstairs with their children and John's hardware store was downstairs. For a time, the Masonic Lodge met upstairs . . . — — Map (db m88109) HM
At the height of activity at Fort Martin Scott, the post accommodated up to three hundred soldiers. Of the fort’s twenty buildings, the sutler’s store was among the most important to the soldiers. The sutler was a civilian merchant, licensed . . . — — Map (db m118502) HM
During their first years in Fredericksburg, the German settlers suffered terribly from poverty, hunger and disease. Fort Martin Scott proved to be the economic boon early Fredericksburg desperately needed. Local teamsters hauled wagonloads of . . . — — Map (db m118460) HM
For one week in May, 1986, archaeologists from the Center for Archaeological Research at the University of Texas at San Antonio conducted a dig at Fort Martin Scott to locate foundations of the original buildings.
Some of the foundations of . . . — — Map (db m118475) HM
[Seal of the Texas State Historical Survey Committee] [Panel 1:] Church for all denominations, school and community hall. Built, summer 1847, after the Comanche peace treaty made by John O. Meusebach, Commissioner, German Emigration . . . — — Map (db m35864) HM
In 1845, Johan (John) Joseph Walch (1828-1914) migrated to Texas from Germany. In 1847 he settled in Fredericksburg, where he worked as a stonemason. Before Walch married Wilhelmine Gaertner in 1851, he erected a two-room limestone house on this . . . — — Map (db m33045) HM
In 1884, Frank Harper, J.A. Rogers, E.C. Hopf, and W.P. Bowers met to organize a school for the growing Harper community. Mary and J. A. Rogers, Jr. sold two and a half acres to school trustees, and in 1885 a one-room frame school was built with . . . — — Map (db m117791) HM
Pioneer preacher Matthew Taylor and the families of his daughter and two sons moved here in 1863 from their homestead on the Llano River. They built a cabin on this site near the source of the Pedernales River. In August 1864, Matthew and his son . . . — — Map (db m59741) HM
Members of the Luckenbach family and other German immigrants moved here from Fredericksburg in the 1850s. They settled along Grape Creek and soon established a school for their children. The Grape Creek Post Office was in operation briefly after . . . — — Map (db m4654) HM
Beyond the Pedernales is Stonewall’s Project Head Start building—a symbol of one of President Johnson’s enduring legacies to the American people. President Johnson initiated the Head Start program in 1965; it was one of many programs that . . . — — Map (db m91184) HM
For many years this low-water crossing served as the primary access to the LBJ Ranch; for non-Texans, it served as a dramatic entry into Lyndon Johnson’s world.
Constructed in 1951, the dam and crossing were the first improvements Lyndon . . . — — Map (db m91131) HM
It is a Society where no child will go unfed, and no youngster will go unschooled .... Where no citizen will be barred from any door because of his birthplace or his color .... Where peace and security is common among neighbors and possible . . . — — Map (db m91183) HM
I first remember walking along the banks of the Pedernales when I was a boy four or five years of age.
Lyndon Baines Johnson
The Pedernales River carves out the landscape of the Texas Hill Country, stretching 106 miles from . . . — — Map (db m91182) HM
In 1951, Senator Lyndon Johnson purchased 240 acres from his Aunt Frank Martin. Beginning with this core property, he set out to establish a home base where he could continue his work away from Washington.
To improve access to the ranch, a 3000 . . . — — Map (db m91282) HM
Imagine a plane roaring onto a newly constructed 3,000 foot grass airstrip. It’s 1953, and Senator Lyndon Johnson has arrived at the LBJ Ranch. Initially built to improve access to the Ranch during floods, the small airstrip soon proves inadequate . . . — — Map (db m91268) HM
The LBJ Ranch had but a single telephone line when Lyndon Johnson purchased the property in 1951. By the time he became vice president in 1960 the array of technology had grown to 15 local and long-distance phone lines as well as a fifty-foot-tall . . . — — Map (db m91283) HM
To a Texas rancher like Lyndon Johnson, conservation meant getting the most from the soil, water, and grass. The landscape before you reflects some of President Johnson’s conservation efforts. These upper fields are terraced to control erosion and . . . — — Map (db m91234) HM
Sitting at a table on this site on April 11, 1965, President Johnson signed the landmark Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. “As a former teacher,” the president said, “I have great expectations of what this law . . . — — Map (db m91135) HM
1900 - 1920
The Dawn of a New Century
The years following the turn of the century heralded sweeping changes in agriculture throughout Texas and the nation. Advances in technology led to improved irrigation and farming methods . . . — — Map (db m91053) HM
For Lyndon Johnson, a traditional guest register was not enough. To commemorate the visits of dignitaries and friends to the Ranch, the Johnsons used “Friendship Stones.” Visitors etched their autographs and the date of their visit into . . . — — Map (db m91314) HM
Here on these familiar hills under these expansive skies and under these oak trees that he loved so much, his life has come full circle ...
his roots go deep here on this spot in the hill country.
From the eulogy delivered here by the . . . — — Map (db m91149) HM
The welcome mat at the Johnson home read, “All the World is Welcome here.” But as the house became an alternate White House it soon became clear there was not enough room. Describing the steady stream of visitors in her home, Lady Bird . . . — — Map (db m91206) HM
From his childhood and throughout his political career, Lyndon Johnson drew from his western heritage. The grandson of a Chisholm Trail cattle drover never forgot that “can do” spirit of the cowboy way. The LBJ Ranch was the best place . . . — — Map (db m91272) HM
The Secret Service had a presence in the Johnson family for forty-six years beginning on January 20, 1961 when Lyndon Johnson was inaugurated as vice president. Over that lifetime of service, agents witnessed many events, both in Washington and . . . — — Map (db m91316) HM
Why do we keep these animals in this enclosure?
A small herd of Longhorns and White-tail deer are kept in this pasture so our visitors can view these prominent icons of Texas.
“Someone has said that . . . — — Map (db m91014) HM
For many years this low-water crossing served as the primary access to the LBJ Ranch; for non-Texans, it served as a dramatic entry into LBJ’s world. The construction of this dam and crossing was the first improvement made to the ranch by Lyndon . . . — — Map (db m91317) HM
Area settlers built a log schoolhouse 1.5 miles south of here in 1871 along South Grape Creek. It was part of Luckenbach School Precinct No. 3 until 1889, when it was renamed Lower South Grape Creek and began to serve as District No. 21. The log . . . — — Map (db m88113) HM
Civil War veteran and stage line operator who in 1870 founded Stonewall, naming it for Confederate General “Stonewall” Jackson.
Major Nunez, who lived 2 miles south of town and had a family of 9 children, donated land . . . — — Map (db m90990) HM
Originally the Camp Swift Post Office, this building was purchased from the United States government, rebuilt by the citizens of Stonewall and dedicated as a gymnasium on May 1, 1949.
While continuing to serve the community, an international . . . — — Map (db m90993) HM
The scene was a common one: young Lyndon Johnson, only a few years old, toddling down the road to visit his grandparents in this house. Here he found a ready supply of apples, candy, and affection. The future president felt a powerful attraction to . . . — — Map (db m91208) HM
Here, costumed interpreters carry out the day-to-day activities of a turn-of-the-century German-Texas farm family. You might spot them plowing the garden with a team of horses, or watch them tend the farm animals. Daily chores include milking, . . . — — Map (db m91055) HM
First kiln, eastern Gillespie County. Built 1874 by Andreas Lindig, trained in his native Germany in quicklime making. On his homestead, he found rock to be hauled to this site by ox-wagon, using 7 loads of rock for each “batch” of lime. . . . — — Map (db m90811) HM
This cemetery originally served the settlement of Millville, laid out by Israel Nuñez, who operated a stage stop in the vicinity after the Civil War. Although he set aside land for the cemetery, it was not formally deeded until 1934 by J.O. Walker. . . . — — Map (db m90989) HM
Lady Bird Johnson’s environmental ethic spanned her entire lifetime of 94 years. A child of East Texas, she spent many of her days outdoors. The sense of place that came from being close to the land never left her. She would eventually carry that . . . — — Map (db m91236) HM
Growing up in the scenic Texas Hill Country, Lyndon Johnson developed a deep appreciation and respect for the land. As part of his dream for a “Great Society” he felt a responsibility to protect the natural heritage of the United States. . . . — — Map (db m91235) HM
In October 1961 the United States Air Force replaced twin engine, propeller driven aircraft with the four engine Lockheed JetStar for executive transport.
Lyndon Johnson was the first Vice President to have an aircraft assigned to him. His . . . — — Map (db m91281) HM
Lyndon Baines Johnson first came to this school as a four-year-old in knee breeches and a collar. Here, surrounded by 30 students spanning seven grades, he received his first formal education. The future president attended the Junction School for . . . — — Map (db m91132) HM
It was important that the Ranch continue to thrive as a working ranch, not become a sterile relic of the past.
Lady Bird Johnson, 1998
The LBJ Ranch was suddenly thrust upon the world stage when Lyndon Johnson assumed the . . . — — Map (db m91271) HM
“I have a mighty fine grandson, smart as you find them. I expect him to be United States Senator before he is forty.”
Grandfather Sam Ealy Johnson, Sr., on young Lyndon Johnson
On this site on a rainy August night in . . . — — Map (db m91148) HM
Although ranching produced just a fraction of the Johnson’s income, it constituted a major portion of the President’s public identity. The Johnsons maintained two herds of cattle on the LBJ Ranch—one of them a commercial herd sold for beef, . . . — — Map (db m91270) HM
Although he frequented Washington for much of his adult life, President Johnson always considered this house his home. During the White House years, it served as a busy office, a working ranch, and a quiet refuge from the pressures of being . . . — — Map (db m91313) HM
This, said Lyndon Johnson, was “where the cattle go out and the money comes in.” In the working pens, ranch hands tended to the herds—branding, castrating, doctoring, and, most importantly, loading cattle out for shipment after a . . . — — Map (db m91269) HM
This congregation traces its history to 1902, when it was organized in the Albert Schoolhouse. A sanctuary built here in 1902 was replaced in 1904, and this structure was erected in 1928. Worship services were conducted in the German language until . . . — — Map (db m90810) HM
“My memory does not begin with happy things.”
– Mathilda Gruen Wagner, daughter of German immigrants, 1860s
In 1845, hundreds of hopeful German immigrants came to the Texas Hill Country in search of land, . . . — — Map (db m91094) HM
In the Texas Hill Country water is more precious than gold. The Pedernales River and the many local creeks are the main sources of water for irrigation. As droughts are common here, supplemental irrigation was necessary for President Johnson to . . . — — Map (db m91238) HM
The statue which stands before you is of Lyndon Baines Johnson, the 36th president of the United States. It was donated by A.W. Moursand, a prominent attorney and past Texas Parks and Wildlife Commissioner. President Johnson wanted this statue . . . — — Map (db m91013) HM
Within These Walls
Discover how the Behrens family lived during the 1870s by exploring this cabin
Home Away From Home
Heinrich and Wilhemina Behrens, pictured here, emigrated from Germany but never forgot their heritage as . . . — — Map (db m91093) HM