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Historical Markers and War Memorials in Birmingham, Alabama

 
Clickable Map of Jefferson County, Alabama and Immediately Adjacent Jurisdictions image/svg+xml 2019-10-06 U.S. Census Bureau, Abe.suleiman; Lokal_Profil; HMdb.org; J.J.Prats/dc:title> https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Usa_counties_large.svg Jefferson County, AL (337) Bibb County, AL (13) Blount County, AL (19) Shelby County, AL (47) St. Clair County, AL (18) Tuscaloosa County, AL (117) Walker County, AL (9)  JeffersonCounty(337) Jefferson County (337)  BibbCounty(13) Bibb County (13)  BlountCounty(19) Blount County (19)  ShelbyCounty(47) Shelby County (47)  St.ClairCounty(18) St. Clair County (18)  TuscaloosaCounty(117) Tuscaloosa County (117)  WalkerCounty(9) Walker County (9)
Birmingham is in Jefferson County
      Jefferson County (337)  
      Bibb County (13)  
      Blount County (19)  
      Shelby County (47)  
      St. Clair County (18)  
      Tuscaloosa County (117)  
      Walker County (9)  
 
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1Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — "Lest We Forget" — Avondale World War II Memorial
Dedicated to the sacred memory of the Avondale Boys of World War II who made the Supreme Sacrifice for Liberty and Humanity. Thomas Nelson • Albert W. Moore • James A. Williams • John L. Warner • Wayne Daily • Chester Smith • . . . Map (db m55950) WM
2Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — "Peace Be Still" — Mark 4:39
On Palm Sunday, 1963 Rev. N. H. Smith, Rev. John T. Porter and Rev. A. D. King led a sympathy march from St. Paul United Methodist Church down 6th Avenue North in support of Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth and Rev. Ralph . . . Map (db m73023) HM
3Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 1963 Church Bombing Victims
This cemetery is the final resting place of three of the four young girls killed in the September 15, 1963 church bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church. Addie Mae Collins, Cynthia Wesley and Carol Robertson are buried here. The fourth victim, . . . Map (db m61197) HM
4Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 4th Avenue District
The Fourth Avenue "Strip" thrived during a time when downtown privileges for blacks were limited. Although blacks could shop at some white-owned stores, they did not share the same privileges and services as white customers, so they created tailor . . . Map (db m26985) HM
5Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — A14 — A City of Two Governments — March Route to Government — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
In 1963, Birmingham underwent a major political transformation. To force Commissioner “Bull” Connor from office, progressive Whites and Blacks plotted to change the form of government from Commissioners to a Mayor-Council system. Mayor Albert . . . Map (db m187705) HM
6Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — A New City — Building early Birmingham
The arrival of two railroad lines in Jones Valley opened nearby deposits of iron ore, limestone, and coal to commercial development and helped make Birmingham one of the great industrial cities of the post Civil War South. In 1871, the year of . . . Map (db m69018) HM
7Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — F3 — A New Organization is Born — March Route for Moral Justice — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Rev. Shuttlesworth and his fellow ministers agreed to call the replacement organization the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights (ACMHR) so that its reach was both statewide and its aims wider than the African American community. Adding . . . Map (db m188971) HM
8Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — F4 — A New Strategy: All-Out Attack — March Route for Moral Justice — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
The ACMHR used nonviolent direct action as its preferred method of attacking racial segregation. This was a clear break from the tactics and strategies of the traditional black middle-class leadership that focused on petitions and lawsuits. Under . . . Map (db m188978) HM
9Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — C10 — A. G. Gaston Building — Destination — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Built 1959-60, 1517 5th Ave. N. The A. G. Gaston Building's second floor conference room was the location of regular meetings of “Project C's” Coordinating Committee. Here, they planned strategies for the April - May 1963 marches, boycotts, . . . Map (db m187976) HM
10Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — A.B. Loveman House
The house was built c. 1908 for Adolph B. Loveman, a Hungarian immigrant who in 1887 founded the dry goods business that evolved into one of Birmingham’s signature retail establishments, Loveman, Joseph & Loeb. Its English-style neighbor to the . . . Map (db m83800) HM
11Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — F15 — ACMHR & the Second Revolution — March Route for Moral Justice — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Rev. Shuttlesworth returned frequently to Birmingham to lead the ACMHR in a strategic alliance with the SCLC to bring national attention to Birmingham and the need to end racial discrimination in America. ACMHR staff worked with the SCLC's . . . Map (db m189139) HM
12Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — F13 — ACMHR & the Student Activists — March Route for Moral Justice — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Because of his fearlessness, college student activists who staged sit-ins and integrated bus rides in the 1960s knew they could depend on support from Rey. Shuttlesworth and the ACMHR. He supported Miles College student leader Frank Dukes and his . . . Map (db m189134) HM
13Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — C17 — Alabama Jazz Hall of Fame — (Historic Carver Theater) — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Built in 1935, remodeled 1945 (corner 4th Ave. N. & 17th St. N.) The Carver Theatre for the Performing Arts was built in 1935 and refitted in 1945 with all of the modern comforts and features of the day, including 1,300 theatre chairs and . . . Map (db m188189) HM
14Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — C22 — Alabama Penny Savings Bank/Pythian Temple Building — Destination — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Built 1913, 310 18th St. N. The Alabama Penny Savings Bank, founded by Sixteenth Street Baptist Church pastor Rev. William R. Pettiford, was Alabama's first Black-owned bank and the second-largest Black bank in the country by 1907. He . . . Map (db m188950) HM
15Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Alabama Veterans Memorial — Liberty Park
            Pearl Harbor               May 31, 1941 Dear Friend, I hope all is well with you. I am doing well but due to the present state of emergency the Pacific Fleet is held in a place known as Hawaiian Territory. Would you do me a . . . Map (db m27409) HM
16Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — D6 — Alabama's Rebel Yell — March Route for Education — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Southern members of the U.S. Congress in 1956 issued the "Southern Manifesto” that called the U.S. Supreme Court's Brown decision an "abuse of judicial power." By forcing public school integration contrary to social custom, the high court had . . . Map (db m187661) HM
17Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — E4 — Answering the Call — March Route Towards a Purposeful Life — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Shuttlesworth began to dedicate himself to the ministry and enrolled in Cedar Grove Bible College, a Baptist institution in the Mobile suburb of Pritchard. He took classes at night while he worked during the day. The young couple added two more . . . Map (db m187628) HM
18Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — A10 — Arrested at City Hall — March Route to Government — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Child protestors overwhelmed police, who found it hard to confine them to the Kelly Ingram Park area. Organizers used clever methods to get them to City Hall before police could stop them. Children were sent out in pairs. When they got closer to . . . Map (db m187836) HM
19Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Arthur D. Shores — "Dean of Black Lawyers in The State of Alabama."
During the first 30 years of his 54-year-old practice, Attorney Shores practiced all over the State of Alabama - from the Tennessee line to the Gulf of Mexico at Mobile Bay, and from the Mississippi borders to the Georgia limits. During the period . . . Map (db m26720) HM
20Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — H21 — Attorney for His People — March Route for Fair Housing — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
1949 For four decades, Shores was deeply involved in civil rights challenges handling dozens of cases primarily for the Birmingham branch of the NAACP on behalf of African Americans. In the 1940s, the Birmingham NAACP had grown to more . . . Map (db m189188) HM
21Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — C6 — Ballard-Hamilton House and Office — Destination — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Built 1940, 1420 7th Ave. N. The Ballard House honors a time when thriving neighborhoods; businesses, churches, social, cultural, and civic organizations; made up a dynamic African-American community during the first half of the 20th . . . Map (db m187886) HM
22Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Before Birmingham: Jones Valley
Red Mountain, where you are standing, and Jones Valley, which stretches before you, were sites of human activity long before Birmingham's founding in 1871. Native American presence Recorded history and archaeological evidence indicate the . . . Map (db m83805) HM
23Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Belview Heights Neighborhood
The Corey Land Company, a group of prominent local businessmen headed by Robert Jemison, Jr., developed Belview Heights as a neighborhood for the professional employees of U.S. Steel in the 1910's. Extending the grid system being used in Ensley over . . . Map (db m24351) HM
24Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — F2 — Bethel's Pastor Leads the Leaders — March Route for Moral Justice — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Alabama's chapters of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) were particularly effective in filing federal lawsuits that challenged racial segregation laws and advocating for voting rights. NAACP members also . . . Map (db m188970) HM
25Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Birmingham - Southern College
. . . Map (db m37711) HM
26Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — C30 — Birmingham City Hall — Destination — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Built 1947-50, 710 20th St. N. Birmingham City Hall was the administrative center for the enforcement of local segregation codes. Thus, this building was one of the major destination points for the “Project C" marchers in the 1963 . . . Map (db m187717) HM
27Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — C1 — Birmingham Civil Rights Institute — Destination — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Built 1992, 520 16th St. N. The Birmingham Civil Rights Institute contains permanent exhibitions and photo galleries, offering visitors a self-directed journey through the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s to the human rights . . . Map (db m187515) HM
28Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Birmingham District Minerals
The availability of seemingly limitless mineral resources was the key to the success of the Birmingham District, an area defined by geologic deposits that span five counties (Jefferson, Shelby, Tuscaloosa, Walker and Bibb). Some of the minerals . . . Map (db m69026) HM
29Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Birmingham Mineral Railroad
In 1884, when Birmingham was scarcely a decade old, the L&N Railroad laid the first tracks for its mineral railroad, to begin hauling ore from Red Mountain mines to furnaces, mills, and rail connections in Jones Valley. By the early 1900s, . . . Map (db m189284) HM
30Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 157 — Birmingham Mineral Railroad Point of Curve Marker — Bham-MRR.com —
The concrete marker below made with blast furnace slag instead of rocks is located a few feet from its original position where it designated the beginning and angle of the curve in the train tracks.Map (db m188883) HM
31Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Birmingham Water Works Company (1887) / Cahaba Pumping Station (1890)
Side A The Elyton Land Company, which had founded the city of Birmingham in 1871, established a subsidiary, the Birmingham Water Works Company in 1887. Dr. Henry M. Caldwell, President of the Elyton Land Company, contracted with Judge A. O. . . . Map (db m83806) HM
32Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — E1 — Birth of an Icon — March Route Towards a Purposeful Life — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Freddie Lee Robinson was born March 18, 1922, in Mt. Meigs, Montgomery County, Alabama, to Alberta Robinson and Vetter Greene. The unmarried couple also conceived a girl, Cleola. Because Vetter could not provide for his growing family, Alberta's . . . Map (db m187631) HM
33Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — F8 — Birth of the SCLC — March Route for Moral Justice — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
In January 1957, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., called ministers of the church-led movements in Southern cities, including Montgomery and Birmingham, to a meeting in Atlanta to form a national organization to help them all. Civil rights activist . . . Map (db m189109) HM
34Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Bishop Calvin Wallace Woods, Sr. — Civil Rights Pioneer and Pastor
Civil rights activist and pastor, the Rev. Calvin Wallace Woods Sr. was born in Birmingham in 1933. The son of a Baptist preacher, Woods attended historic miles college and various seminary institutions. He distinguished himself as a leader during . . . Map (db m187533) HM
35Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — H2 — Black Birmingham Housing — March Route for Fair Housing — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
1937 Most of Birmingham's housing started as cheap, poorly built living quarters that large coal and mining companies created near their factories for their workers. Living in camp town housing carried a stigma that many Blacks and . . . Map (db m189162) HM
36Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — B4 — Black Business Plans — March Route to Retail — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
The economic center of the Black retail district was on nearby Fourth Avenue North. This historic area also served as the main cultural, social and religious center of Black Birmingham. Blacks felt more relaxed among their own people in and . . . Map (db m187761) HM
37Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — H13 — Black Classes and the Masses — March Route for Fair Housing — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
1955 By the 1950s, North Smithfield was the residential area of choice for a new generation of Black middle-class families, despite the terror bombings meant to scare them away. This new generation of African American leaders included A. . . . Map (db m189171) HM
38Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Boilers — Sloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark
The Process The boiler was the source of power for most of Sloss. The boilers burned blast furnace gas to provide the heat necessary for converting water into steam. The steam produced here powered the blowing engines and turbo-blowers, the . . . Map (db m43728) HM
39Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — C34 — Boutwell Auditorium — (Former Municipal Auditorium) — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Built 1924 (Extended in 1957), 1930 8th Ave. N. In 1924, Municipal Auditorium was one of the South's largest (6,000 seats) and most modern auditoriums. In April of 1956, Ku Klux Klansman Asa Carter led an attack on Montgomery native and . . . Map (db m187715) HM
40Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Brock Drugs Building
The Brock building was established in 1915, located at the intersection of Fourth Avenue and 18th Street North, was built while the area was residential. The three-story building housed a hotel upstairs that catered to professional musicians and . . . Map (db m26723) HM
41Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Building The Park — Visiting the Park — Restoring Vulcan Park —
Side 1 - Building the Park In the mid-1930’s, civic leaders worked to move Vulcan to a place of honor on Red Mountain. The park was built through the combined efforts of several groups: the Kiwanis Club of Birmingham, the Birmingham Parks . . . Map (db m83807) HM
42Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Carrie A. Tuggle — 1858 - 1924
In Tribute to Carrie A. Tuggle 1858 - 1924 Scholar, Teacher and Christian. A life of unselfish service to the troubled and the homeless black boys and girls. In 1903, she founded a school and orphanage, the Tuggle . . . Map (db m27391) HM
43Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Casting Pigs — Sloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark
The Process The technology of casting molten iron into bars called pigs changed dramatically over the years. Prior to 1931 casting at Sloss took place inside the cast shed. Men cut molds into the sand floor of the shed, allowing the . . . Map (db m69083) HM
44Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — CDR "Snuffy" Smith — Navy Light Attack Aircraft A-7 Corsair II
(First Plaque): Navy pilots typically had their names painted on the side and just below the cockpit of one of the squadron aircraft. Most also had "Call Signs," some of which became the nickname of the pilot. On the display aircraft this . . . Map (db m83808) HM
45Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — B17 — Celebrity Star Power — March Route to Retail — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Celebrities of all races - but particularly Black singers and actors such as Harry Belafonte, Sammy Davis, Jr., Eartha Kitt, Lena Horne, and Ossie Davis with wife Ruby Dee - played important roles in the Movement. Some, including comedian Dick . . . Map (db m187822) HM
46Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — H17 — Children of Dynamite Hill — March Route for Fair Housing — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
1961 Black middle-class families who moved to North Smithfield included the Davises, the Coars, the Monks, the Browns, the Coles, the Adamses, the Wesleys, the Gaillards, the Powells, the Halls, the Nalls, the Browns, the Nixons, the . . . Map (db m189181) HM
47Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — A6 — Children Under Attack — March Route to Government — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
The use of schoolchildren in the Movement unnerved Police Commissioner "Bull” Connor, as well as the rest of Birmingham. But the success of “D-Day” led to a second day, “Double D-Day," where more children, about 2,000, skipped school to protest. . . . Map (db m187838) HM
48Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — B6 — Children Under Pressure — March Route to Retail — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Rev. Bevel gave Birmingham children a chance to play important roles in the struggle for equality. As their field marshal, he turned hundreds of recruits into an effective non-violent army that “Project C" unleashed on the retail district. Images . . . Map (db m187767) HM
49Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — D9 — Children's Crusade for Education — March Route for Education — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Birmingham's Black schoolchildren played an important role in moving the city toward ending legal segregation. Under the leadership of SCLC field coordinators, thousands of children left their segregated schools to join the marches in the downtown . . . Map (db m187682) HM
50Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Civil Rights Freedom Riders — May 14, 1961
On Mother's Day, May 14, 1961, a group of black and white CORE youth on a "Freedom Ride" from Washington, D.C. to New Orleans arrived by bus at the Birmingham Greyhound terminal. They were riding through the deep south to test a court case, "Boynton . . . Map (db m83809) HM
51Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Clark Building
This building was constructed in 1908 by Louis V. Clark (1862-1934), who also built the historic Lyric Theater located nearby on 18th Street. The Clark Theater on Caldwell Park is named in honor of Mr. Clark’s generosity to the Birmingham Little . . . Map (db m27515) HM
52Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — C16 — Colored Masonic Temple — Destination — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Built 1922, 1630 4th Ave. N. Built and designed by African Americans, the Colored Masonic Temple served as their only major business and social meeting place for decades. The Temple's gilded auditorium hosted many elegant social functions . . . Map (db m188188) HM
53Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Concord Center — Time Capsule
To Be Opened March 1, 2022 Dedicated at the construction completion March 1, 2002 Project Team Owners - BLH Group, LLC Brookmont Investors II, LLC Spire Holdings, LLC Developer - Brookmont Realty Group, LLC General . . . Map (db m27010) HM
54Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — B10 — Courthouse Prayer — March Route to Retail — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
In the 1940s and 1950s, the NAACP filed a stream of lawsuits against Jim Crow laws that had given Whites political, economic and social superiority over Blacks for more than 100 years. Most of Birmingham's NAACP cases, filed by local Black . . . Map (db m187775) HM
55Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — E20 — Death of an Icon — March Route Towards a Purposeful Life — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Rev. Shuttlesworth often said he expected to die at an early age in his toe-to-toe battles with violent White segregationists who were bent on maintaining power. But he outlived Dr. King and Rev. Abernathy, the last of "the Big Three." He lived . . . Map (db m187571) HM
56Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — D13 — Desegregating Ramsay School — March Route for Education — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Many African Americans continued to push for the right to an equal education that the 1954 Brown decision gave them. Despite angry threats of violence and intense economic pressure, those first few African American families in Birmingham who chose . . . Map (db m187693) HM
57Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — D12 — Desegregating West End School — March Route for Education — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Community civil rights leaders who helped organize the Movement and embraced the philosophy of nonviolence looked for well-disciplined children with good moral character who would at retaliate if they encountered bullying or violence by White . . . Map (db m187690) HM
58Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Designing Vulcan Park
Vulcan Park isn’t just Vulcan’s home; it’s also a public park. The original project, funded by the WPA (Works Progress Administration) aimed for “general beautification of the entire acreage” to create” an ideal spot for untold . . . Map (db m69015) HM
59Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Dewberry Drugs and Phenix Insurance Company Buildings
The two commercial buildings on this corner lot are some of the earliest surviving business houses in Birmingham. The Dewberry building appeared on the corner about 1881, and it housed the first and longest surviving drug store in the city, starting . . . Map (db m36740) HM
60Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Disabled American Veterans
(Side 1) Disabled American Veterans Formed December 25, 1920. Birmingham Chapter No. 4 Chartered January 25, 1926. This Memorial Dedicated To Our Military Forces And To All Who Have Given Their Blood And Lives That The Republic Might Live . . . Map (db m24347) WM
61Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Donnelly House
This neoclassical structure was built in 1905 for James W. Donnelly, "the father of the Birmingham Library System." Donnelly moved to Birmingham from his native Cincinnati, Ohio after retiring from Proctor and Gamble. A much respected . . . Map (db m26740) HM
62Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — B1 — Don't Tread on Me — March Route to Retail — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Leaders of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) learned they could apply economic pressure to White businesses with more effective results than moral persuasion alone. Therefore, the central strategy of the Birmingham Campaign . . . Map (db m73037) HM
63Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Born Jan. 15, 1929 Assassinated Apr. 4. 1968 "...yes, if you want to say that I was a drum major, say that I was a drum major for justice; say that I was a drum major for peace..." His dream liberated Birmingham from itself and began a . . . Map (db m73007) HM
64Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 8 — Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth invited Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. to Birmingham in 1962. Shuttlesworth saw potential in the young minister, and their combined efforts were instrumental in Birmingham's desegregation. The campaign catapulted King into the . . . Map (db m73031) HM
65Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Dr. Ruth J. Jackson — 1898 - 1982
Dedicated to Dr. Ruth J. Jackson 1898-1982 This woman of strength and vision graduated from the Poro School of Cosmetology, the first black registered school in the State of Alabama. At the vanguard of the Civil Rights Movement, she was . . . Map (db m27090) HM
66Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — C18 — Dunbar Hotel Building Urban Impact Office, — Destination — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Built 1917, 1701 4th Ave. N. From 1900 to 1960, the Fourth Avenue area west of 18th Street in downtown Birmingham was the business, social and cultural center of the city's African-American community. Every major historical and cultural . . . Map (db m188039) HM
67Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Duncan House
The Duncan House was build in 1906 as a home place for James and Lelia Duncan and their eight children in what is now Tarrant City, Alabama. Duncan worked throughout his life in the nearby shops and yards of the L&N Railroad (know CSXI) as water . . . Map (db m86613) HM
68Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — East Birmingham
Marker Front: Founded in 1886 on 600 acres of land, East Birmingham was the agricultural area consisting primarily of dairy farms extending to the present Birmingham airport. The East Birmingham Land Company that developed the area was . . . Map (db m83827) HM
69Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — East Lake Community
The Creek Indian Cession of 1814 opened this section of Alabama to settlement. At the time of statehood in 1819 many pioneer families had located here in what later became known as Jones Valley. By 1820 the area was called Ruhama Valley as a result . . . Map (db m26680) HM
70Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — East Lake Park
East Lake was planned in 1886 by the East Lake Land Company to help sell home sites to the men who came in the 1870's to work in Birmingham's steel industry. First named Lake Como, after the lake in the Italian Alps, it soon came to be called East . . . Map (db m83828) HM
71Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Eddie James Kendrick — December 17, 1937 - October 5, 1992
Eddie James Kendrick, nicknamed "cornbread", was born the eldest of five children to Johnny and Lee Bell Kendrick in Union Springs, Alabama. After attending Western-Olin High School in Ensley, Alabama, Eddie was persuaded by his childhood . . . Map (db m26724) HM
72Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — C20 — Eddie Kendricks Memorial Park — Destination — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Built 1999, SW corner of 4th Ave. N. & 18th St. N. Urban Impact worked with artist Ronald McDowell who wanted to create a public park along Fourth Avenue to honor Eddie Kendricks, Birmingham native and a lead singer of the legendary Motown . . . Map (db m188036) HM
73Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — D4 — Education of Black Folk — March Route for Education — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Black leaders debated how best to educate their children to live in a racially segregated society. Former slave Booker T. Washington, founder of Tuskegee Institute, was America's leading Black spokesman at the turn of the 20th century and promoted . . . Map (db m187636) HM
74Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Emory Overton Jackson — 1908 - 1975
Emory Overton Jackson was born on September 8, 1908 in Buena Vista, Georgia to Will Burt and Lovie Jones Jackson. E. O. Jackson and his seven siblings were raised in the middle-class Birmingham enclave of Enon Ridge, located on the west side of town . . . Map (db m64736) HM
75Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — B13 — Equality for All — March Route to Retail — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Constant mistreatment by a brutal police force, a racist state government and a White community that was either hostile or unconcerned pushed many Blacks in Birmingham to the breaking point. Many were stuck in low-paying, low-level jobs. Most . . . Map (db m187785) HM
76Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — C19 — Famous Theatre — Destination — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Built 1928, 1717 4th Ave. N. During the entertainment boom of the 1920s, The Famous, an African-American movie theater, joined the Frolic, Lincoln, Champion, Dixie and Savoy Theaters as places of entertainment for African-Americans who . . . Map (db m188038) HM
77Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — H18 — First Neighborhoods, then Schools — March Route for Fair Housing — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
September 1963 The increasing number of new African American families moving onto Dynamite Hill required the building of a new school. The city's segregation laws prevented their children from attending all-White Graymont Elementary, even . . . Map (db m189184) HM
78Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Five Points South
This neighborhood developed in the 1880s as one of Birmingham's first streetcar suburbs. It was the Town of Highlands from 1887 to 1893, when it became part of the City of Birmingham. The heart of the neighborhood was Five Points Circle, a major . . . Map (db m83829) HM
79Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Foot Soldier Tribute — Ronald S. McDowell, Artist I.B.J.C.
This sculpture is dedicated to the Foot Soldiers of the Birmingham Civil Rights Movement. With gallantry, courage and great bravery they faced the violence of attack dogs, high powered water hoses, and bombings. They were the fodder in the . . . Map (db m27394) HM
80Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Forest Park
A residential district extending from the crest of Red Mountain to the floor of Jones Valley with roads built along natural land contours. Birmingham real estate promoter and civic leader, Robert Jemison, Jr., began development as Mountain Terrace . . . Map (db m26983) HM
81Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — C23 — Former F.W. Woolworth Store Building — Destination — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Built 1939, 1901 3rd Ave. N. The F. W. Woolworth department store was one of the first sites targeted for the ACMHR and SCLC's economic boycotts and lunch counter sit-ins of “Project C” during the April - May 1963 mass demonstrations in . . . Map (db m188183) HM
82Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Forrest Camp No. 1435
We salute the Confederate soldier with affection, reverence, and undying devotion to the cause for which he fought.Map (db m12240) HM
83Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Foundations of Beehive Coke Ovens
Originally Sloss Furnaces had 120 beehive coke ovens on site, each twelve feet in diameter. (similar to photo) They were called 'beehive' as they had domed ceilings, were built close together to maximize the benefits of their collective heat, . . . Map (db m173373) HM
84Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Fourth Avenue Historic District.
Prior to 1900 a "black business district" did not exist in Birmingham. In a pattern characteristic of Southern cities found during Reconstruction, black businesses developed alongside those of whites in many sections of the downtown area. After . . . Map (db m174706) HM
85Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Fraternal Hotel Building
The Fraternal Hotel Building was built in 1925. Some of the businesses that were located in this building included: 1925 - 1980 Fraternal Hotel 1925 - 1970 Fraternal Cafι 1950 - 1966 Monroe Steak House 1985 - 1994 Grand Lodge Knights of . . . Map (db m27518) HM
86Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Frisco No. 4018
"No. 4018 made its last run from Bessemer, Alabama to Birmingham, Alabama on February 29, 1952 and was given by the railway to the City of Birmingham on May 29, 1952."Map (db m134921) HM
87Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — H20 — Gentle Giant of Dynamite Hill — March Route for Fair Housing — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
As both a lawyer and Smithfield real estate developer, Arthur Davis Shores' story is also the story of Dynamite Hill. He played a central role in African Americans' legal fight to build and buy houses where they wished, including the “White . . . Map (db m189185) HM
88Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Glen Iris Park
Founded in 1898 by Robert Jemison, this 30-acre historic district is a private residential park containing an almost intact collection of some of Birmingham's finest 20th century houses. It was the first professionally landscaped residential . . . Map (db m27520) HM
89Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Graymont Elementary School
On September 4, 1963, Graymont Elementary School was the first public school in Birmingham to be racially integrated. Two brothers, nine and eleven years old, accompanied by their father, James Armstrong, along with Reverend Fred . . . Map (db m153229) HM
90Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Green Acres Cafι — 1705 - 4th Avenue, North
Businesses that occupied this building between 1908 - 1970 1908 - 1913 Southern Bell Telephone Company Stockroom 1915 - 1926 OK French Dry Cleaning Company 1927 - 1938 George Kanelis Billiards 1940 - 1945 Alex’s Steak House 1946 - . . . Map (db m27521) HM
91Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — C29 — Greyhound Bus Station — Destination — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Built 1950 (Remodeled in the 1970s), 618 19th St. N. The Greyhound bus station was a stop of the 1961 Freedom Riders, a group of Blacks and Whites who rode buses together across state lines to disobey segregation laws in the Deep South. A . . . Map (db m187718) HM
92Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 1 — Ground Zero
You are standing at Ground Zero of the 1963 civil rights struggle in Birmingham. When African-American leaders and citizens resolved to fight the oppression of a strictly segregated society, they were met with vitriol and violence despite their own . . . Map (db m73015) HM
93Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — B3 — Guards at the Gate — March Route to Retail — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Unfair laws forced Birmingham Blacks to create their own distinctive world of economic and social self-reliance. The historic Black business district extended several blocks around Kelly Ingram Park and contained a concentration of Black-owned . . . Map (db m187760) HM
94Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Historic Black Bath House
Despite being dominated by black labor the industrial workplace was rigidly segregated until the 1960's. Men punched separate time clocks and bathed in separate bath houses. Following the implementation of desegregation laws in the 1960's the black . . . Map (db m173370) HM
95Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — D14 — Historic Demonstration at Phillips School — March Route for Education — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
[Note: a portion of the wording on the first panel of the marker has been torn away.(See photo #1)] Paired marker September 9, 1957 In 1957, Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth and his followers in the Alabama Christian Movement for . . . Map (db m187702) HM
96Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — History of the 117th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing
January 1922 Federal Recognition 135th Observation Squadron May 1923 Redesignated 114th Observation Squadron January 1924 Redesignated 106th Observation Squadron October 1943 Redesignated 100th Bombardment Squadron November 1946 . . . Map (db m27388) HM
97Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — D5 — Hope Arrives — March Route for Education — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) used its Legal Defense and Educational Fund and its team of skilled lawyers to attack the "separate but equal” education laws. Beginning in the 1930s, the NAACP filed lawsuits . . . Map (db m187658) HM
98Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Howard College — (Now Samford University)
Founded in 1841 at Marion in Perry County by Alabama Baptists, Howard College was named for British prison reformer John Howard. The liberal arts college moved to this site in 1887 and relocated to its present campus in Homewood, Alabama in . . . Map (db m26693) HM
99Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Independent Presbyterian Church — Founded 1915
The church was founded when the Rev. Henry M. Edmonds and many members of a Southern Presbyterian congregation withdrew from the local Presbytery. During the first seven years it met in Temple Emanu-El synagogue and held evening services in the . . . Map (db m27093) HM
100Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Industry — Iron and steeel manufacturing
Heavy industry, the reason for Birmingham’s founding, is still an economic force here today. Foundries and pipe plants dot the landscape, the railroad runs through the city’s center, and steam rises periodically in the distance from the quenching of . . . Map (db m69019) HM

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Jan. 19, 2022