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Historical Markers and War Memorials in Jefferson County, Alabama

 
Clickable Map of Jefferson County, Alabama and Immediately Adjacent Jurisdictions image/svg+xml 2019-10-06 U.S. Census Bureau, Abe.suleiman; Lokal_Profil; HMdb.org; J.J.Prats/dc:title> https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Usa_counties_large.svg Jefferson County, AL (205) Bibb County, AL (13) Blount County, AL (19) Shelby County, AL (47) St. Clair County, AL (18) Tuscaloosa County, AL (116) Walker County, AL (9)  JeffersonCounty(205) Jefferson County (205)  BibbCounty(13) Bibb County (13)  BlountCounty(19) Blount County (19)  ShelbyCounty(47) Shelby County (47)  St.ClairCounty(18) St. Clair County (18)  TuscaloosaCounty(116) Tuscaloosa County (116)  WalkerCounty(9) Walker County (9)
Adjacent to Jefferson County, Alabama
    Bibb County (13)
    Blount County (19)
    Shelby County (47)
    St. Clair County (18)
    Tuscaloosa County (116)
    Walker County (9)
 
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Touch blue arrow, or on map, to go there.
GEOGRAPHIC SORT
1Alabama (Jefferson County), Bessemer — “Spirit of the American Doughboy”Bessemer, Alabama
North side To the memory of our World War heroes who died that civilization might not perish from the earth. West Side HONOR ROLL WORLD WAR Allbright Rufie PVT. Co. D. 167th Inf. KA Bailey Andrew SGT. Co. D. 167th . . . — Map (db m39928) HM
2Alabama (Jefferson County), Bessemer — Bright Star / Koikos Restaurant"Alabama's Oldest Restaurant" / "An American Classic"
Bright Star In 1907, Greek immigrant Tom Bonduris invested his savings and opened a small cafe with only a horseshoe shaped bar at First Avenue and 21st Street in Bessemer, Alabama. Outgrowing three locations, the Bright Star moved to this . . . — Map (db m83797) HM
3Alabama (Jefferson County), Bessemer — Canaan Baptist ChurchJefferson County's Oldest Baptist Church
Organized September 5, 1818 in home of Isaac Brown 3 miles west of Elyton. Met in homes and schoolhouse near Old Jonesboro until 1824. First building erected on site now the 14th Street entrance to Cedar Hill cemetery. Canaan Association (now . . . — Map (db m37218) HM
4Alabama (Jefferson County), Bessemer — Hosea Holcombe1780-1841 — "Alabama's first church historian" —
In 1840 he published his study, History of Rise and Progress of the Baptists in Alabama. Also an evangelist and missionary. In 1818 moved to Alabama from Carolinas, organizing five churches in vicinity. President of Alabama Baptist . . . — Map (db m27025) HM
5Alabama (Jefferson County), Bessemer — Sweet Home / Henry W. Sweet
This house was built in 1906 by architect William E. Benns for H. W. Sweet at a cost of $10,000. The house uniquely blended the Queen Anne and Neo-Classical architectural styles, featuring two identical pedimented entrance porticos supported by . . . — Map (db m27024) HM
6Alabama (Jefferson County), Bessemer — The Bessemer SiteAlabama Indigenous Mound Trail
The Bessemer Site was the largest indigenous mound site in what is now Jefferson County, and it once dominated a large territory in what became north-central Alabama. Occupied from about AD 1150 to 1250 during the early Mississippian period, . . . — Map (db m144908) HM
7Alabama (Jefferson County), Bessemer — Union Baptist Church And Cemetery
Union Baptist Church was organized in 1834 by 18 or 20 members from Canaan Church. The Libscomb area was then known as East End. Members of the Rockett and Ware families donated the original two acreas of this site and a log cabin, which served as . . . — Map (db m24352) HM
8Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — "Lest We Forget"Avondale World War II Memorial
Dedicated to the sacred memory of the Avondale Boys of World War II who made the Supreme Sacrifice for Liberty and Humanity. Thomas Nelson • Albert W. Moore • James A. Williams • John L. Warner • Wayne Daily • Chester Smith • . . . — Map (db m55950) WM
9Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — "Peace Be Still"Mark 4:39
On Palm Sunday, 1963 Rev. N. H. Smith, Rev. John T. Porter and Rev. A. D. King led a sympathy march from St. Paul United Methodist Church down 6th Avenue North in support of Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth and Rev. Ralph . . . — Map (db m73023) HM
10Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 1963 Church Bombing Victims
This cemetery is the final resting place of three of the four young girls killed in the September 15, 1963 church bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church. Addie Mae Collins, Cynthia Wesley and Carol Robertson are buried here. The fourth victim, . . . — Map (db m61197) HM
11Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 4th Avenue District
The Fourth Avenue "Strip" thrived during a time when downtown privileges for blacks were limited. Although blacks could shop at some white-owned stores, they did not share the same privileges and services as white customers, so they created tailor . . . — Map (db m26985) HM
12Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — A New CityBuilding early Birmingham
The arrival of two railroad lines in Jones Valley opened nearby deposits of iron ore, limestone, and coal to commercial development and helped make Birmingham one of the great industrial cities of the post Civil War South. In 1871, the year of . . . — Map (db m69018) HM
13Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — A.B. Loveman House
The house was built c. 1908 for Adolph B. Loveman, a Hungarian immigrant who in 1887 founded the dry goods business that evolved into one of Birmingham’s signature retail establishments, Loveman, Joseph & Loeb. Its English-style neighbor to the . . . — Map (db m83800) HM
14Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Alabama Veterans MemorialLiberty Park
            Pearl Harbor               May 31, 1941 Dear Friend, I hope all is well with you. I am doing well but due to the present state of emergency the Pacific Fleet is held in a place known as Hawaiian Territory. Would you do me a . . . — Map (db m27409) HM
15Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Arthur D. Shores"Dean of Black Lawyers in The State of Alabama."
During the first 30 years of his 54-year-old practice, Attorney Shores practiced all over the State of Alabama - from the Tennessee line to the Gulf of Mexico at Mobile Bay, and from the Mississippi borders to the Georgia limits. During the period . . . — Map (db m26720) HM
16Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Before Birmingham: Jones Valley
Red Mountain, where you are standing, and Jones Valley, which stretches before you, were sites of human activity long before Birmingham's founding in 1871. Native American presence Recorded history and archaeological evidence indicate the . . . — Map (db m83805) HM
17Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Belview Heights Neighborhood
The Corey Land Company, a group of prominent local businessmen headed by Robert Jemison, Jr., developed Belview Heights as a neighborhood for the professional employees of U.S. Steel in the 1910's. Extending the grid system being used in Ensley over . . . — Map (db m24351) HM
18Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Birmingham - Southern College
. . . — Map (db m37711) HM
19Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Birmingham District Minerals
The availability of seemingly limitless mineral resources was the key to the success of the Birmingham District, an area defined by geologic deposits that span five counties (Jefferson, Shelby, Tuscaloosa, Walker and Bibb). Some of the minerals . . . — Map (db m69026) HM
20Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Birmingham Water Works Company (1887) / Cahaba Pumping Station (1890)
Side A The Elyton Land Company, which had founded the city of Birmingham in 1871, established a subsidiary, the Birmingham Water Works Company in 1887. Dr. Henry M. Caldwell, President of the Elyton Land Company, contracted with Judge A. O. . . . — Map (db m83806) HM
21Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — BoilersSloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark
The Process The boiler was the source of power for most of Sloss. The boilers burned blast furnace gas to provide the heat necessary for converting water into steam. The steam produced here powered the blowing engines and turbo-blowers, the . . . — Map (db m43728) HM
22Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Brock Drugs Building
The Brock building was established in 1915, located at the intersection of Fourth Avenue and 18th Street North, was built while the area was residential. The three-story building housed a hotel upstairs that catered to professional musicians and . . . — Map (db m26723) HM
23Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Building The ParkVisiting the Park — Restoring Vulcan Park —
Side 1 - Building the Park In the mid-1930’s, civic leaders worked to move Vulcan to a place of honor on Red Mountain. The park was built through the combined efforts of several groups: the Kiwanis Club of Birmingham, the Birmingham Parks . . . — Map (db m83807) HM
24Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Carrie A. Tuggle1858 - 1924
In Tribute to Carrie A. Tuggle 1858 - 1924 Scholar, Teacher and Christian. A life of unselfish service to the troubled and the homeless black boys and girls. In 1903, she founded a school and orphanage, the Tuggle . . . — Map (db m27391) HM
25Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Casting PigsSloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark
The Process The technology of casting molten iron into bars called pigs changed dramatically over the years. Prior to 1931 casting at Sloss took place inside the cast shed. Men cut molds into the sand floor of the shed, allowing the . . . — Map (db m69083) HM
26Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — CDR "Snuffy" SmithNavy Light Attack Aircraft A-7 Corsair II
(First Plaque): Navy pilots typically had their names painted on the side and just below the cockpit of one of the squadron aircraft. Most also had "Call Signs," some of which became the nickname of the pilot. On the display aircraft this . . . — Map (db m83808) HM
27Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Civil Rights Freedom RidersMay 14, 1961
On Mother's Day, May 14, 1961, a group of black and white CORE youth on a "Freedom Ride" from Washington, D.C. to New Orleans arrived by bus at the Birmingham Greyhound terminal. They were riding through the deep south to test a court case, "Boynton . . . — Map (db m83809) HM
28Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Clark Building
This building was constructed in 1908 by Louis V. Clark (1862-1934), who also built the historic Lyric Theater located nearby on 18th Street. The Clark Theater on Caldwell Park is named in honor of Mr. Clark’s generosity to the Birmingham Little . . . — Map (db m27515) HM
29Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Concord CenterTime Capsule
To Be Opened March 1, 2022 Dedicated at the construction completion March 1, 2002 Project Team Owners - BLH Group, LLC Brookmont Investors II, LLC Spire Holdings, LLC Developer - Brookmont Realty Group, LLC General . . . — Map (db m27010) HM
30Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Designing Vulcan Park
Vulcan Park isn’t just Vulcan’s home; it’s also a public park. The original project, funded by the WPA (Works Progress Administration) aimed for “general beautification of the entire acreage” to create” an ideal spot for untold . . . — Map (db m69015) HM
31Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Dewberry Drugs and Phenix Insurance Company Buildings
The two commercial buildings on this corner lot are some of the earliest surviving business houses in Birmingham. The Dewberry building appeared on the corner about 1881, and it housed the first and longest surviving drug store in the city, starting . . . — Map (db m36740) HM
32Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Disabled American Veterans
(Side 1) Disabled American Veterans Formed December 25, 1920. Birmingham Chapter No. 4 Chartered January 25, 1926. This Memorial Dedicated To Our Military Forces And To All Who Have Given Their Blood And Lives That The Republic Might Live . . . — Map (db m24347) WM
33Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Donnelly House
This neoclassical structure was built in 1905 for James W. Donnelly, "the father of the Birmingham Library System." Donnelly moved to Birmingham from his native Cincinnati, Ohio after retiring from Proctor and Gamble. A much respected . . . — Map (db m26740) HM
34Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Don't Tread on Me
Leaders of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) learned they could apply economic pressure to White businesses with more effective results than moral persuasion alone. Therefore, the central strategy of the Birmingham Campaign . . . — Map (db m73037) HM
35Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Don't Tread on Me
1963 A female protestor remains defiant as police drag her away from a demonstration in Birmingham's nearby retail district. Activists in Birmingham--led for seven years by Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth before the 1963 Birmingham Campaign--put their . . . — Map (db m83814) HM
36Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Born Jan. 15, 1929 Assassinated Apr. 4. 1968 "...yes, if you want to say that I was a drum major, say that I was a drum major for justice; say that I was a drum major for peace..." His dream liberated Birmingham from itself and began a . . . — Map (db m73007) HM
37Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 8 — Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth invited Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. to Birmingham in 1962. Shuttlesworth saw potential in the young minister, and their combined efforts were instrumental in Birmingham's desegregation. The campaign catapulted King into the . . . — Map (db m73031) HM
38Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Dr. Ruth J. Jackson1898 - 1982
Dedicated to Dr. Ruth J. Jackson 1898-1982 This woman of strength and vision graduated from the Poro School of Cosmetology, the first black registered school in the State of Alabama. At the vanguard of the Civil Rights Movement, she was . . . — Map (db m27090) HM
39Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Duncan House
The Duncan House was build in 1906 as a home place for James and Lelia Duncan and their eight children in what is now Tarrant City, Alabama. Duncan worked throughout his life in the nearby shops and yards of the L&N Railroad (know CSXI) as water . . . — Map (db m86613) HM
40Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — East Birmingham
Marker Front: Founded in 1886 on 600 acres of land, East Birmingham was the agricultural area consisting primarily of dairy farms extending to the present Birmingham airport. The East Birmingham Land Company that developed the area was . . . — Map (db m83827) HM
41Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — East Lake Community
The Creek Indian Cession of 1814 opened this section of Alabama to settlement. At the time of statehood in 1819 many pioneer families had located here in what later became known as Jones Valley. By 1820 the area was called Ruhama Valley as a result . . . — Map (db m26680) HM
42Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — East Lake Park
East Lake was planned in 1886 by the East Lake Land Company to help sell home sites to the men who came in the 1870's to work in Birmingham's steel industry. First named Lake Como, after the lake in the Italian Alps, it soon came to be called East . . . — Map (db m83828) HM
43Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Eddie James KendrickDecember 17, 1937 - October 5, 1992
Eddie James Kendrick, nicknamed "cornbread", was born the eldest of five children to Johnny and Lee Bell Kendrick in Union Springs, Alabama. After attending Western-Olin High School in Ensley, Alabama, Eddie was persuaded by his childhood . . . — Map (db m26724) HM
44Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Emory Overton Jackson1908 - 1975
Emory Overton Jackson was born on September 8, 1908 in Buena Vista, Georgia to Will Burt and Lovie Jones Jackson. E. O. Jackson and his seven siblings were raised in the middle-class Birmingham enclave of Enon Ridge, located on the west side of town . . . — Map (db m64736) HM
45Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Five Points South
This neighborhood developed in the 1880s as one of Birmingham's first streetcar suburbs. It was the Town of Highlands from 1887 to 1893, when it became part of the City of Birmingham. The heart of the neighborhood was Five Points Circle, a major . . . — Map (db m83829) HM
46Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Foot Soldier TributeRonald S. McDowell, Artist I.B.J.C.
This sculpture is dedicated to the Foot Soldiers of the Birmingham Civil Rights Movement. With gallantry, courage and great bravery they faced the violence of attack dogs, high powered water hoses, and bombings. They were the fodder in the . . . — Map (db m27394) HM
47Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Forest Park
A residential district extending from the crest of Red Mountain to the floor of Jones Valley with roads built along natural land contours. Birmingham real estate promoter and civic leader, Robert Jemison, Jr., began development as Mountain Terrace . . . — Map (db m26983) HM
48Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Forrest Camp No. 1435
We salute the Confederate soldier with affection, reverence, and undying devotion to the cause for which he fought. — Map (db m12240) HM
49Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Fourth Avenue Historic District.
Marker front: Prior to 1900 a "black business district" did not exist in Birmingham. In a pattern characteristic of Southern cities found during Reconstruction, black businesses developed alongside those of whites in many sections of the . . . — Map (db m83830) HM
50Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Fraternal Hotel Building
The Fraternal Hotel Building was built in 1925. Some of the businesses that were located in this building included: 1925 - 1980 Fraternal Hotel 1925 - 1970 Fraternal Café 1950 - 1966 Monroe Steak House 1985 - 1994 Grand Lodge Knights of . . . — Map (db m27518) HM
51Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Frisco No. 4018
"No. 4018 made its last run from Bessemer, Alabama to Birmingham, Alabama on February 29, 1952 and was given by the railway to the City of Birmingham on May 29, 1952." — Map (db m134921) HM
52Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Glen Iris Park
Founded in 1898 by Robert Jemison, this 30-acre historic district is a private residential park containing an almost intact collection of some of Birmingham's finest 20th century houses. It was the first professionally landscaped residential . . . — Map (db m27520) HM
53Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Graymont Elementary School
On September 4, 1963, Graymont Elementary School was the first public school in Birmingham to be racially integrated. Two brothers, nine and eleven years old, accompanied by their father, James Armstrong, along with Reverend Fred . . . — Map (db m153229) HM
54Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Green Acres Café1705 - 4th Avenue, North
Businesses that occupied this building between 1908 - 1970 1908 - 1913 Southern Bell Telephone Company Stockroom 1915 - 1926 OK French Dry Cleaning Company 1927 - 1938 George Kanelis Billiards 1940 - 1945 Alex’s Steak House 1946 - . . . — Map (db m27521) HM
55Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 1 — Ground Zero
You are standing at Ground Zero of the 1963 civil rights struggle in Birmingham. When African-American leaders and citizens resolved to fight the oppression of a strictly segregated society, they were met with vitriol and violence despite their own . . . — Map (db m73015) HM
56Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — History of the 117th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing
January 1922 Federal Recognition 135th Observation Squadron May 1923 Redesignated 114th Observation Squadron January 1924 Redesignated 106th Observation Squadron October 1943 Redesignated 100th Bombardment Squadron November 1946 . . . — Map (db m27388) HM
57Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Howard College(Now Samford University)
Founded in 1841 at Marion in Perry County by Alabama Baptists, Howard College was named for British prison reformer John Howard. The liberal arts college moved to this site in 1887 and relocated to its present campus in Homewood, Alabama in . . . — Map (db m26693) HM
58Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Independent Presbyterian ChurchFounded 1915
The church was founded when the Rev. Henry M. Edmonds and many members of a Southern Presbyterian congregation withdrew from the local Presbytery. During the first seven years it met in Temple Emanu-El synagogue and held evening services in the . . . — Map (db m27093) HM
59Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — IndustryIron and steeel manufacturing
Heavy industry, the reason for Birmingham’s founding, is still an economic force here today. Foundries and pipe plants dot the landscape, the railroad runs through the city’s center, and steam rises periodically in the distance from the quenching of . . . — Map (db m69019) HM
60Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — IronmakingSloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark
The Industry That Built A City The minerals needed to make iron-iron ore, coal, and limestone-are abundant in the Birmingham area, and for ninety years men turned these materials into pig iron at Sloss. Sloss pig iron was sold to foundries, . . . — Map (db m43973) HM
61Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Jefferson County Courthouse Site
The county seat of Jefferson County was moved from Elyton to Birmingham in 1873. On this site stood the first Courthouse in the City of Birmingham. The Italianate style structure was designed by architect W. K. Ball. Completed in 1875, the . . . — Map (db m27095) HM
62Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Jefferson County Courthouses
Territorial legislature designated home of Maj. Moses Kelly (in Jones Valley) as site of first court in this area of Alabama, 1818. After creation of Jefferson County, 1819, court held at Carrollsville (Powderly) until county seat established . . . — Map (db m25743) HM
63Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — A1 — Jim Crow on the Books
The first march to City Hall was organized in 1955 by Rev. Fred L. Shuttlesworth when he petitioned the city to hire Negro policemen. By 1963, thousands of Blacks marched on City Hall to protest Jim Crow laws that were a constant reminder of Blacks' . . . — Map (db m73036) HM
64Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Jordan Home2834 Highland Avenue
Dr. Mortimer Harvie Jordan and his wife, Florence E. Mudd, constructed their home between 1906 and 1908. After service in the Confederate army, Jordan studied medicine in Cincinnati and New York (under Alabama's famous gynecologist, Dr. J. Marion . . . — Map (db m26743) HM
65Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Julius Ellsberry
In dedication to Julius Ellsberry, the first Black Alabama man to die in World War II; born Birmingham, Ala, 1922. Enlisted in the U.S. Navy, 1940; First Class Mate [sic] Attendant aboard battleship Oklahoma in the Battle of Pearl . . . — Map (db m63761) HM WM
66Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Julius Ellsberry Memorial Park
In honor of Julius Ellsberry of Birmingham World War II Hero First Jefferson County Citizen to die for his country at Pearl Harbor while serving aboard the U.S.S. Oklahoma December 7, 1941 — Map (db m70261) HM
67Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — King's Spring
Avondale Park, dedicated in 1886, is one of Birmingham's earliest parks. The park site was chosen because of its natural spring, which was a popular attraction with the local people, as well as a favorite stopping point for weary travelers along . . . — Map (db m55951) HM
68Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 6 — Kneeling Ministers
Responsible for much planning and leadership, the clergy played a central role in the Birmingham Campaign--like the famous Palm Sunday incident in 1963 (see nearby plaque). Local clergy like Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth worked with out-of-town ministers, . . . — Map (db m73080) HM
69Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Lane Park
In 1822 William Pullen, Revolutionary War veteran, acquired this land from the Federal Government for farming. In 1889 his heirs sold the land to the City of Birmingham for use as the New Southside Cemetery which operated from 1889 to 1909 with . . . — Map (db m27096) HM
70Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Mineral Railroad Trestle
The railroad trestle support wall across the road is a remnant of L&N's 156-mile Mineral Railroad, the backbone of the local iron industry. This segment ran along the north edge of Vulcan Park on its route around the Birmingham District, linking . . . — Map (db m83831) HM
71Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Morris Avenue Historic District / Elyton Land Company (Successor, Birmingham Realty Co.)
Created 1972 by the Jefferson County Historical Commission, the district is based on this avenue. Morris Avenue was named for one of the founders of Birmingham, Josiah Morris, who paid $100,000 for 4,157 acres of the original site of the city in . . . — Map (db m27156) HM
72Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — New Hope CemeteryJefferson County
New Hope Baptist Church and Cemetery were established here on land with a log house donated by Mr. & Mrs. Andrew Jackson Glass on August 21, 1884, for religious and educational purposes. The five-member church began with trustee Manson Glass. On . . . — Map (db m83832) HM
73Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — A3 — Non-Violent Foot Soldiers
The central principle of the American Civil Rights Movement was non-violence, based on the strategies of Mahatma Gandhi, who led India's independence struggle against the British Empire. Being non-violent did not mean being passive. Using "direct . . . — Map (db m83833) HM
74Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Non-Violent Foot Soldiers
Those who participated in the marches and other demonstrations in the Birmingham Campaign agreed to a pledge of nonviolence. A few of the "Ten Commandments" of the pledge were: "Meditate daily on the teaching and life of Jesus. Remember always that . . . — Map (db m83834) HM
75Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — North Birmingham
On October 1, 1886, the North Birmingham Land Company was formed to develop a planned industrial and residential town on 900 acres of land, formerly part of the Alfred Nathaniel Hawkins plantation north of Village Creek. The plan included sites for . . . — Map (db m26700) HM
76Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Oldest House In Shades Valley / Irondale Furnace CommissaryCummings - Eastis - Beaumont House
The original log structure was built c. 1820 - 1830, with the board and batten addition dating to as late as the 1860s. The log cabin was at first one and one-half stories and is believed to be the oldest structure in Shades Valley. Members of the . . . — Map (db m26697) HM
77Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Osmond Kelly Ingram1887 - 1917
(Front):Osmond Kelly Ingram 1887-1917 First American sailor killed in action in World War 1, aboard U.S.S. "Cassin" October 1, 1917. Medal of Honor War Cross - Italy (Back):U.S. Destroyer DD-225 U.S.S. Osmond Ingram . . . — Map (db m63762) HM
78Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Oxmoor Iron Furnaces1863 - 1928
First blast furnace in Jefferson County erected near this site (1863) by Red Mountain Coal and Iron Co. Destroyed (1865) by Federal troops: rebuilt (1873) and second furnace added. Successful experimental run made in Furnace No. 2 (1876) using local . . . — Map (db m27280) HM
79Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Pauline Bray Fletcher1878 - 1970
In Tribute to Pauline Bray Fletcher 1878 - 1970 The First Black Registered Nurse of Alabama Through self-sacrifice, perseverance founded in 1926 Camp Pauline Bray Fletcher. Renewing the faith and the good health of all black . . . — Map (db m27393) HM
80Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Police Presence
May 1963 Helmeted police stand ready in Kelly Ingram Park outside the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, one of many strategic hubs from which "Project C" organizers launched marches. Police try to keep marchers away from City Hall, usually stopping . . . — Map (db m73032) HM
81Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Powell School
Birmingham's first public school was named for Colonel James R. Powell, the city's first elected Mayor. This energetic promoter also served as the first President of the Elyton Land Company (now Birmingham Realty), which founded the city in 1871. . . . — Map (db m83835) HM
82Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Redmont Park Historic District
Extending across the crest of Red Mountain, is the state’s second oldest garden-landscaped residential area. Developed from 1911 to 1935 by Robert Jemison, Jr., Hill Ferguson, and Henry Key Milner using landscape architects C. W. Leavitt of New York . . . — Map (db m41129) HM
83Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 5 — Reflecting Pool
Throughout May 1963, the pressure continued to build. The downtown business district was closed, a prominent black-owned motel was bombed, and 3,000 federal troops were dispatched to restore order before Birmingham was officially desegregated. This . . . — Map (db m73021) HM
84Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 9 — Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth
No one did more to bring about positive change in Birmingham than the Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth. In his struggle for equal rights, he survived a series of assaults, including the bombing of his home and a brutal armed beating by the Ku Klux Klan. . . . — Map (db m73025) HM
85Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth Bethel Baptist Church
Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth's tenure as pastor of Bethel Baptist Church (1953-1961) was marked by demonstrations, bombings and passionate sermons critical of segregation laws. His activism earned him a house bombing, frequent beatings, arrests, and . . . — Map (db m83836) HM
86Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Rickwood Field
Built by local industrialist A. H. "Rick" Woodward, this park opened on August 18, 1910. It is the oldest surviving baseball park in America. Rickwood served as the home park for both the Birmingham Barons (until 1987) and the Birmingham Black . . . — Map (db m22526) HM
87Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Rickwood FieldOpening Day: August 18, 1910
Built by Birmingham industrialist A. H. “Rick” Woodward, Rickwood Field served as home to the Birmingham Barons and Birmingham Black Barons for most of the 20th century. Recognized as “America’s Oldest Baseball Park,” . . . — Map (db m83837) HM
88Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Roebuck Spring
In 1850 George James Roebuck and his wife Ann Hawkins Roebuck built a log cabin at the mouth of Roebuck Spring. His Influence and leadership led to the area around it to be known as Roebuck. In 1900 Alabama Boys Industrial School was located . . . — Map (db m26688) HM
89Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Roebuck Springs Historic District
Roebuck Springs was the first large residential suburb in Birmingham where planning and development were tied to the automobile, and the first community in the city associated with a golf course development. The 1910 land plan was designed to . . . — Map (db m26684) HM
90Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Ruhama Baptist Church
. . . — Map (db m26695) HM
91Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — S. H. Kress Five-And-Ten Cent Store
Built in 1937, Birmingham’s S. H. Kress Five-and-Ten Cent Store was the second completed of the three great mercantile buildings on this intersection. Its construction reflected Kress’s confidence in Birmingham’s economy and marked a break by its . . . — Map (db m38557) HM
92Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — School of Medicine
Front of Marker: Opened as Alabama Medical College in 1859 in Mobile by Josiah C. Nott and other physicians as part of the University of Alabama. Closed by the Civil War in 1861 it reopened in 1868. Reorganized in 1897, it became the . . . — Map (db m83838) HM
93Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Site of the First Alabama - Auburn Football Game
The first Alabama - Auburn football game was played on this site, formerly known as the Base Ball Park, on February 22, 1893. The Agricultural and Mechanical College's "Orange and Blue" met the University of Alabama's "Tuskaloosa" squad before a . . . — Map (db m23500) HM
94Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Sixteenth Street Baptist Church
Sixteenth Street Baptist Church has been designated a National Historic Landmark This property possesses National Significance in commemorating the history of the United States. In 1963 it was the staging ground for the . . . — Map (db m63733) HM
95Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — SlagSloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark
In addition to making iron the furnace produced a molten waste called slag. Workers drained off the slag periodically through the cinder notch, a hole at the base of the furnace. After processing, the slag was sold for use in road building and in . . . — Map (db m83839) HM
96Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Sloss Furnaces
The crossing of railroads in 1872 adjacent to this site gave rise to the industrial city of Birmingham. In 1881 Alabama railroad magnate and entrepreneur James Withers Sloss, capitalizing on the unusual coincidence of coal, iron ore and limestone in . . . — Map (db m23498) HM
97Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Smithfield
Marker Front: This residential area was carved from the Joseph Riley Smith plantation, a 600 acre antebellum farm, one of the largest in 19th century Jefferson County. Smithfield lies to the west of Birmingham's city center on the flat land . . . — Map (db m26990) HM
98Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — SouthSuburban neighborhoods south of Birmingham
At the turn of the last century, Birmingham residents seeking home ownership and escape from the smoke, congestion, and unhealthy living conditions of an industrial city, began moving south. New streetcar lines encouraged the move “over the . . . — Map (db m83840) HM
99Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — St. Vincent’s HospitalBirmingham’s Oldest Hospital
Named for St. Vincent de Paul, founder of the Daughters of Charity in France in 1633, the hospital opened December 20, 1898 in the temporarily rented Henry F. DeBardelaben mansion at 206 15th Street South. Father Patrick A. O’Reilly founded the . . . — Map (db m27523) HM
100Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Stock Trestle/TunnelSloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark
Construction of the stock trestle/tunnel complex was part of the extensive modernization that Sloss carried out between 1927 and 1931. Much of the work focused on mechanizing the charging operations and equipment—the stock trestle/tunnel . . . — Map (db m69077) HM

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Feb. 27, 2021