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West Virginia Civil War Trails Historical Markers

 
Battle of Philippi Marker image, Touch for more information
By Don Morfe, August 1, 2012
Battle of Philippi Marker
1West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — Battle of PhilippiTalbott's Hill — The First Campaign —
(Preface):In the spring of 1861, Union forces rushed into northwestern Virginia to secure the vital Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, protect important turnpikes, and support Unionists against Confederates. The two sides fought numerous . . . Map (db m58700) HM
2West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — Battle of PhilippiThe Covered Bridge — The First Campaign —
(preface) In the spring of 1861, Union forces rushed into northwestern Virginia to secure the vital Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, protect important turnpikes, and support Unionists against Confederates. The two sides fought numerous . . . Map (db m165311) HM
3West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — PhilippiThe Confederate Retreat — The First Campaign —
Col. George A. Porterfield moved his newly recruited Confederates from Grafton on May 28, 1861, after receiving word of a Federal advance on the B&O Railroad. Porterfield's force a Philippi totaled no more than 775 volunteers. Few were fully trained . . . Map (db m33672) HM
4West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — PhilippiThe Commands — The First Campaign —
Col. Benjamin F. Kelley Kelley, a railroad agent in Philadelphia and former resident of Wheeling, was called back to command the First Virginia (Union) Infantry - the first Union regiment raised in the South. He planned and led the attack on . . . Map (db m33760) HM
5West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — PhilippiThe Federal Attack — The First Campaign —
On June 2, 1861, Federal troops advanced on Philippi from the Baltimore & Ohio rail hub at Grafton in two columns of about 1500 men each. The left column, under Col. Benjamin Kelley, took the train six miles east to Thornton, and then marched . . . Map (db m155438) HM
6West Virginia (Berkeley County), Bunker Hill — Gettysburg CampaignInvasion & Retreat
After stunning victories at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, Virginia, early in May 1863, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee carried the war through Maryland, across the Mason and Dixon Line and into Pennsylvania. His infantry marched north through . . . Map (db m1975) HM
7West Virginia (Berkeley County), Falling Waters — Battle of Falling WatersJackson’s Coolness Under Fire
On the morning of July 2, 1861, Federal troops under Gen. Robert Patterson crossed the Potomac River from Maryland and marched south toward Martinsburg. Colonel Thomas J. Jackson sent his men north from their camp north of town to block them and to . . . Map (db m41631) HM
8West Virginia (Berkeley County), Falling Waters — Battle of Falling WatersStuart’s Surprise
Here at Stumpy’s Hollow on the morning of July 2, 1861, Confederate Lieutenant Colonel J.E.B. Stuart captured a Union infantry company almost single-handedly. The Federals – Company I, fifteenth Pennsylvania Volunteers – were acting as . . . Map (db m45596) HM
9West Virginia (Berkeley County), Falling Waters — Battle of Falling WatersHarper’s 5th Virginia Infantry
On the morning of July 2, 1861, Federal troops under General Robert Patterson crossed the Potomac River from Maryland and marched toward Martinsburg. Confederate Colonel Thomas J. Jackson’s command marched from Camp Stephens, four miles north of . . . Map (db m58078) HM
10West Virginia (Berkeley County), Falling Waters — Battle of Falling WatersFour Apostles of the 1st Rockbridge Artillery
On the morning of July 2, 1861, Federal troops under General Robert Patterson crossed the Potomac River from Maryland and marched toward Martinsburg. Confederate Colonel Thomas J. Jackson’s command marched from Camp Stephens, four miles north of . . . Map (db m58080) HM
11West Virginia (Berkeley County), Falling Waters — Battle of Falling WatersCrockett-Porterfield House
On the morning of July 2, 1861, Federal troops under General Robert Patterson crossed the Potomac River from Maryland and marched toward Martinsburg. Confederate Colonel Thomas J. Jackson’s command marched from Camp Stephens, four miles north of . . . Map (db m180733) HM
12West Virginia (Berkeley County), Falling Waters — Battles of Falling Waters“A splendid falls”
During the Civil War, the strategically important Valley Turnpike crossed the stream just above the small waterfall here. Two battles were fought nearby. The first occurred on July 2, 1861, half a mile south on the Porterfield Farm. On the morning . . . Map (db m58083) HM
13West Virginia (Berkeley County), Marlowe — 1862 Antietam CampaignLee Invades Maryland
Fresh from victory at the Second Battle of Manassas, Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia crossed the Potomac River on September 4-6, 1862, to bring the Civil War to Northern soil and to recruit sympathetic Marylanders. Union Gen. . . . Map (db m60605) HM
14West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Belle Boyd HouseHome of a Spy — Antietam Campaign —
Isabelle “Belle” Boyd, the Confederate spy, lived here during part of her childhood. The ten-year-old and her family moved here in 1853 and left in 1858 for a dwelling (no longer standing) on South Queen Street. According to Boyd, . . . Map (db m63496) HM
15West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Berkeley HotelRailroad Raids Survivor
This is one of the last surviving antebellum buildings in the area. It was constructed shortly after the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad reached Martinsburg in 1842. The adjacent railroad yards twice were Confederate Gen. Thomas J. . . . Map (db m58629) HM
16West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Civil War MartinsburgFocus of Contention
Martinsburg, strategically located on the Valley Turnpike (present day U.S. Route 11) and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, was a major transportation center and the northern gateway to the Shenandoah Valley. Both sides contested for it frequently . . . Map (db m167591) HM
17West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Martinsburg RoundhouseJackson and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad — Antietam Campaign —
In April 1861, as the Civil War erupted, Confederate forces seized the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad from Harpers Ferry west. On May 24, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston ordered Col. Thomas J. (later “Stonewall”) Jackson to destroy the rolling . . . Map (db m149430) HM
18West Virginia (Berkeley County), North Mountain — Camp HopkinsMemorial to a Friend
In December 1862, Union Gen. Benjamin F. Kelley stationed detachments of the 54th Pennsylvania and 1st West Virginia Infantry regiments here to guard and repair the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, a main supply route between the Ohio River and the . . . Map (db m58628) HM
19West Virginia (Berkeley County), Spring Mills — Hammond HouseHeadquarters and Hospital
Dr. Allen C. Hammond constructed this Greek Revival-style house about 1838. During the Civil War, both sides used it periodically for a headquarters or a hospital. The war ruined Hammond, a strong Southern sympathizer. In October 1859, . . . Map (db m154839) HM
20West Virginia (Braxton County), Napier — Battle of Bulltown"Come and take us"
On the hill in front of you are two fortifications that Union Gen. George B. McClellan ordered constructed late in1861. They guarded the wooden covered bridge located here on the Weston and Gauley Bridge Turnpike. In October 1863, Capt. William H. . . . Map (db m58727) HM
21West Virginia (Braxton County), Sutton — The Burning of SuttonvillePartisan Attack
In 1861, Col. Erastus B. Tyler’s 7th Ohio Infantry constructed earthworks near Suttonville to protect the suspension bridge across the Elk River. Later in the year, Capt. Weston Rowand’s Co. K, 1st Virginia Cavalry (US), about a hundred men, . . . Map (db m58728) HM
22West Virginia (Braxton County), Sutton — The War and SuttonvilleChanging Occupations — Jones-Imboden Raid —
(Preface): On April 20, 1863, Confederate Gens. William E. “Grumble” Jones and John D. Imboden began a raid from Virginia through present-day West Virginia against the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Taking separate routes, . . . Map (db m58729) HM
23West Virginia (Cabell County), Barboursville — Barboursville EngagementFighting for the Kanawha Valley
Confederate Gen. Henry A. Wise’s army occupied the Lower Kanawha Valley in June 1861. Union Gen. George B. McClellan assigned the task of driving them out to Gen. Jacob D. Cox, who massed his troops in Gallipolis, Ohio. Cox planned to cross the Ohio . . . Map (db m73692) HM
24West Virginia (Cabell County), Huntington — Battle of GuyandotteFederal Retaliation
After capturing Guyandotte on November 10, 1861, and rounding up civilian Unionists and Federal recruits, Confederate forces under Col. John Clarkson and Col. Albert G. Jenkins began the next day to leave the town with their prisoners. At the same . . . Map (db m73715) HM
25West Virginia (Cabell County), Huntington — Battle of Guyandotte"Massacre of the 9th Infantry"
When the Civil War began, few of Guyandotte’s residents were slaveholders, but many townspeople resented any infringement on their right as Virginians to own slaves. Guyandotte was reportedly the only town on the Ohio River that voted in favor of . . . Map (db m144784) HM
26West Virginia (Cabell County), Huntington — Madie Carroll HouseSaved from Destruction
During the Civil War, this was the home of Mary Carroll, who narrowly managed to save it from destruction when much of Guyandotte was burned on November 11, 1861. After capturing the town on November 10, 1861, and rounding up civilian Unionists . . . Map (db m73708) HM
27West Virginia (Calhoun County), Arnoldsburg — Engagement at ArnoldsburgDivided Loyalties
Early in 1862, the 11th West Virginia Infantry in Spencer established an outpost here in Arnoldsburg to suppress Confederate guerilla activity. Union Maj. George C. Trimble commanded four companies here at Camp McDonald, named for former county . . . Map (db m73440) HM
28West Virginia (Fayette County), Ansted — ContentmentHome of George W. Imboden
After the Civil War, George W. Imboden lived here with his wife, Mary Tyree, the daughter of William Tyree of Tyree Tavern. When the war began, Imboden enlisted in the Staunton Artillery in Augusta County, Virginia, where he then resided. He . . . Map (db m34371) HM
29West Virginia (Fayette County), Ansted — Tyree TavernConfederate and Union Headquarters
During his and Gen. Henry Alexander Wise’s unsuccessful Kanawha Valley campaign, Confederate Gen. John B. Floyd made his headquarters here, August 17-18, 1861, while Wise camped on the top of Big Sewell Mountain. In 1862, according to an inscription . . . Map (db m59937) HM
30West Virginia (Fayette County), Ansted — Westlake CemeteryBurial Place of Julia Jackson
This is one of the earliest identified cemeteries west of the Allegheny Mountains. William Tyree, owner of nearby Tyree Tavern, and Confederate Col. George W. Imboden, brother of Gen. John D. Imboden, are buried here. The cemetery is best known, . . . Map (db m173345) HM
31West Virginia (Fayette County), Fayetteville — Battle of FayettevilleDefense and Retreat
During the Civil War, Fort Scammon stood in front of you on the hill behind the courthouse. There, on September 10, 1862, Union Col. Edward Siber and the 1,500 men of his 37th Ohio Infantry defended Fayetteville against Confederate Gen. William . . . Map (db m59214) HM
32West Virginia (Fayette County), Gauley Bridge — Battles For The BridgesGauley Bridge - A Town in Between
When the war began, most residents of this part of present-day West Virginia were Confederate in their sympathies. Both Confederate and Union forces considered the wooden covered bridge here strategically important because the James River and . . . Map (db m34373) HM
33West Virginia (Gilmer County), Glenville — Attack on Glenville"...the birds had flown" — Jenkins's Raid —
(sidebar) Confederate Gen. Albert G. Jenkins led 550 cavalrymen on a 500-mile raid from Salt Sulphur Springs, Aug. 22-Sept. 12, 1862, attacking Federal forces and destroying military stores. He captured and paroled 300 Union soldiers, . . . Map (db m73427) HM
34West Virginia (Grant County), Lahmansville — Jarboe's BlockhouseGuarding Patterson Creek Valley
Earthworks and other remnants of Union Capt. James A. Jarboe's blockhouse are located nearby, where Jarboe's Co. I, 10th West Virginia Infantry, guarded the Morgantown and Patterson Creek roads intersection. The company also escorted the supply . . . Map (db m178391) HM
35West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — Fort MulliganProtecting Looney's Creek (Petersburg)
Union Col. James A. Mulligan, 23rd Illinois Infantry, supervised the construction of Fort Mulligan between August and December 1863. Known locally as Fort Hill, the work protected the South Branch Valley and its Unionist residents and also served . . . Map (db m173171) HM
36West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — Fort MulliganProtecting Looney's Creek (Petersburg)
Union Col. James A. Mulligan, 23rd Illinois Infantry, supervised the construction of Fort Mulligan between August and December 1863. Known locally as Fort Hill, the work protected the South Branch Valley and its Unionist residents and also served . . . Map (db m173250) HM
37West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — Maple Hill CemeteryBrief Peace in the Midst of War
The brick church formerly on this site was named Mount Zion Presbyterian Church. The congregation stopped meeting here after Federal forces occupied Petersburg in May 1862, took over the church building, and began using it as a commissary. The . . . Map (db m58681) HM
38West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — War in Grant CountyEngagement at Johnson Run
During the Civil War, loyal Unionist Home Guard companies patrolled Hardy County (now Grant County) to defend it against Confederate incursions. Near here on Johnson Run on June 19, 1864, a mixed command that included men from several companies . . . Map (db m129309) HM
39West Virginia (Grant County), Scherr — Greenland Gap Engagement"Fight to the last crust or cartridge" — Jones - Imboden Raid —
On April 20, 1863, Confederate Gens. William E. "Grumble" Jones and John D. Imboden began a raid on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad from Virginia through present-day West Virginia. Taking separate routes, they later reported that they . . . Map (db m165723) HM
40West Virginia (Grant County), Scherr — Greenland Gap Engagement"Fight to the last crust or cartridge" — Jones-Imboden Raid —
On April 20, 1863, Confederate Gens. William E. "Grumble" Jones and John D. Imboden began a raid on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad from Virginia through present-day West Virginia. Taking separate routes, they later reported that they . . . Map (db m178393) HM
41West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Caldwell — Confederate Saltpeter WorksCivil War Industrial Center
Although saltpeter (potassium nitrate or nitre), an essential element in the manufacture of gunpowder, had been mined at Organ Cave since the eighteenth century, the need for the mineral increased dramatically during the Civil War. Several saltpeter . . . Map (db m59342) HM
42West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Battle of LewisburgA Brief Fight
Early in May 1862, Union Col. George Crook, 36th Ohio Infantry, led his command from Charleston to raid the Virginia Central Railroad near Covington. After tearing up track and burning a bridge, he and his men arrived in Lewisburg on May 17, with . . . Map (db m59344) HM
43West Virginia (Hampshire County), Bloomery — Fight at Bloomery GapA Futile Affair
Early in 1862, Confederate raids and attacks put Hampshire County and much of the surrounding area under nominal Southern control. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and nearby telegraph wires were severed, impeding Federal troop movements. A militia . . . Map (db m30455) HM
44West Virginia (Hampshire County), Blues Beach — Camp WashingtonStrategic Position
In 1861, during the early part of the Civil War, Union Gen. Benjamin F. Kelley established Camp Washington here on the Washington Bottom Farm to secure the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in this area. Located between Romney and Cumberland, Maryland, . . . Map (db m81398) HM
45West Virginia (Hampshire County), Blues Beach — Wire Bridge EngagementFederal Attack on Romney
On October 24, 1861, Union Gen. Winfield Scott ordered Gen. Benjamin F. Kelley to strengthen his position at New Creek Station (present-day Keyser) on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and then march to Romney and occupy the town. Situated on the . . . Map (db m81399) HM
46West Virginia (Hampshire County), Gore — The Guns Of Jacob SheetzHunting of a Different Sort
The shop of Jacob Sheetz, a Hampshire County gunsmith, once stood ahead of you in the yard to the right of the house. In 1861, Sheetz found himself unusually busy converting ancient flintlock rifles to the modern percussion type. The long rifle . . . Map (db m58647) HM
47West Virginia (Hampshire County), Romney — Captain George W. Stump"Stump's Battery"
This is Hickory Grove, the home of Adam and Mary Stump and their son Capt. George W. Stump, who led a company of the 18th Virginia Cavalry during the war. Capt. Stump was always heavily armed with a carbine and numerous revolvers; his men called . . . Map (db m174941) HM
48West Virginia (Hampshire County), Romney — Engagement at RomneyLew Wallace Storms the Bridge
On the night of June 12, 1861, Col. Lewis Wallace led his 11th Indiana (Zouaves) Regiment from Cumberland, Maryland, by train across the Potomac River and into present-day West Virginia. He had learned that “several . . . Map (db m33450) HM
49West Virginia (Hampshire County), Romney — Hampshire County CourthouseSecession and Occupation
On May 23, 1861, Virginians voted in a statewide referendum to approve or disapprove the Ordinance of Secession that the convention in Richmond had passed on April 17. Here at the Hampshire County Courthouse, 1,188 out of 2,635 eligible voters . . . Map (db m58656) HM
50West Virginia (Hampshire County), Romney — Jackson's HeadquartersJohn B. White House — Jackson's Bath-Romney Campaign —
On January 1, 1862, Confederate Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson led four brigades west from Winchester, Va., to secure Romney in the fertile South Branch Valley on the North Western Turnpike. He attacked and occupied Bath on January 4 . . . Map (db m159294) HM
51West Virginia (Hampshire County), Romney — Romney In The Civil WarStrategic Location on the Turnpike
Romney experienced many troop movements and skirmishes during the course of the war because of its location on the vitally important North Western Turnpike. The road linked Winchester, near the northern end of Virginia’s Shenandoah Valley, with . . . Map (db m159293) HM
52West Virginia (Hardy County), Baker — Frémont's CampEn Route to the Shenandoah Valley
For two nights beginning on May 28, 1862, Union Gen. John C. Frémont and his approximately 20,000-man army camped on the broad, rolling plateau before you. They had marched from Franklin (Pendleton Co.) three days earlier through the rain and . . . Map (db m33596) HM
53West Virginia (Hardy County), Mathias — Mathias HomesteadSon in the Service — West Virginia Civil War Trails —
When the Civil War began in 1861, John and Susanna Mathias lived in this house with their son John Thomas Mathias (age 21) and their daughter Susan Mathias (age 12). John T. Mathias enlisted in Confederate service in the 1st Regiment Virginia . . . Map (db m164936) HM
54West Virginia (Hardy County), Moorefield — Battle of MoorefieldRunning for the Hills
If you had been standing here about mid-morning of August 7, 1864, you would have seen Confederate soldiers running for the hills on your right. Confederate Gen. John McCausland's cavalry brigade was camped in the fields in front of you on this . . . Map (db m153027) HM
55West Virginia (Hardy County), Moorefield — Cemetery HillFighting Among the Tombstones
During the Civil War, Moorefield could be seen in front of you from this then-treeless hill. Beyond the town is the confluence of two watercourses that form the South Branch River, which flows north through a fertile valley. The Harness family . . . Map (db m58673) HM
56West Virginia (Hardy County), Moorefield — Cemetery HillFighting Among the Tombstones
During the Civil War, Moorefield could be seen in front of you from this then-treeless hill. Beyond the town is the confluence of two watercourses that form the South Branch River. The Harness family cemetery was located at the northern end of . . . Map (db m155452) HM
57West Virginia (Hardy County), Moorefield — McMechen HouseConfederate Headquarters
This house was constructed about 1853 for Samuel A. McMechen, merchant, father of five daughters and deacon of Moorefield Presbyterian Church up the street on your right. The attached McMechen Store, on the right, predates the house. A . . . Map (db m47831) HM
58West Virginia (Hardy County), Moorefield — McMechen House"… we are Virginians still"
This house was constructed about 1853 for Samuel A. McMechen, merchant, father of five daughters and deacon of Moorefield Presbyterian Church up the street on your right. The attached McMechen Store, on the right, predates the house. A . . . Map (db m153029) HM
59West Virginia (Hardy County), Moorefield — Mill IslandConfederate Hospital
The mansion in front of you is Mill Island, constructed about 1840 in the Greek Revival style for Felix Seymour and his wife, Sidney McNeill Seymour. During the Civil War, Mill Island served as a Confederate hospital, especially for Capt. John . . . Map (db m58676) HM
60West Virginia (Hardy County), Moorefield — Moorefield Presbyterian ChurchConfederate Sanctuary
When the Civil War began, the Greek Revival-style Moorefield Presbyterian Church consisted of the main sanctuary that fronts on Main Street and the small chapel behind it. The chapel was constructed about 1847, and the sanctuary was completed in . . . Map (db m47863) HM
61West Virginia (Hardy County), Old Fields — Battle of MoorefieldWhere the Fighting Started
The Confederate cavalry brigade of Gen. Bradley T. Johnson bivouacked in the fields to your left on August 7, 1864. Willow Wall (built ca. 1830), visible to your left down the road, was Johnson’s headquarters. Johnson’s brigade and that of Gen. . . . Map (db m48970) HM
62West Virginia (Hardy County), Old Fields — Battle of MoorefieldWhere the Fighting Started
The Confederate cavalry brigade of Gen. Bradley T. Johnson bivouacked in the fields around you on August 7, 1864. Willow Wall (built ca. 1830), visible to your left down the road, was Johnson's headquarters. Johnson's brigade and that of Gen. . . . Map (db m152772) HM
63West Virginia (Hardy County), Wardensville — WardensvilleCrossroads of War
During the Civil War, most of Wardensville's two hundred residents supported the Confederacy. Southern guerrillas found friends here. On May 7, 1862, Union Col. Stephen W. Downey arrived here with a mixed force of infantry and cavalry, searching for . . . Map (db m31921) HM
64West Virginia (Hardy County), Wardensville — WardensvilleCrossroads of War
During the Civil War, most of Wardensville's two hundred residents supported the Confederacy. Southern guerrilla found friends here. On May 7, 1862, Union Col. Stephen W. Downey arrived with a mixed force of infantry and cavalry, searching for . . . Map (db m153017) HM
65West Virginia (Harrison County), Bridgeport — BridgeportA Target of the Raid — Jones-Imboden Raid —
(Preface): On April 20, 1863, Confederate Gens. William E. “Grumble” Jones and John D. Imboden began a raid from Virginia through present-day West Virginia against the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Taking separate routes, . . . Map (db m58719) HM
66West Virginia (Harrison County), Clarksburg — Clarksburg DefensesProtecting the Town and Railroad — Jones-Imboden Raid —
On April 20, 1863, Confederate Gens. William E. “Grumble” Jones and John D. Imboden began a raid from Virginia through present-day West Virginia against the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Taking separate routes, they later reported . . . Map (db m58717) HM
67West Virginia (Harrison County), Clarksburg — Northwest AcademySoldiers' Home
From 1861 through 1865, Clarksburg was temporary home to hundreds of Union soldiers. Although many tents and huts were erected to quarter he men, soldiers occupied every public building at one time or another. You are facing the site of one such . . . Map (db m58718) HM
68West Virginia (Harrison County), Clarksburg — Stonewall Jackson BirthplaceOrigins of a Confederate Hero
The house in which Thomas J. Jackson was born on January 21, 1824, stood across the street and halfway down the block to your right (marked with a bronze plaque). His father struggled to make ends meet and poverty marred Jackson’s childhood. Both . . . Map (db m166847) HM
69West Virginia (Harrison County), Clarksburg — Union Meetings"We intend… to… remain in the Union"
Harrison County was among the first jurisdictions in western Virginia to support the Union. A pro-Union meeting was called for November 24, 1860, at the Clarksburg Courthouse, just after Abraham Lincoln had been elected president and many Southern . . . Map (db m73418) HM
70West Virginia (Jackson County), Ravenswood — RavenswoodSpringboard for Invasion — Jenkin's Raid —
(Preface): Confederate Gen. Albert G. Jenkins led 550 cavalrymen on a 500-mile raid from Salt Sulphur Springs, Aug. 22-Sept. 12, 1862, attacking Federal forces and destroying military stores. He captured and paroled 300 Union soldiers, . . . Map (db m39627) HM
71West Virginia (Jackson County), Ripley — Partisan RaidRipley Post Office
During the Civil War, both Union and Confederate supporters formed guerrilla bands. Each government denounced the other side’s partisans as bushwhackers or common thieves but gave those on their own side an official military designation as cover. . . . Map (db m73647) HM
72West Virginia (Jackson County), Ripley — RipleyMcGrew / Hood Grist Mill — The Blue and Gray Trail —
In 1824 Jacob Sturdier built the first grist mill in Ripley along Mill Creek. In 1853, Jacob Sayre sold the mill to John McGrew who came to Jackson County in 1844. The McGrew mill building was a structure of about 40 ft. by 30 ft. and was . . . Map (db m11426) HM
73West Virginia (Jackson County), Ripley — RipleyJackson County Courthouse — The Blue and Gray Trail —
Jackson County was created by an act of the Virginia Assembly on March 1, 1831, and named in honor of President Andrew Jackson. The first courthouse on this site was a brick structure. The land for the courthouse square was donated by Jacob . . . Map (db m11439) HM
74West Virginia (Jackson County), Ripley — The Casto HoleServing Opposite Sides
Although western Virginia eventually separated from the original state to form West Virginia and join the Union, many residents of the new state supported the Confederacy. Many others served the Union, while still others wished to avoid contact with . . . Map (db m73651) HM
75West Virginia (Jefferson County), Aldridge — Cameron's Depot Engagement"What news now?" — 1864 Valley Campaign —
(Preface): The Federal offensive in the Shenandoah Valley begun in May 1864 faltered in the summer with Confederate victories and Gen. Jubal A. Early's Washington Raid in July. Union Gen. Philip H. Sheridan took command in August, defeated . . . Map (db m159430) HM
76West Virginia (Jefferson County), Bardane — The Greenback RaidMosby's Men Strike It Rich — 1864 Valley Campaign —
The Federal offensive in the Shenandoah Valley begun in May 1864 faltered in the summer with Confederate victories and Gen. Jubal A. Early's Washington Raid in July. Union Gen. Philip H. Sheridan took command in August, defeated Early at . . . Map (db m108815) HM
77West Virginia (Jefferson County), Bolivar — Allstadt HouseJohn Brown's Hostages — Prelude to War —
The Allstadt House and Ordinary was the home of John H. Allstadt. On the evening of October 16, 1859, John Brown and his "army" of would-be slave liberators launched their attack on Harpers Ferry from Kennedy Farm just across the Potomac River in . . . Map (db m145216) HM
78West Virginia (Jefferson County), Bolivar — Harpers FerryPrize of War
“It may be said with truth that no spot in the United States experienced more of the horrors of war.” – Joseph Barry, Harpers Ferry resident
Trapped on the border between North and South, Harpers Ferry changed . . . Map (db m23188) HM
79West Virginia (Jefferson County), Bolivar — Jackson at Harpers FerryThe Stonewall Brigade
As you explore Jefferson County’s Civil War sites, you will learn about some of the notable exploits on the native soil of Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson, one of the war's most famous figures. Jackson was born in Clarksburg, Virginia (now West . . . Map (db m155096) HM
80West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Edge Hill CemeteryJohn Brown Raid Victims
Edge Hill Cemetery contains the graves of Fontaine Beckham and John Avis, two participants in the saga of John Brown’s Raid in October 1859. Beckham was the mayor of Harpers Ferry then and one of four civilian casualties. Ironically, though John . . . Map (db m41672) HM
81West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Focus of ActionJefferson County in the Civil War
Jefferson County’s association with significant events in Civil War history began in October 1859, when abolitionist John Brown raided the U.S. Arsenal at Harpers Ferry. Quickly captured, Brown and his followers were brought here to Charles Town . . . Map (db m41671) HM
82West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — John Brown Hanging SiteCreation of a Martyr — Prelude to War —
This is where seven men were hanged in December 1859 and March 1860 for their part in John Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry. The scaffold stood here in a large field. A month after the trial, on December 2, 1859, John Brown was the first to die. He . . . Map (db m41650) HM
83West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Rutherford House“Go in!” — 1864 Valley Campaign —
The Federal offensive in the Shenandoah Valley began in May 1864 faltered in the summer with Confederate victories and Gen. Jubal A. Early's Washington Raid in July. Union General Philip H. Sheridan took command in August, defeated Early . . . Map (db m41661) HM
84West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — The Trial of John BrownJefferson County Courthouse — Prelude to War —
One of the most famous trials in American history was held in this building in 1859, when John Brown and his followers faced charges of treason against Virginia, inciting slaves to rebel, and murder. Judge Richard Parker presided. The trial . . . Map (db m170247) HM
85West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Zion Episcopal ChurchyardNotable Occupants
The present church, the fourth on this site, was completed in 1851. Federal troops occupied it during the Civil War and severely damaged it. The churchyard contains the graves of many Washington family descents. They are buried near the eastern . . . Map (db m41675) HM
86West Virginia (Jefferson County), Duffields — Duffields Depot RaidMosby Strikes the B&O — 1864 Valley Campaign —
The Federal offensive in the Shenandoah Valley begun in May 1864 faltered in the summer with Confederate victories and Gen. Jubal A. Early's Washington Raid in July. Union Gen. Philip H. Sheridan took command in August, defeated Early at . . . Map (db m58494) HM
87West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — A.P. Hill’s March“Not a moment too soon” — Antietam Campaign 1862 —
About two o’clock in the afternoon of September 17, 1862, Confederate Gen. A.P. Hill’s 3,000-man division began crossing the Potomac River at Boteler’s Ford about two miles northwest of here, en route to the battle raging at Antietam Creek near . . . Map (db m1955) HM
88West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — St. John's Lutheran ChurchAlarm Bell at Dawn
The Reverend Doctor Josiah P. Smeltzer laid the cornerstone of St. John's Lutheran Church on April 30, 1850. The building was completed two years later and dedicated on August 1, 1852. Little more than seven years had passed when, at dawn on . . . Map (db m70794) HM
89West Virginia (Jefferson County), Millville — Keyes' Switch EngagementThe Last of the Loudoun Rangers
This is the site of the last Civil War engagement in Jefferson County and one of the last fights involving Col. John S. Mosby’s Rangers. It also marked the end of the Independent Loudoun Rangers, a small cavalry unit recruited in 1862 from Loudoun . . . Map (db m59417) HM
90West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — 1862 Antietam CampaignLee Invades Maryland
Fresh from victory at the Second Battle of Manassas, Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia crossed the Potomac River on September 4-6, 1862, to bring the Civil War to Northern soil and to recruit sympathetic Marylanders. Union Gen. . . . Map (db m1957) HM
91West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — Battle of ShepherdstownDeadly Crossing — Antietam Campaign 1862 —
After Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's smashing victory over Union Gen. John Pope at the Second Battle of Manassas, Lee decided to invade Maryland to reap the fall harvest, gain Confederate recruits, earn foreign recognition of the . . . Map (db m157752) HM
92West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — Elmwood Cemetery“ . . . and yet the cry was for more room.”
On Wednesday, September 17, 1862, twelve-year-old Mary Bedinger, asleep at her home Poplar Grove outside Shepherdstown, was awakened by the roar of cannons. Confederate and Union forces in position near Sharpsburg, Maryland, just across the Potomac . . . Map (db m41694) HM
93West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — Fountain Rock"Crows… will have to carry their provender with them" — 1864 Valley Campaign —
The Federal offensive in the Shenandoah Valley begun in May 1864 faltered in the summer with Confederate victories and Gen. Jubal A. Early's Washington Raid in July. Union Gen. Philip H. Sheridan took command in August, defeated Early at . . . Map (db m161830) HM
94West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — Shepherdstown“The Whole Town was a Hospital” — Antietam Campaign 1862 —
In September 1862, after the Maryland Battles of South Mountain and Antietam, Shepherdstown became a scene of indescribable suffering. “The whole town was a hospital,” wrote resident Mary Bedinger Mitchell. “There was scarcely a . . . Map (db m1939) HM
95West Virginia (Kanawha County), Charleston — Baptism By FireTo Arms!
In July 1861, this area swarmed with retreating Confederate troops and pursuing Federal forces. Union Gen. George B. McClelland had ordered Gen. Jacob Cox to march his 3, 000 raw Ohio recruits into western Virginia from Gallipolis, Ohio, to drive . . . Map (db m59146) HM
96West Virginia (Kanawha County), Charleston — Battle of CharlestonDowntown Battleground — Jenkins's Raid —
(Preface): Confederate Gen. Albert G. Jenkins led 550 cavalrymen on a 500 mile raid, Aug. 22-Sept. 12, 1862, attacking Federal forces, capturing prisoners, and destroying military stores. From Salt Sulphur Springs he rode along the Tygart and . . . Map (db m59137) HM
97West Virginia (Kanawha County), Charleston — Battle of CharlestonLightburn's Retreat — Jenkins's Raid —
(Preface): Confederate Gen. Albert G. Jenkins led 550 cavalrymen on a 500-mile raid from Salt Sulphur Springs, Aug. 22-Sept. 12, 1862, attacking Federal forces and destroying military stores. He captured and paroled 300 Union soldiers, . . . Map (db m59143) HM
98West Virginia (Kanawha County), Charleston — Charleston's Civil War SitesThe Past is Present
Two significant dwellings that stood elsewhere during the Civil War have been relocated to this park for public use: Craik-Patton House. The Rev. James Craik, son of George Washington’s personal secretary, constructed this house in . . . Map (db m59136) HM
99West Virginia (Kanawha County), Charleston — Kanawha RiflemenHometown Boys in Gray
A memorial dedicated to the Kanawha Riflemen stands across the road behind you, on the exact route of the James River and Kanawha Turnpike. Former Confederate Gen. John McCausland, the last surviving Confederate general officer, attended the . . . Map (db m126800) HM
100West Virginia (Kanawha County), Charleston — Military OccupationA Bitter Pill to Swallow
"I direct you to have guns in readiness to fire on Charleston. If rebels come in here Charleston shall be destroyed, for it is the work of disloyal citizens." - Gen. Eliakim P. Scammon, May 112, 1863, to Col. Rutherford B. Hayes. Union . . . Map (db m59139) HM

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Dec. 7, 2021