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West Virginia Civil War Trails Historical Markers

 
Battle of Philippi Marker image, Touch for more information
By Don Morfe, August 1, 2012
Battle of Philippi Marker
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — Battle of PhilippiTalbott's Hill — The First Campaign
On Circle Drive East, on the right when traveling north.
(Preface):In the spring of 1861, Union forces rushed into northwestern Virginia to secure the vital Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, protect important turnpikes, and support Unionists against Confederates. The two sides fought numerous . . . — Map (db m58700) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — PhilippiThe Confederate Retreat — The First Campaign
On Main Street (U.S. 250), on the right when traveling east.
Col. George A. Porterfield moved his newly recruited Confederates from Grafton on May 28, 1861, after receiving word of a Federal advance on the B&O Railroad. Porterfield's force a Philippi totaled no more than 775 volunteers. Few were fully trained . . . — Map (db m33672) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — PhilippiThe Commands — The First Campaign
On Mansfield Drive (U.S. 250) at North Main Street (U.S. 250), on the right when traveling east on Mansfield Drive.
Col. Benjamin F. Kelley Kelley, a railroad agent in Philadelphia and former resident of Wheeling, was called back to command the First Virginia (Union) Infantry - the first Union regiment raised in the South. He planned and led the attack on . . . — Map (db m33760) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — PhilippiThe Federal Attack — The First Campaign
On College Hill Drive, on the right when traveling south.
On June 2, 1861, Federal troops advanced on Philippi from the Baltimore & Ohio rail hub at Grafton in two columns of about 1500 men each. The left column, under Col. Benjamin Kelley, took the train six miles east to Thornton, and then marched south . . . — Map (db m33816) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Falling Waters — 1862 Antietam CampaignLee Invades Maryland
On Interstate 81.
Fresh from victory at the Second Battle of Manassas, Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia crossed the Potomac River on September 4-6, 1862, to bring the Civil War to Northern soil and to recruit sympathetic Marylanders. Union Gen. George . . . — Map (db m60605) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Falling Waters — Battle of Falling WatersStuart’s Surprise
On Hammonds Mill Road (West Virginia Route 901) at St. Andrews Drive (County Route 3/1), on the right when traveling west on Hammonds Mill Road.
Here at Stumpy’s Hollow on the morning of July 2, 1861, Confederate Lieutenant Colonel J.E.B. Stuart captured a Union infantry company almost single-handedly. The Federals – Company I, fifteenth Pennsylvania Volunteers – were acting as . . . — Map (db m45596) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Falling Waters — Battle of Falling WatersCrockett-Porterfield House
On Williamsport Pike (U.S. 11) 0.2 miles north of West Virginia Route 901, on the right when traveling north.
On the morning of July 2, 1861, Federal troops under General Robert Patterson crossed the Potomac River from Maryland and marched toward Martinsburg. Confederate Colonel Thomas J. Jackson’s command marched from Camp Stephens, four miles north of . . . — Map (db m45605) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Falling Waters — Battle of Falling WatersHarper’s 5th Virginia Infantry
On Williamsport Pike (U.S. 11) at Hammonds Mill Road (County Route 901), on the right when traveling south on Williamsport Pike.
On the morning of July 2, 1861, Federal troops under General Robert Patterson crossed the Potomac River from Maryland and marched toward Martinsburg. Confederate Colonel Thomas J. Jackson’s command marched from Camp Stephens, four miles north of . . . — Map (db m58078) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Falling Waters — Battle of Falling WatersFour Apostles of the 1st Rockbridge Artillery
On Hammonds Mill Road (County Route 901) at Williamsport Pike (U.S. 11), on the left when traveling east on Hammonds Mill Road.
On the morning of July 2, 1861, Federal troops under General Robert Patterson crossed the Potomac River from Maryland and marched toward Martinsburg. Confederate Colonel Thomas J. Jackson’s command marched from Camp Stephens, four miles north of . . . — Map (db m58080) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Falling Waters — Battles of Falling Waters“A splendid falls”
On Encampment Road east of Williamsport Pike (U.S. 11), on the left when traveling south.
During the Civil War, the strategically important Valley Turnpike crossed the stream just above the small waterfall here. Two battles were fought nearby. The first occurred on July 2, 1861, half a mile south on the Porterfield Farm. On the morning . . . — Map (db m58083) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Hedgesville — Camp HopkinsMemorial to a Friend
On Allenville Road.
In December 1862, Union Gen. Benjamin F. Kelley stationed detachments of the 54th Pennsylvania and 1st West Virginia Infantry regiments here to guard and repair the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, a main supply route between the Ohio River and the . . . — Map (db m58628) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Battle of Falling WatersJackson’s Coolness Under Fire
On Williamsport Pike (U.S. 11), on the right when traveling north.
On the morning of July 2, 1861, Federal troops under Gen. Robert Patterson crossed the Potomac River from Maryland and marched south toward Martinsburg. Colonel Thomas J. Jackson sent his men north from their camp north of town to block them and to . . . — Map (db m41631) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Belle Boyd HouseHome of a Spy — Antietam Campaign
On East Race Street at North Spring Street when traveling east on East Race Street.
Isabelle “Belle” Boyd, the Confederate spy, lived here during part of her childhood. The ten-year-old and her family moved here in 1853 and left in 1858 for a dwelling (no longer standing) on South Queen Street. According to Boyd, when . . . — Map (db m63496) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Berkeley HotelRailroad Raids Survivor
On East Race Street.
This is one of the last surviving antebellum buildings in the area. It was constructed shortly after the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad reached Martinsburg in 1842. The adjacent railroad yards twice were Confederate Gen. Thomas J. . . . — Map (db m58629) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Civil War MartinsburgFocus of Contention
On East King Street (U.S. 11) at South Queen Street (State Highway 45) on East King Street.
Martinsburg, strategically located on the Valley Turnpike, (present day U.S. Route 11) and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, was a major transportation center and the northern gateway to the Shenandoah Valley. Both sides contested for it frequently . . . — Map (db m88507) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Gettysburg CampaignInvasion & Retreat
On the northbound Welcome Center and Rest Stop (Interstate 81) north of the state line, on the right when traveling north.
After stunning victories at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, Virginia, early in May 1863, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee carried the war through Maryland, across the Mason and Dixon Line and into Pennsylvania. His infantry marched north through . . . — Map (db m1975) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Hammond HouseHeadquarters and Hospital
On Hammonds Mill Road.
Dr. Allen C. Hammond constructed this Greek Revival-style house about 1838. During the Civil War, both sides used it periodically for a headquarters or a hospital. The war ruined Hammond, a strong Southern sympathizer. In October 1859, Hammond’s . . . — Map (db m72164) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Martinsburg RoundhouseJackson and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad — Antietam Campaign
On East Race Street east of North Spring Street, on the left when traveling east.
In April 1861, as the Civil War erupted, Confederate forces seized the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad from Harpers Ferry west. On May 24, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston ordered Col. Thomas J. (later “Stonewall”) Jackson to destroy the rolling . . . — Map (db m1200) HM
West Virginia (Braxton County), Napier — Battle of Bulltown"Come and take us"
On Millstone Run Road (County Route 19/12).
On the hill in front of you are two fortifications that Union Gen. George B. McClellan ordered constructed late in1861. They guarded the wooden covered bridge located here on the Weston and Gauley Bridge Turnpike. In October 1863, Capt. William H. . . . — Map (db m58727) HM
West Virginia (Braxton County), Sutton — The Burning of SuttonvillePartisan Attack
On Main Street at Camden Avenue (West Virginia Highway 4), on the right when traveling east on Main Street.
In 1861, Col. Erastus B. Tyler’s 7th Ohio Infantry constructed earthworks near Suttonville to protect the suspension bridge across the Elk River. Later in the year, Capt. Weston Rowand’s Co. K, 1st Virginia Cavalry (US), about a hundred men, . . . — Map (db m58728) HM
West Virginia (Braxton County), Sutton — The War and SuttonvilleChanging Occupations — Jones-Imboden Raid
On Main Street at 3rd Street, on the right when traveling west on Main Street.
(Preface): On April 20, 1863, Confederate Gens. William E. “Grumble” Jones and John D. Imboden began a raid from Virginia through present-day West Virginia against the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Taking separate routes, . . . — Map (db m58729) HM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Barboursville — Barboursville EngagementFighting for the Kanawha Valley
On Main Street west of Central Avenue, on the right when traveling west.
Confederate Gen. Henry A. Wise’s army occupied the Lower Kanawha Valley in June 1861. Union Gen. George B. McClellan assigned the task of driving them out to Gen. Jacob D. Cox, who massed his troops in Gallipolis, Ohio. Cox planned to cross the Ohio . . . — Map (db m73692) HM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Huntington — Battle of GuyandotteFederal Retaliation
Near Guyan Street north of 5th Avenue, on the left when traveling south.
After capturing Guyandotte on November 10, 1861, and rounding up civilian Unionists and Federal recruits, Confederate forces under Col. John Clarkson and Col. Albert G. Jenkins began the next day to leave the town with their prisoners. At the same . . . — Map (db m73715) HM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Huntington — Battle of Guyandotte"Massacre of the 9th Infantry"
Near Guyan Street north of 5th Avenue, on the left when traveling south.
When the Civil War began, few of Guyandotte’s residents were slaveholders, buy many townspeople resented any infringement on their right as Virginians to own slaves. Guyandotte was reportedly the only town on the Ohio River that voted in favor of . . . — Map (db m73717) HM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Huntington — Madie Carroll HouseSaved from Destruction
On Guyan Street north of 5th Avenue, on the left when traveling south.
During the Civil War, this was the home of Mary Carroll, who narrowly managed to save it from destruction when much of Guyandotte was burned on November 11, 1861. After capturing the town on November 10, 1861, and rounding up civilian Unionists . . . — Map (db m73708) HM
West Virginia (Calhoun County), Arnoldsburg — Engagement at ArnoldsburgDivided Loyalties
On Arnoldsburg Road (U.S. 33/119) at County Route 33/119, on the right when traveling west on Arnoldsburg Road.
Early in 1862, the 11th West Virginia Infantry in Spencer established an outpost here in Arnoldsburg to suppress Confederate guerilla activity. Union Maj. George C. Trimble commanded four companies here at Camp McDonald, named for former county . . . — Map (db m73440) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Ansted — ContentmentHome of George W. Imboden
On West Main Street (U.S. 60) at 3rd Street, on the right when traveling south on West Main Street.
After the Civil War, George W. Imboden lived here with his wife, Mary Tyree, the daughter of William Tyree of Tyree Tavern. When the war began, Imboden enlisted in the Staunton Artillery in Augusta County, Virginia, where he then resided. He . . . — Map (db m34371) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Ansted — Tyree TavernConfederate and Union Headquarters
On James River and Kanawha Turnpike (County Route 60/33) at Tyree Street, on the right when traveling east on James River and Kanawha Turnpike.
During his and Gen. Henry Alexander Wise’s unsuccessful Kanawha Valley campaign, Confederate Gen. John B. Floyd made his headquarters here, August 17-18, 1861, while Wise camped on the top of Big Sewell Mountain. In 1862, according to an inscription . . . — Map (db m59937) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Ansted — Westlake CemeteryBurial Place of Julia Jackson
On Cemetery Street at Clay Street on Cemetery Street.
This is one of the earliest identified cemeteries west of the Allegheny Mountains. William Tyree, owner of nearby Tyree Tavern, and Confederate Col. George W. Imboden, brother of Gen. John D. Imboden, are buried here. The cemetery is best known, . . . — Map (db m59193) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Fayetteville — Battle of FayettevilleDefense and Retreat
On North Court Street (State Highway 16) at Wiseman Avenue, on the right when traveling north on North Court Street.
During the Civil War, Fort Scammon stood in front of you on the hill behind the courthouse. There, on September 10, 1862, Union Col. Edward Siber and the 1,500 men of his 37th Ohio Infantry defended Fayetteville against Confederate Gen. William . . . — Map (db m59214) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Gauley Bridge — Battles For The BridgesGauley Bridge - A Town in Between
On Midland Trail (U.S. 60) at Taylor Hill Road, on the right when traveling west on Midland Trail.
When the war began, most residents of this part of present-day West Virginia were Confederate in their sympathies. Both Confederate and Union forces considered the wooden covered bridge here strategically important because the James River and . . . — Map (db m34373) HM
West Virginia (Gilmer County), Glenville — Attack on Glenville"...the birds had flown" — Jenkins's Raid
On Pioneer Way (County Route 5/3) 0.2 miles east of North Court Street, on the right when traveling east.
(sidebar) Confederate Gen. Albert G. Jenkins led 550 cavalrymen on a 500-mile raid from Salt Sulphur Springs, Aug. 22-Sept. 12, 1862, attacking Federal forces and destroying military stores. He captured and paroled 300 Union soldiers, . . . — Map (db m73427) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — Fort MulliganPortecting Looney's Creek (Petersburg)
On Virginia Avenue (U.S. 220) at Pine Street, on the right when traveling east on Virginia Avenue.
Union Col. James A. Mulligan, 23rd Illinois Infantry, supervised the construction of Fort Mulligan between August and December 1863. Known locally as Fort Hill, the work protected the South Branch Valley and its Unionist residents and also served as . . . — Map (db m58679) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — Maple Hill CemeteryBrief Peace in the Midst of War
On North Main Street.
The brick church formerly on this site was named Mount Zion Presbyterian Church. The congregation stopped meeting here after Federal forces occupied Petersburg in May 1862, took over the church building, and began using it as a commissary. The . . . — Map (db m58681) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — War in Grant CountyEngagement at Johnson Run
On South Main Street (U.S. 220) at C Street on South Main Street.
During the Civil War, loyal Unionist Home Guard companies patrolled Hardy County (now Grant County) to defend it against Confederate incursions. Near here on Johnson Run on June 19, 1864, a mixed command that included men from several companies . . . — Map (db m58680) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Caldwell — Confederate Saltpeter WorksCivil War Industrial Center
On West Virginia Route 63.
Although saltpeter (potassium nitrate or nitre), an essential element in the manufacture of gunpowder, had been mined at Organ Cave since the eighteenth century, the need for the mineral increased dramatically during the Civil War. Several saltpeter . . . — Map (db m59342) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Battle of LewisburgA Brief Fight
On Church Street (U.S. 60) at Washington Street on Church Street.
Early in May 1862, Union Col. George Crook, 36th Ohio Infantry, led his command from Charleston to raid the Virginia Central Railroad near Covington. After tearing up track and burning a bridge, he and his men arrived in Lewisburg on May 17, with . . . — Map (db m59344) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Bloomery — Fight at Bloomery GapA Futile Affair
On Bloomery Pike (West Virginia Route 127), on the right when traveling west.
Early in 1862, Confederate raids and attacks put Hampshire County and much of the surrounding area under nominal Southern control. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and nearby telegraph wires were severed, impeding Federal troop movements. A militia . . . — Map (db m30455) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Gore — The Guns Of Jacob SheetzHunting of a Different Sort
On Old Jersey Mountain Road, on the right when traveling north.
The shop of Jacob Sheetz, a Hampshire County gunsmith, once stood ahead of you in the yard to the right of the house. In 1861, Sheetz found himself unusually busy converting ancient flintlock rifles to the modern percussion type. The long rifle . . . — Map (db m58647) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Romney — Camp WashingtonStrategic Position
On Cumberland Road (West Virginia Route 28) at Long Road (County Route 28/4), on the left when traveling north on Cumberland Road.
In 1861, during the early part of the Civil War, Union Gen. Benjamin F. Kelley established Camp Washington here on the Washington Bottom Farm to secure the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in this area. Located between Romney and Cumberland, Maryland, . . . — Map (db m81398) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Romney — Captain George W. Stump"Stump's Battery"
On South Branch River Road (County Route 8) 1 mile south of U.S. 50.
This is Hickory Grove, the home of Adam and Mary Stump and their son Capt. George W. Stump, who led a company of the 18th Virginia Cavalry during the war. Capt. Stump was always heavily armed with a carbine and numerous revolvers; his men called him . . . — Map (db m58649) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Romney — Engagement at RomneyLew Wallace Storms the Bridge
On U.S. 50 near the South Branch of the Potomac River, on the left when traveling west.
On the night of June 12, 1861, Col. Lewis Wallace led his 11th Indiana (Zouaves) Regiment from Cumberland, Maryland, by train across the Potomac River and into present-day West Virginia. He had learned that “several . . . — Map (db m33450) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Romney — Hampshire County CourthouseSecession and Occupation
On West Main Street (U.S. 50) at North High Street, on the right when traveling west on West Main Street.
On May 23, 1861, Virginians voted in a statewide referendum to approve or disapprove the Ordinance of Secession that the convention in Richmond had passed on April 17. Here at the Hampshire County Courthouse, 1,188 out of 2,635 eligible voters . . . — Map (db m58656) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Romney — Jackson's HeadquartersJohn B. White House — Jackson's Bath-Romney Campaign
On Main Street (U.S. 50), on the right when traveling east.
(Preface): On January 1, 1862, Confederate Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson led four brigades west from Winchester, Va., to secure Romney in the fertile South Branch Valley on the North Western Turnpike. He attacked and occupied Bath on . . . — Map (db m58650) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Romney — Romney In The Civil WarStrategic Location on the Turnpike
On Main Street (U.S. 50).
Romney experienced many troop movements and skirmishes during the course of the war because of its location on the vitally important North Western Turnpike The road linked Winchester, near the northern end of Virginia’s Shenandoah Valley, with . . . — Map (db m58654) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Romney — Wire Bridge EngagementFederal Attack on Romney
On Cumberland Road (West Virginia Route 28) at Long Road (County Route 28/4), on the left when traveling north on Cumberland Road.
On October 24, 1861, Union Gen. Winfield Scott ordered Gen. Benjamin F. Kelley to strengthen his position at New Creek Station (present-day Keyser) on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and then march to Romney and occupy the town. Situated on the . . . — Map (db m81399) HM
West Virginia (Hardy County), Baker — Frémont's CampEn Route to the Shenandoah Valley
On Old State Highway 55 at New River Road (County Road 1), on the right when traveling west on Old State Highway 55.
For two nights beginning on May 28, 1862, Union Gen. John C. Frémont and his approximately 20,000-man army camped on the broad, rolling plateau before you. They had marched from Franklin (Pendleton Co.) three days earlier through the rain and mud, . . . — Map (db m33596) HM
West Virginia (Hardy County), Moorefield — Cemetery HillFighting Among the Tombstones
On Olivet Drive at Paskell Hill Drive on Olivet Drive.
During the Civil War, Moorefield could be seen in front of you from this then-treeless hill. Beyond the town is the confluence of two watercourses that form the South Branch River, which flows north through a fertile valley. The Harness family . . . — Map (db m58673) HM
West Virginia (Hardy County), Moorefield — Mill IslandConfederate Hospital
Near Mill Island Drive 1 mile south of South Fork Road (County Route 7).
The mansion in front of you is Mill Island, constructed about 1840 in the Greek Revival style for Felix Seymour and his wife, Sidney McNeill Seymour. During the Civil War, Mill Island served as a Confederate hospital, especially for Capt. John . . . — Map (db m58676) HM
West Virginia (Hardy County), Moorefield — Moorefield Presbyterian ChurchConfederate Sanctuary
On South Main Street (U.S. 220) at Winchester Avenue, on the right when traveling north on South Main Street.
When the Civil War began, the Greek Revival-style Moorefield Presbyterian Church consisted of the main sanctuary that fronts on Main Street and the small chapel behind it. The chapel was constructed about 1847, and the sanctuary was completed in . . . — Map (db m47863) HM
West Virginia (Hardy County), Wardensville — WardensvilleCrossroads of War
On Main Street (U.S. 48), on the left when traveling south.
During the Civil War, most of Wardensville's two hundred residents supported the Confederacy. Southern guerrillas found friends here. On May 7, 1862, Union Col. Stephen W. Downey arrived here with a mixed force of infantry and cavalry, searching for . . . — Map (db m31921) HM
West Virginia (Harrison County), Bridgeport — BridgeportA Target of the Raid — Jones-Imboden Raid
Near Water Avenue at Virginia Avenue, on the right when traveling west.
(Preface): On April 20, 1863, Confederate Gens. William E. “Grumble” Jones and John D. Imboden began a raid from Virginia through present-day West Virginia against the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Taking separate routes, . . . — Map (db m58719) HM
West Virginia (Harrison County), Clarksburg — Clarksburg DefensesProtecting the Town and Railroad — Jones-Imboden Raid
On Kiwanis Drive.
On April 20, 1863, Confederate Gens. William E. “Grumble” Jones and John D. Imboden began a raid from Virginia through present-day West Virginia against the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Taking separate routes, they later reported . . . — Map (db m58717) HM
West Virginia (Harrison County), Clarksburg — Northwest AcademySoldiers' Home
On South Second Street at West Pike Street (West Virginia Highway 20), on the right when traveling north on South Second Street.
From 1861 through 1865, Clarksburg was temporary home to hundreds of Union soldiers. Although many tents and huts were erected to quarter he men, soldiers occupied every public building at one time or another. You are facing the site of one such . . . — Map (db m58718) HM
West Virginia (Harrison County), Clarksburg — Stonewall Jackson BirthplaceOrgins of a Confederate Hero
On West Main Street at South 5th Street, on the right when traveling east on West Main Street.
The house in which Thomas J. Jackson was born on January 21, 1824, stood across the street and halfway down the block to your right. (marked with a bronze plaque). His father struggled to make ends meet and poverty marred Jackson’s childhood. Both . . . — Map (db m58703) HM
West Virginia (Harrison County), Clarksburg — Union Meetings"We intend… to… remain in the Union"
On West Main Street at South 3rd Street, on the right when traveling east on West Main Street.
Harrison County was among the first jurisdictions in western Virginia to support the Union. A pro-Union meeting was called for November 24, 1860, at the Clarksburg Courthouse, just after Abraham Lincoln had been elected president and many Southern . . . — Map (db m73418) HM
West Virginia (Jackson County), Ravenswood — RavenswoodSpringboard for Invasion — Jenkin's Raid
On West Virginia Route 68 0.2 miles north of U.S. 33, on the right when traveling south.
(Preface): Confederate Gen. Albert G. Jenkins led 550 cavalrymen on a 500-mile raid from Salt Sulphur Springs, Aug. 22-Sept. 12, 1862, attacking Federal forces and destroying military stores. He captured and paroled 300 Union soldiers, . . . — Map (db m39627) HM
West Virginia (Jackson County), Ripley — Partisan RaidRipley Post Office
On Court Street North at West Main Street (U.S. 33), on the left when traveling north on Court Street North.
During the Civil War, both Union and Confederate supporters formed guerrilla bands. Each government denounced the other side’s partisans as bushwhackers or common thieves but gave those on their own side an official military designation as cover. . . . — Map (db m73647) HM
West Virginia (Jackson County), Ripley — RipleyMcGrew / Hood Grist Mill — The Blue and Gray Trail
On Court Street north of Main Street (U.S. 33), on the right when traveling north.
In 1824 Jacob Sturdier built the first grist mill in Ripley along Mill Creek. In 1853, Jacob Sayre sold the mill to John McGrew who came to Jackson County in 1844. The McGrew mill building was a structure of about 40 ft. by 30 ft. and was two . . . — Map (db m11426) HM
West Virginia (Jackson County), Ripley — RipleyJackson County Courthouse — The Blue and Gray Trail
On Court Street north of Main Street (U.S. 33), on the right when traveling north.
Jackson County was created by an act of the Virginia Assembly on March 1, 1831, and named in honor of President Andrew Jackson. The first courthouse on this site was a brick structure. The land for the courthouse square was donated by Jacob and . . . — Map (db m11439) HM
West Virginia (Jackson County), Ripley — The Casto HoleServing Opposite Sides
On FFA Drive east of Cedar Creek Drive (County Route 25), on the left when traveling east.
Although western Virginia eventually separated from the original state to form West Virginia and join the Union, many residents of the new state supported the Confederacy. Many others served the Union, while still others wished to avoid contact with . . . — Map (db m73651) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Bakerton — A.P. Hill’s March“Not a moment too soon” — Antietam Campaign 1862
On Bakerton Road at Knott Road (Route 31/2), on the right when traveling west on Bakerton Road.
About two o’clock in the afternoon of September 17, 1862, Confederate Gen. A.P. Hill’s 3,000-man division began crossing the Potomac River at Boteler’s Ford about two miles northwest of here, en route to the battle raging at Antietam Creek near . . . — Map (db m1955) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Cameron's Depot Engagement"What news now?" — 1864 Valley Campaign
Near Sheriden Drive.
(Preface): The Federal offensive in the Shenandoah Valley begun in May 1864 faltered in the summer with Confederate victories and Gen. Jubal A. Early's Washington Raid in July. Union Gen. Philip H. Sheridan took command in August, defeated . . . — Map (db m58472) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Edge Hill CemeteryJohn Brown Raid Victims
On S Seminary Street at E Congress Street, on the left when traveling south on S Seminary Street.
Edge Hill Cemetery contains the graves of Fontaine Beckham and John Avis, two participants in the saga of John Brown’s Raid in October 1859. Beckham was the mayor of Harpers Ferry then and one of four civilian casualties. Ironically, though John . . . — Map (db m41672) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Focus of ActionJefferson County in the Civil War
On N Mildred Street at E Washington Street, on the right when traveling north on N Mildred Street.
Jefferson County’s association with significant events in Civil War history began in October 1859, when abolitionist John Brown raided the U.S. Arsenal at Harpers Ferry. Quickly captured, Brown and his followers were brought here to Charles Town . . . — Map (db m41671) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — John Brown Hanging SiteCreation of a Martyr — Prelude to War
On South Samuel Street at East Hunter Street on South Samuel Street.
This is where seven men were hanged in December 1859 and March 1860 for their part in John Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry. The scaffold stood here in a large field. A month after the trial, on December 2, 1859, John Brown was the first to die. He . . . — Map (db m41650) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Rutherford House“Go in!” — 1864 Valley Campaign
On E Washington Street (U.S. 340 Bus) at S Seminary Street, on the right when traveling east on E Washington Street.
<Preface:> The Federal offensive in the Shenandoah Valley began in May 1864 faltered in the summer with Confederate victories and Gen. Jubal A. Early’s Washington Raid in July. Union General Philip H. Sheridan took command in August, . . . — Map (db m41661) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — The Trial of John BrownJefferson County Courthhouse — Prelude to War
On George Street (West Virginia Route 115) at Washington Street (West Virginia Route 51), on the right when traveling north on George Street.

One of the most famous trials in American history was held in this building in 1859, when John Brown and his followers faced charges of treason against Virginia, inciting slaves to rebel, and murder. Judge Richard Parker presided.

The trial . . . — Map (db m103446) HM

West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Zion Episcopal ChurchyardNotable Occupants
On E Congress Street at S Church Street, on the right when traveling east on E Congress Street.
The present church, the fourth on this site, was completed in 1851. Federal troops occupied it during the Civil War and severely damaged it. The churchyard contains the graves of many Washington family descents. They are buried near the eastern . . . — Map (db m41675) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Allstadt HouseJohn Brown's Hostages — Prelude to War
On Allstadt Hill Road 0.2 miles north of Millville Road (County Route 27), on the left when traveling north.
The Allstadt House and Ordinary was the home of John H. Allstadt. On the evening of October 16, 1859, John Brown and his "army" of would-be slave liberators launched their attack on Harpers Ferry from Kennedy Farm just across the Potomac River in . . . — Map (db m103403) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Harpers FerryPrize of War
On Whitman Avenue at Prospect Avenue, on the right when traveling south on Whitman Avenue.
“It may be said with truth that no spot in the United States experienced more of the horrors of war.” – Joseph Barry, Harpers Ferry resident Trapped on the border between North and South, Harpers Ferry changed hands eight . . . — Map (db m23188) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Jackson at Harpers FerryThe Stonewall Brigade
On Washington Street, on the right when traveling west.
As you explore Jefferson County’s Civil War sites, you will learn about some of the notable exploits on the native soil of Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson, one of the wars most famous figures. Jackson was born in Clarksburg, Virginia (now . . . — Map (db m59416) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — St. John's Lutheran ChurchAlarm Bell at Dawn
On Washington Street (Business U.S. 340) east of Boundary Street, on the left when traveling east.
The Reverend Doctor Josiah P. Smeltzer laid the cornerstone of St. John's Lutheran Church on April 30, 1850. The building was completed two years later and dedicated on August 1, 1852. Little more than seven years had passed when, at dawn on . . . — Map (db m70794) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Millville — Keyes' Switch EngagementThe Last of the Loudoun Rangers
On Millville Road, on the right when traveling south.
This is the site of the last Civil War engagement in Jefferson County and one of the last fights involving Col. John S. Mosby’s Rangers. It also marked the end of the Independent Loudoun Rangers, a small cavalry unit recruited in 1862 from Loudoun . . . — Map (db m59417) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shenandoah Junction — Duffields Depot RaidMosby Strikes the B&O — 1864 Valley Campaign
(Preface): The Federal offensive in the Shenandoah Valley begun in May 1864 faltered in the summer with Confederate victories and Gen. Jubal A. Early's Washington Raid in July. Union Gen. Philip H. Sheridan took command in August, defeated . . . — Map (db m58494) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shenandoah Junction — The Greenback RaidMosby's Men Strike It Rich — 1864 Valley Campaign
On Charles Town Road at Luther Jones Road (County Route 8) on Charles Town Road.
(Preface): The Federal offensive in the Shenandoah Valley begun in May 1864 faltered in the summer with Confederate victories and Gen. Jubal A. Early's Washington Raid in July. Union Gen. Philip H. Sheridan took command in August, defeated . . . — Map (db m108815) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — 1862 Antietam CampaignLee Invades Maryland
On German Street (West Virginia Route 230) at King Street (West Virginia Route 480), on the right when traveling west on German Street.
Fresh from victory at the Second Battle of Manassas, Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia crossed the Potomac River on September 4-6, 1862, to bring the Civil War to Northern soil and to recruit sympathetic Marylanders. Union Gen. George . . . — Map (db m1957) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — Elmwood Cemetery“ . . . and yet the cry was for more room.”
On S. Duke Street, on the right when traveling south.
On Wednesday, September 17, 1862, twelve-year-old Mary Bedinger, asleep at her home Poplar Grove outside Shepherdstown, was awakened by the roar of cannons. Confederate and Union forces in position near Sharpsburg, Maryland, just across the Potomac . . . — Map (db m41694) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — Fountain Rock"Crows..,will have to carry their provender with them" — 1864 Valley Campaign
On Kearneysville Pike (State Highway 480) at Sweaningen Way on Kearneysville Pike.
(Preface): The Federal offensive in the Shenandoah Valley begun in May 1864 faltered in the summer with Confederate victories and Gen. Jubal A. Early's Washington Raid in July. Union Gen. Philip H. Sheridan took command in August, defeated . . . — Map (db m58671) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — Shepherdstown“The Whole Town was a Hospital” — Antietam Campaign 1862
On German Street (West Virginia Route 230) at King Street (West Virginia Route 480), on the right when traveling west on German Street.
In September 1862, after the Maryland Battles of South Mountain and Antietam, Shepherdstown became a scene of indescribable suffering. “The whole town was a hospital,” wrote resident Mary Bedinger Mitchell. “There was scarcely a . . . — Map (db m1939) HM
West Virginia (Kanawha County), Charleston — Baptism By FireTo Arms!
On Kanawha Boulevard (U.S. 60) at Florida Avenue, on the right when traveling east on Kanawha Boulevard.
In July 1861, this area swarmed with retreating Confederate troops and pursuing Federal forces. Union Gen. George B. McClelland had ordered Gen. Jacob Cox to march his 3, 000 raw Ohio recruits into western Virginia from Gallipolis, Ohio, to drive . . . — Map (db m59146) HM
West Virginia (Kanawha County), Charleston — Battle of CharlestonDowntown Battleground — Jenkins's Raid
On Kanawha Boulevard at McFarland Street, on the right when traveling south on Kanawha Boulevard.
(Preface): Confederate Gen. Albert G. Jenkins led 550 cavalrymen on a 500 mile raid, Aug. 22-Sept. 12, 1862, attacking Federal forces, capturing prisoners, and destroying military stores. From Salt Sulphur Springs he rode along the Tygart and . . . — Map (db m59137) HM
West Virginia (Kanawha County), Charleston — Battle of CharlestonLightburn's Retreat — Jenkins's Raid
On Kanawha Boulevard (U.S. 60) at Ohio Avenue, on the right when traveling east on Kanawha Boulevard.
(Preface): Confederate Gen. Albert G. Jenkins led 550 cavalrymen on a 500-mile raid from Salt Sulphur Springs, Aug. 22-Sept. 12, 1862, attacking Federal forces and destroying military stores. He captured and paroled 300 Union soldiers, . . . — Map (db m59143) HM
West Virginia (Kanawha County), Charleston — Military OccupationA Bitter Pill to Swallow
On Kanawha Boulevard at Court Street on Kanawha Boulevard.
"I direct you to have guns in readiness to fire on Charleston. If rebels come in here Charleston shall be destroyed, for it is the work of disloyal citizens." - Gen. Eliakim P. Scammon, May 112, 1863, to Col. Rutherford B. Hayes. Union and . . . — Map (db m59139) HM
West Virginia (Kanawha County), Charleston — Presidential PresenceTending to Family, Fort, and Ferry
On Kanawha Boulevard at Court Street, on the right when traveling south on Kanawha Boulevard.
Camp White, the main Union camp at Charleston, was located directly across the Kanawha River from here. Col. Rutherford B. Hayes, 23rd Ohio Infantry, occupied the camp and Charleston in March 1863. He ordered his men to build a fort on top of the . . . — Map (db m59521) HM
West Virginia (Kanawha County), Charleston — The 35th Star* * * West Virginia Statehood
On Kanawha Blvd East (U.S. 60) near Greenbrier Street, on the right when traveling east.
Sectional differences in western and eastern Virginia fueled resentment and political divisions before the Civil War. The divisions soon became irrevocable after the convention in Richmond voted on April 17, 1861, for Virginia to secede and join . . . — Map (db m42895) HM
West Virginia (Kanawha County), Charleston — War At The Front DoorLittlepage Mansion
On Washington Street (U.S. 60) at Cairns Court, on the right when traveling south on Washington Street.
In July 1861, this area swarmed with retreating Confederate troops and pursuing Federal forces. Union Gen. George B. McClellan had ordered Gen. Jacob Cox to march his 3,000 raw Ohio recruits into western Virginia from Gallipolis, Ohio, to drive . . . — Map (db m59150) HM
West Virginia (Kanawha County), Malden — The Necessary IngredientMalden's Salt Works
On Malden Drive (County Route 60/6) at Cypress Drive on Malden Drive.
In the decades before the Civil War, this region, called the Kanawha Salines, had a booming salt industry. Salt extraction created vast wealth here, and by 1846, this area had led the nation with 3.2 million bushels produced. During the Civil War, . . . — Map (db m59152) HM
West Virginia (Lewis County), Weston — Jackson's MillStonewall Jackson's Boyhood Home
On Jackson's Mill Road (County Route 10).
Three generations of Jacksons operated mills here, beginning with Col. Edward Jackson before 1800. Jackson’s Mill included saw and gristmills, carpenter shop, blacksmith forge, slave quarters, barns and other outbuildings, and a general store on . . . — Map (db m58720) HM
West Virginia (Lewis County), Weston — Trans-Allegheny Lunatic AsylumNo Asylum from War
On Asylum Drive at South River Avenue, on the right when traveling north on Asylum Drive.
When the Civil War began in 1861, the one-story wing on the far left of the building in front of you was all that stood here at the Trans-Allegheny Lunatic Asylum. The foundation of the main building had been completed; it was used to stable horses . . . — Map (db m58721) HM
West Virginia (Marion County), Fairmont — A. Brooks Fleming HouseA Role in the Action — Jones-Imboden Raid
On Jefferson Street at Washington Street, on the right when traveling south on Jefferson Street.
On April 20, 1863, Confederate Gens. William E. “Grumble” Jones and John D. Imboden began a raid from Virginia through present-day West Virginia against the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Taking separate routes, they later reported . . . — Map (db m21232) HM
West Virginia (Marion County), Fairmont — Attack on FairmontWatching from the Kearsley House — Jones-Imboden Raid
On Madison Street at Cleveland Avenue, on the left when traveling south on Madison Street.
(Preface):On April 20, 1863, Confederate Gens. William E. “Grumble” Jones and John D. Imboden began a raid from Virginia through present-day West Virginia against the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Taking separate routes, they later . . . — Map (db m21205) HM
West Virginia (Marion County), Fairmont — Battle for the BridgeThe Foundry Fight — Jones-Imboden Raid
On Everest Drive just north of Merchant Street (West Virginia Route 73), on the left when traveling east.
On April 20, 1863, Confederate Gens. William E. “Grumble” Jones and John D. Imboden began a raid from Virginia through present-day West Virginia against the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Taking separate routes, they later reported . . . — Map (db m21136) HM
West Virginia (Marion County), Fairmont — Francis H. Pierpont Home“Father of West Virginia”
On Quincy Street (U.S. 19) at Jackson Street (U.S. 19), on the right when traveling north on Quincy Street.
Ahead near Pierpont Avenue stood the home of Francis Harrison Pierpont, governor of the Restored Government of Virginia and the “Father of West Virginia.” Here he brought his bride, Julia Augusta Robertson Pierpont, in 1854. Here their . . . — Map (db m75030) HM
West Virginia (Marion County), Fairmont — Graves of the PierpontsIn Memoriam
On Pennsylvania Avenue, on the left when traveling north on Pennsylvania Avenue.
Francis H. Pierpont, governor of the Restored Government of Virginia and the "Father of West Virginia" died on March 24, 1899. He is buried here with his wife, Julia Augusta Robertson Pierpont. They first met when he interviewed her in 1847 for a . . . — Map (db m36657) HM
West Virginia (Mason County), Glenwood — Albert Gallatin JenkinsHome of a General
Near Ohio River Road (West Virginia Route 2) at Homestead Road, on the right when traveling south.
This was the childhood home of Albert Gallatin Jenkins. He was born in 1830 and was educated at Marshall Academy, Jefferson College, and Harvard Law School. Jenkins practiced law and served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1857-1861). When . . . — Map (db m73694) HM
West Virginia (Mercer County), Princeton — McNutt HouseSole Survivor
On North Walker Street at Honaker Street (U.S. 19), on the left when traveling north on North Walker Street.
This house, the home of physician Robert B. McNutt, is the only antebellum dwelling in Princeton. It survived the fire that Col. Walter H. Jenifer of the 8th Virginia Cavalry ignited on May 1, 1862, as he evacuated the town. Jenifer was attempting . . . — Map (db m37744) HM
West Virginia (Monongalia County), Morgantown — MorgantownWestover Bridge — Jones-Imboden Raid
Near Garret Street at Moore Street.
On April 20, 1863, Confederate Gens. William E. “Grumble” Jones and John D. Imboden began a raid from Virginia through present-day West Virginia on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Taking separate routes, they later reported that they . . . — Map (db m73375) HM
West Virginia (Monroe County), Alderson — Alderson's FerryStrategic Crossing
On South Monroe Street (West Virginia Route 3) at Railroad Avenue on South Monroe Street.
Here, where you are standing, you can see both sides of the Greenbrier River where Alderson’s Ferry crossed. The ferry was named for Elder John Alderson who received the original charter from the Virginia Legislature in 1786. During the Civil War, . . . — Map (db m59343) HM
West Virginia (Monroe County), Union — Chapman HouseConfederate Father and Son
On Main Street (U.S. 219) at Middle Street, on the right when traveling south on Main Street.
This is the Chapman House, built in 1803 and the home of one of Union’s most prominent families. Augustus A. Chapman and his son, George Beirne Chapman, both served the Confederacy in the Civil War. Augustus Chapman, an attorney, was twice a . . . — Map (db m59260) HM
West Virginia (Monroe County), Union — Crook's Occupation of UnionConfederate Union under Federal Control
On Main Street (U.S. 219) at Nota Street, on the right when traveling north on Main Street.
In May 1864, as Union Gen. George Crook led his force through Union on a Sunday morning after his victory at Cloyd’s Mountain, VA., on May 9, “there was a Sabbath stillness, scarcely anyone to be seen.” Although some of the Federals . . . — Map (db m59262) HM
West Virginia (Monroe County), Union — Gen. John Echols HouseConfederate General from Union
On 2nd Street at Pump Street, on the right when traveling west on 2nd Street.
This is the home of John Echols, lawyer and general in the Confederate army. A graduate of Washington College in Lexington, Virginia, he also attended the Virginia Military Institute and Harvard University. After John Brown’s failed Harpers . . . — Map (db m59264) HM
West Virginia (Monroe County), Union — Union College"Hurrah for the Southern Confederacy
On South Street at Pump Street on South Street.
The white building in front of you and the red brick house behind you are the former Union College, a Presbyterian school founded in 1820 as Union Academy and the earliest private school still standing in West Virginia. The white dormitory-dining . . . — Map (db m59266) HM
West Virginia (Monroe County), Union — Union, Western VirginiaHistory All Around
Near 5th Street (U.S. 219), on the right when traveling north.
The Confederate Monument, dedicated in 1901 to honor the local men who served the South, is up the walkway to your left. Thirteen Confederate companies were formed here in Monroe County. From the top of the hill, behind the monument and the tree . . . — Map (db m59269) HM
West Virginia (Morgan County), Berkeley Springs — A Winter RefugeBerkeley Springs Hotel — Jackson's Bath-Romney Campaign
On Washington Street at Liberty Street on Washington Street.
(Preface): On January 1, 1862, Confederate Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson led four brigades west from Winchester, Va., to secure Romney in the fertile South Branch Valley on the North Western Turnpike. He attacked and occupied Bath on . . . — Map (db m58632) HM
West Virginia (Morgan County), Berkeley Springs — Battle for BathStruggle in the Snow — Jackson's Bath-Romney Campaign
On Fairfax Street at Washington Street (West Virginia Highway 9) on Fairfax Street.
(Preface): On January 1, 1862, Confederate Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson led four brigades west from Winchester, Va., to secure Romney in the fertile South Branch Valley on the North Western Turnpike. He attacked and occupied Bath on . . . — Map (db m58634) HM
West Virginia (Morgan County), Berkeley Springs — Camp MudUnger's Crossroads Bivouacs — Jackson's Bath-Romney Campaign
On Ungers Store Road at Winchester Grade Road (County Route 13) on Ungers Store Road.
(Preface): On January 1, 1862, Confederate Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson led four brigades west from Winchester, Va., to secure Romney in the fertile South Branch Valley on the North Western Turnpike. He attacked and occupied Bath on . . . — Map (db m58631) HM
West Virginia (Morgan County), Berkeley Springs — Campaign in the SnowJackson Captures Bath and Romney — Jackson's Bath-Romney Campaign
On Fairfax Street at North Washington Street (West Virginia Highway 9) on Fairfax Street.
The summer of 1861 had been disastrous for Confederate arms in western Virginia (present day West Virginia) and by the New Year the Virginia counties west of the Alleghenies were on the road to statehood. On January 1, 1862, Confederate Gen. Thomas . . . — Map (db m58633) HM
West Virginia (Morgan County), Great Cacapon — Engagement at Great CacaponStruggle in the Snow — Jackson's Bath-Romney Campaign
On Cacapon Road (County Route 9) 2 miles south of Prospect Peak Lane.
(Preface): On January 1, 1862, Confederate Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson led four brigades west from Winchester, Va., to secure Romney in the fertile South Branch Valley on the North Western Turnpike. He attacked and occupied Bath on . . . — Map (db m58636) HM
West Virginia (Nicholas County), Keslers Cross Lanes — Kesslers Cross Lanes"Battle of Knives and Forks"
On Summerville Lake Road (State Highway 129) 0.6 miles south of Whitewater Road (County Route 9), on the left when traveling south.
In 1861, both Union and Confederate forces vied for control of Western Virginia. By July, Union Gen. Jacob D. Cox had driven Confederate Gen. Henry A Wise’s army out of the Kanawha Valley and was advancing east on the James River and Kanawha . . . — Map (db m59197) HM
West Virginia (Nicholas County), Summerville — Nancy HartLegendary Spy
On Main Street (State Highway 41) at Church Street on Main Street.
The story of Nancy Hart is a blur of fact and legend. Born in Virginia in 1843, she settled with her family first in southwestern Virginia and then in Roane County by the mid-1950s. There, she grew to young adulthood and learned to ride and shoot as . . . — Map (db m59198) HM
West Virginia (Ohio County), Wheeling — Independence HallBeginning of Statehood — The First Campaign
On 16th Street (West Virginia Route 2) east of Market Street, on the right when traveling west.
This building, erected as a Federal customs house in 1859, is known as West Virginia Independence Hall. Considered the birthplace of West Virginia, it is the site of a series of events that led to the state’s creation in 1863. In spring and . . . — Map (db m34566) HM
West Virginia (Ohio County), Wheeling — Slave Auction Block"Sold down river"
On 10thStreet (U.S. 40) at Market Street (West Virginia Route 2), on the left when traveling west on 10thStreet.
Although the residents of the western part of Virginia owned far fewer slaves than their counterparts to the east, antebellum Wheeling was part of the social and political fabric of slaveholding Virginia. A slave-auction block stood at the . . . — Map (db m71029) HM
West Virginia (Ohio County), Wheeling — The Athenaeum"Lincoln's Bastille"
On 16th Street (West Virginia Route 2) at Market Street, on the right when traveling east on 16th Street.
The Athenaeum, once the biggest building in Wheeling, stood here. It was constructed in 1854, with three stories supported by cast-iron roof and floor beams. It served as an adjunct of the nearby Baltimore and Ohio Railroad station, to encourage . . . — Map (db m71019) HM
West Virginia (Ohio County), Wheeling — The First CampaignCivil War Begins in the Mountains of (West) Virginia — The First Campaign
On 16th Street (State Highway 2) east of Market Street.
West Virginia, born of a nation divided, was the setting for the first campaign of America’s Civil War. Although still part of Virginia in1861, many citizens of the west remained loyal to the Union, rather than the Confederacy. By late May, Union . . . — Map (db m34565) HM
West Virginia (Pendleton County), Franklin — McCoy HouseUnion Headquarters — 1862 Valley Campaign
On South Main Street at Chestnut Street on South Main Street.
(Preface): Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's unsuccessful attack on Union forces at Kernstown on March 23, 1862, alarmed Federal officials, who assigned additional troops to the Shenandoah Valley to guard against a Confederate assault on . . . — Map (db m58688) HM
West Virginia (Pendleton County), Riverton — Last Union RaidEnd of the War in Pendleton County
On U.S. 33 2 miles west of Bland Hills Road, on the right when traveling west.
On the evening of January 13, 1865, Union Maj. Elias S. Troxel, 22nd Pennsylvania Cavalry, was leading a two-hundred-man scouting expedition south from New Creek in present-day Mineral County. After passing through Petersburg, he joined Capt. John . . . — Map (db m45040) HM
West Virginia (Pocahontas County), Bartow — Camp BartowBattle of Greenbrier River — The First Campaign
On Old Pike Road (County Route 3) at West Virginia Highway 28, on the right when traveling west on Old Pike Road.
In August 1861, Confederate soldiers under Gen. Henry R. Jackson of Georgia erected Camp Bartow here. Fortifications on these hills guarded a disputed "middle ground" between Union and Confederate forces on the Staunton-Parkersburg Turnpike. The . . . — Map (db m34168) HM
West Virginia (Pocahontas County), Bartow — Camp BartowSpringtime Snow and Mud — Jones-Imboden Raid
On U.S. 250 0.3 miles west of West Virginia Route 28, on the right when traveling west.
(sidebar) On April 20, 1863, Confederate Gens. William F. “Grumble” Jones and John D. Imboden began a raid from Virginia through present-day West Virginia on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Taking separate routes, they later . . . — Map (db m58229) HM
West Virginia (Pocahontas County), Bartow — The Great RaidPath of Destruction — Jones-Imboden Raid
On U.S. 250 at Old Pike Road (County Route 3), on the left when traveling west on U.S. 250.
In March 1863, Confederate Gen. John D. Imboden presented Gen. Robert E. Lee a plan to invade the northwestern counties of Virginia. Imboden’s goals were to destroy Baltimore and Ohio Railroad bridges and trestles, recruit young men for the . . . — Map (db m58302) HM
West Virginia (Pocahontas County), Bartow — War In West VirginiaA Decisive Campaign — The First Campaign
On U.S. 250 at Old Pike Road (County Route 3), on the left when traveling west on U.S. 250.
In the spring of 1861, Union forces rushed into northwestern Virginia to secure the vital Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, protect important turnpikes, and support Unionists against Confederates. Many residents in the northwest, although still part of . . . — Map (db m58300) HM
West Virginia (Pocahontas County), Hillsboro — Union CampPrelude to Battle of Droop Mountain
On Main Street (U.S. 219), on the right when traveling south.
On November 5, 1863, Union Gen. William W. Averell established his command post and camp on the wide plain in front of you known as the Little Levels. Averell came here with his combined force of infantry and cavalry while conducting a raid on the . . . — Map (db m59356) HM
West Virginia (Pocahontas County), Hillsboro — William L. "Mudwall" Jackson19th & 20th Virginia Cavalry C.S.A. — November 3-5, 1863
On U.S. 219 at Steven Hole Run Road (County Route 219/8), on the right when traveling south on U.S. 219.
William L. "Mudwall" Jackson and the main body of the 19th Virginia Cavalry were in camp near Mill Point on November 3, 1863, when they received a message from Lt. George W. Siple, a Pocahontas County native in Capt. William L. McNeel's Company F, . . . — Map (db m34333) HM
West Virginia (Pocahontas County), Hillsboro — Yankee Army CampNovember 5, 1863
On Main Street (U.S. 219), on the right when traveling south.
John D. Sutton, 10th West Virginia Infantry, wrote, "The army went into camp in the levels between Mill Point and Hillsboro." These fields were later owned by 2nd Lt. Matthew John McNeel, Company F, 19th Virginia Cavalry, and the Capt. Edgar . . . — Map (db m34146) HM
West Virginia (Pocahontas County), Minnehaha Springs — Camp NorthwestJackson’s Huntersville Line
On West Virginia Route 92 at West Virginia Route 39, in the median on State Route 92.
Huntersville (three miles northwest of here) in January 1862. Camp Northwest became Confederate Col. William L. Jackson’s headquarters and a supply depot for the outposts under Jackson’s command. Called the Huntersville line, it stretched from the . . . — Map (db m58226) HM
West Virginia (Randolph County), Beverly — BeverlyCrossroads of Conflict — The First Campaign
On Main Street (U.S. 219), on the right when traveling south.
Situated at a crossroads on the Staunton-Parkersburg Turnpike, Beverly was a strategic location and proved to be a focal point during the Civil War. There were no large plantations here and political opinions were split, yet the majority of . . . — Map (db m24559) HM
West Virginia (Randolph County), Beverly — Occupied BeverlyCaught in the Midst of Conflict
On Main Street (U.S. 219) at Railroad Street on Main Street.
Life in Beverly changed following the Union victory at Rich Mountain on July 11, 1861. Many of the community’s outspoken Southern sympathizers fled south. Some of those who remained resented the hardship that came with Union occupation, although . . . — Map (db m58693) HM
West Virginia (Randolph County), Beverly — Randolph County JailConfining the "Bogus State Sheriff" — Jones-Imboden Raid
On Walnut Street Extended at Court Street on Walnut Street Extended.
(Preface):On April 20, 1863, Confederate Gens. William E. “Grumble” Jones and John D. Imboden began a raid from Virginia through present-day West Virginia against the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Taking separate routes, . . . — Map (db m58694) HM
West Virginia (Randolph County), Beverly — The First CampaignCivil War Begins in the Mountains of (West) Virginia — The First Campaign
On Main Street (U.S. 219), on the right when traveling south.
West Virginia, born of a nation divided, was the setting for the first campaign of America's Civil War. Although still part of Virginia in 1861, many citizens of the west remained loyal to the Union, rather than the Confederacy. By late May, Union . . . — Map (db m24550) HM
West Virginia (Randolph County), Elkins — War in West Virginia"That Remarkable Campaign" — The First Campaign
On Railroad Avenue at 3rd Street, on the right when traveling south on Railroad Avenue.
You are standing at the heart of the first campaign of America's Civil War, looking west toward Rich Mountain. Late in May 1861, Gen. George B. McClellan moved troops across the Ohio River "to secure Western Virginia for the Union" and to protect . . . — Map (db m23238) HM
West Virginia (Randolph County), Huttonsville — Camp ElkwaterGateway to the Tygart Valley — The First Campaign
On Seneca Trail (Route 219) 0.4 miles south of Kumbrabow Forest Road (County Route 219/16), on the right when traveling south.
Following success at Rich Mountain in July 1861, Federal troops under Gen Joseph Reynolds built Camp Elkwater to deter Confederates from returning. Fortifications here blocked the narrow valley floor and a turnpike leading to the Virginia Central . . . — Map (db m34367) HM
West Virginia (Randolph County), Huttonsville — HuttonsvilleThe Army of the Northwest — The First Campaign
On Seneca Trail (U.S. 219) at Staunton-Parkersburg Turnpike (U.S. 250) on Seneca Trail.
After the defeat in Philippi on June 3, 1861, Confederate forces retreated to this point. Gen. Robert S. Garnett was sent to Western Virginia to reorganize these troops and halt the southeast advance of Federal forces. Here on June 14, he . . . — Map (db m34368) HM
West Virginia (Randolph County), Huttonsville — HuttonsvilleOn the Eve of Battle — Jones-Imboden Raid
On U.S. 219 at U.S. 250 on U.S. 219.
(Preface): On April 20, 1863, Confederate Gens. William E. “Grumble” Jones and John D. Imboden began a raid from Virginia through present-day West Virginia against the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Taking separate routes, they . . . — Map (db m59357) HM
West Virginia (Ritchie County), Harrisville — HarrisvilleConfederate Raid — Jones - Imboden Raid
(Preface): On April 20, 1863, Confederate Gens. William E. "Grumble" Jones and John D. Imboden began a raid from Virginia through present-day West Virginia on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Taking separate routes, they later reported that . . . — Map (db m50353) HM
West Virginia (Roane County), Spencer — SpencerThe Siege of Spencer — The Blue and Gray Trail
On Main Street (U.S. 33), on the left when traveling east.
In August 1861, a Union militia unit led by Capt. William Pell of Spencer was stationed in Spencer and charged with the area's protection. The first armed conflict consisted of three incidents over 11 days: 1—Confederate guerillas fired . . . — Map (db m11447) HM
West Virginia (Roane County), Spencer — SpencerMajor Civil War Events Impacting Spencer and Roane County — The Blue and Gray Trail
On Main Street (U.S. 33), on the left when traveling east.
April 12, 1861—Confederates attack Fort Sumter. April 17, 1861—Virginia Secession Ordinance adopted. June 19, 1861—Statewide vote on ordinance confirmed. Roane County voted in favor of secession, although . . . — Map (db m13900) HM
West Virginia (Tucker County), Parsons — Corricks FordRetreat Becomes Disaster — The First Campaign
Near Main Street (U.S. 219), on the right when traveling east.
Federal victory at Rich Mountain on July 11, 1861, forced Confederate Gen. Robert S. Garnett's 4,000 troops to retreat from Laurel Hill in Barbour County. Garnett, fearing that his escape route was blocked, struck northeast. His goal was to circle . . . — Map (db m23746) HM
West Virginia (Upshur County), Buckhannon — Destruction at the CourthouseThe Raiders Strike — Jenkins's Raid
On West Main Street (County Route 151) at Locust Street (West Virginia Highway 20), on the right when traveling east on West Main Street.
(Preface): Confederate Gen. Albert G. Jenkins led 550 cavalrymen on a 500-mile raid from Salt Sulphur Springs, Aug. 22-Sept. 12, 1862, attacking Federal forces and destroying military stores. He captured and paroled 300 Union soldiers, . . . — Map (db m58723) HM
West Virginia (Upshur County), Buckhannon — Jenkins in BuckhannonThe Raiders Strike — Jenkins's Raid
On Marion Street at Barbour Street, on the right when traveling west on Marion Street.
(Preface): Confederate Gen. Albert G. Jenkins led 550 cavalrymen on a 500-mile raid from Salt Sulphur Springs, Aug. 22-Sept. 12, 1862, attacking Federal forces and destroying military stores. He captured and paroled 300 Union soldiers, . . . — Map (db m58725) HM
West Virginia (Upshur County), Buckhannon — McClellan's Buckhannon CampPrelude to Rich Mountain — The First Campaign
On Park Street at Gum Street, on the right when traveling south on Park Street.
(Preface): In the spring of 1861, Union forces rushed into northwestern Virginia to secure the vital Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, protect important turnpikes, and support Unionists against Confederates. The two sides fought numerous . . . — Map (db m58724) HM
West Virginia (Upshur County), Buckhannon — The Bassel HouseThe Columns Unite — Jones-Imboden Raid
On Midlick Road (County Route 5/7) at Old Weston Road (County Road 12), on the right when traveling north on Midlick Road.
On April 20, 1863, Confederate Gens. William E. “Grumble” Jones and John D. Imboden began a raid from Virginia through present-day West Virginia against the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Taking separate routes, they later reported . . . — Map (db m58722) HM
West Virginia (Upshur County), Cleveland — Kesler's RaidCapture of Upshur County Militia
On Ireland - Rock Cave Road (State Highway 20) at Flatwood Run Road (County Route 20/13) on Ireland - Rock Cave Road.
In September 1863, Confederate Maj. Joseph K. Kesler, 19th Virginia Cavalry, led a raid from Pocahontas County through Upshur County and Centerville (present-day Rock Cave). On September 2, Kesler’s commander, Col. William L. Jackson, ordered him . . . — Map (db m58726) HM
West Virginia (Wood County), Parkersburg — Creating West VirginiaParkersburg's Wartime Politicians
On 3rd Street at Juliana Street (West Virginia Route 68), on the right when traveling north on 3rd Street.
During the Civil War, several Parkersburg residents played a role in carving the new state of West Virginia from the Old Dominion of Virginia and in representing it at the national level. Much of the political life of the city took place in . . . — Map (db m73520) HM
West Virginia (Wood County), Parkersburg — Fort BoremanProtecting the B&O Railroad
On Fort Boreman Drive 1 mile south of Robert Byrd Highway (U.S. 50).
The men of Co. A, 11th West Virginia Infantry (US), constructed Fort Boreman in 1863 to protect the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad here. The B&O, the most important east-west rail line that linked the Atlantic coast with the American interior, was . . . — Map (db m73585) HM
West Virginia (Wood County), Parkersburg — Vital Transportation CenterMcClellan Occupies Parkersburg
On Little Kanawa Connector north of Ann Street, on the right when traveling north.
At the beginning of the Civil War, both sides recognized the strategic importance of Parkersburg. Besides its location on the Ohio River, the Northwestern Virginia Railroad branch of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, the Staunton and Parkersburg . . . — Map (db m73538) HM

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