Created in 1818 by an act of
Alabama Territorial Legislature.
Autauga Indians lived on creek
from which the county takes its name.
Autaugas were members of the Alibamo tribe.
They sent many warriors to resist
Andrew Jackson's invasion in . . . — — Map (db m27907) HM
This cemetery is one of the oldest cemeteries in Autauga County having been established as a burial ground by at least 1841. The land was officially set aside as a burial ground when the county seat was in this area from 1834 to 1868. The area . . . — — Map (db m82561) HM
Standing on a low limb of a giant oak tree near here, General Andrew Jackson made a pep talk to his troops, fresh from their victory at the Battle of Horse Shoe Bend and poised before advancing on the British and Spanish at Pensacola, and the . . . — — Map (db m100852) HM
The City of Daphne was incorporated July 8, 1927 with a population of 500. its history, however, dates to a much earlier period. Research and artifacts show that Tensaw, Alabama, Choctaw, Creeks, and Seminole Indians all lived in the this area prior . . . — — Map (db m100843) HM
This Shell Banks Baptist Church rests near the location of the first Indian village in America visited by a white man. This was the Indian village of “Achuse” visited by Admiral Maldonado who was one of De Soto’s officers. He scouted . . . — — Map (db m66295) HM
A trail used in early times by Indians, Spanish Explorers, French Settlers and later by soldiers during the battle of Spanish Fort 1865. At one time a stream driven train paralleled this trace. Its ancient road bed can still be seen south of this . . . — — Map (db m100877) HM
Rendezvous for Indians, Spanish, French and English Explorers. In 1865, Three Confederate Brigades, outnumbered 10 to 1, engaged the Army of West Mississippi (Union Forces) in the last battle of the War Between the States. March 26~April 9, 1865. — — Map (db m100844) HM
In 1813, people on the United State’s southwestern frontier were fearful. The Redstick faction of the Creek Indian Nation opposed growing American influence in the area and had voted for war. However, Creeks living in the Tensaw . . . — — Map (db m116678) HM
Modern Stockton is situated on a hill just above the original settlement, which was abandoned around 1840 because of Yellow Fever outbreaks. No verified source for the town name exists. Most likely it was . . . — — Map (db m66390) HM
In 1828, Reverend John Wesley Norton left his native South Carolina with his family and a wagon train of followers, crossed into the Creek Indian Nation and just into the edge of what was then Pike County, settling near the . . . — — Map (db m78123) HM
"Chief Eufaula," the man often referred to in the historical record as "Yoholo Micco," was a Creek chieftain from the Upper Creek town of Eufaula. Born in the late 1700s, he fought alongside allied Creeks with United States forces against his Red . . . — — Map (db m101427) HM
A primary factor in the eventual expulsion of the Creeks from their ancestral homeland was the fact that their territory was some of the best suited in the nation for the production of cotton. Containing enormous tracts of productive soils, a long . . . — — Map (db m101658) HM
At the dawn of the recorded history of this land, the Creek Indians owned it. Before the men who built the great houses and the men who made the laws settled this area, the United States of America ceded this land to the Creek Indians for “As . . . — — Map (db m89608) HM
The Second Creek war resulted in the final expulsion of the Creeks from eastern Alabama and paved the way for large-scale American settlement. The town of Irwinton gradually expanded westward from the bluff overlooking the Chattahoochee in the years . . . — — Map (db m101361) HM
The area surrounding Eufaula was once part of a regional Creek population center. Towns of note in the region included Sawokli (also known as Sabacola) and the town of Eufaula for which the modern city is named. Trails linked these closely-connected . . . — — Map (db m101355) HM
In 1836 long-simmering tensions between Creeks and American settlers erupted into warfare. The Creeks, crowded onto the last portion of their ancestral homeland and witnessing the rampant theft of their lands, had also become subject to harsh laws . . . — — Map (db m101360) HM
A small group of American settlers from Georgia formed a community called Eufaula in this vicinity as early as 1823. The settlement began to grow in importance later in the decade through the influence of prominent local landholder and Creek War . . . — — Map (db m101357) HM
Louisville is one of the oldest communities in southeastern Alabama. Locąted within territory ceded by the Creeks in the Treaty of Fort Jackson (1814) ending the Creek War, the area was first settled by Americans as early as 1817. Many of its . . . — — Map (db m111642) HM
The battles of Hobdy's Bridge and Pea River were the result of the desperate attempt of Creeks to avoid removal to the West by fleeing to Florida along trails bordering the Pea and Conecuh Rivers. The battles marked the last large-scale . . . — — Map (db m111627) HM
The Second Creek War began in May of 1836 when a portion of area Creeks, angry at their treatment in the wake of the Treaty of Cusseta and in desperate circumstances, struck out against American settlements. A series of small battles occurred . . . — — Map (db m111618) HM
1820-1889 seat of Blount County a county older than the State.
Named for Tennessee Governor W. G. Blount who sent Andrew Jackson to aid Alabama settlers in Creek Indian War, 1812-1814.
Indian Chief Bear Meat lived here at crossing of . . . — — Map (db m28038) HM
Created Feb. 7, 1818 by Alabama Territorial Legislature from lands ceded by the Creek Indian Nation. Named for the Tennessee Governor W. G. Blount, who sent militia under Andrew Jackson to punish the Creeks for Fort Mims massacre. Jackson fought and . . . — — Map (db m24353) HM
The Treaty of Fort Jackson of August 9, 1814, by Major General Andrew Jackson on behalf of the President of the United States of America and the Chiefs, Deputies and Warriors of the Creek Nation, established a boundary line between the Mississippi . . . — — Map (db m61025) HM
The Treaty of Fort Jackson of August 9, 1814, by Major General Andrew Jackson on behalf of the President of the United States of America and the Chiefs, Deputies and Warriors of the Creek Nation, established a boundary line between the Mississippi . . . — — Map (db m61026) HM
The Butler Massacre
On March 20, 1818, Capt. William Butler, Capt. James Saffold, William Gardener, Daniel Shaw and John Hinson left Fort Bibb to meet Col. Sam Dale. They were attacked near Pine Barren Creek by Savannah . . . — — Map (db m83259) HM
Created in 1819 by Act of Alabama Territorial Legislature from lands ceded by the Creek Indian Nation by the Treaty of Fort Jackson, 1814.
Named for Captain William Butler, soldier of Creek Indian War, 1813-14, early settler . . . — — Map (db m70755) HM
William Ogly built his cabin near this site at Poplar Springs along the Federal Road, and was killed here with most of his family on March 13, 1818. His friend Eli Stroud's wife was fatally wounded and their infant . . . — — Map (db m120933) HM
Greenville's oldest, established 1819. Captain William Butler, for whom the county was named, buried here. He was killed fighting Indians led by Savannah Jack in March, 1818. Greenville's oldest church, a community church established in 1822, . . . — — Map (db m70751) HM
At this site, on Nov. 3, 1813, after the Battle of
Tallasehatchee, known then as Talluschatches,
during the Creek Indian War,
Gen. Andrew Jackson found a dead
Creek Indian woman embracing her living
infant son. Gen. Jackson, upon hearing that . . . — — Map (db m36551) HM
Gen. John Coffee, commanding 900 Tennessee Volunteers, surrounded Indians nearby; killed some 200 warriors. This was first American victory. It avenged earlier massacre of 517 at Ft. Mims by Indians. — — Map (db m27610) HM
The Chief Ladiga Trail was named for a Creek Indian leader who signed the Cusseta Treaty in 1832. Under the terms of that agreement, the Creeks gave up claim to their remaining lands in northeast Alabama. Because he had signed the treaty, Ladiga was . . . — — Map (db m36438) HM
Life here has long centered on education beginning in 1834 when a one-acre plot of land was reserved for a schoolhouse. Through the years, various institutions of higher learning developed that culminated into present-day Jacksonville State . . . — — Map (db m36429) HM
First incorporated as a town, February 7, 1852, in Benton County, Oxford's second incorporation was approved February 21, 1860 in Calhoun County. Long before this territory was “settled”, it was inhabited by Creek Indians. In the time . . . — — Map (db m106589) HM
Chambers County, created December 18, 1832 from Creek Indian cession. Named for Dr. Henry C. Chambers of Madison County, member of Constitutional Convention 1819, legislature of 1820, elected U.S. Senator 1825 but died enroute to Washington.
. . . — — Map (db m18162) HM
A flourishing, ancient town of the Muscogee Indians known as Ocfuskooche Tallahassee (Old Town) stood on this site. English traders from Charles Town visited it about 1685. A trail known as "Old Horse Path" led from this village to the Tallapoosa. . . . — — Map (db m36315) HM
This general area is believed to be the site of the Indian village of Costa visited by DeSoto July 2, 1540. The very old cedar trees may have been here at that time. They are some of the largest in the Southeast. These cedars are among the . . . — — Map (db m114988) HM
This area had long been home to the Cherokee Indians and the first white settlers did not arrive until the early 1800's. On December 29, 1835, the Cherokees signed a controversial treaty surrendering their lands here to the U.S. Government. A short . . . — — Map (db m114840) HM
Final resting place of Chief Pathkiller (B. 1749 - D. 1827) who served as principal chief of the Cherokee Nation. Many prominent early settlers are also interred here including newspaper editor and publisher, Confederate infantry captain and . . . — — Map (db m114282) HM
Cherokee Chief Pathkiller owned a ferry across the Coosa River at this location in the early 1820's. His home was a short distance on the east side of the river. Upon Pathkiller's death in 1827, John Ride, a prominent Cherokee gained a majority . . . — — Map (db m114281) HM
One mile south was an important Indian Council site from about 1707. Named for noted chief, the "Turkey". Here in October 1816, a council of Cherokees, Creeks, and Chickasaws met to settle boundaries and ratify a peace treaty. General Andrew . . . — — Map (db m114989) HM
One hundred feet east was one site where "The Trail of Tears" began. On May 23, 1838 the Indians of this general area, who had been held in a chestnut log stockade after being gathered by the U.S. Army, began their long trek to Oklahoma.
The . . . — — Map (db m114398) HM
Cherokee County established - 1836
Area Cherokee Indians relocated - 1838
Taff Community established - 1842
Community named in honor of Taff family - 1842
Union and Confederate soldiers occupied the area - 1864
Taff post office established . . . — — Map (db m114743) HM
Established by Choctaw and Creek Indians about 1808 as the northern limit of boundary line between their lands. This line begins at the cut-off in South Clarke County, follows the watershed between Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers without crossing . . . — — Map (db m83271) HM
This 4000 acre complex has been recognized for its contribution to our understanding of the history of Monroe County and the State of Alabama. Originally developed as a cotton plantation during the Antebellum period, this farm has been in continuous . . . — — Map (db m80345) HM
Founded in 1809 by George Strother Gaines as Choctaw-Creek Indian Trading Post on Alabama River, now Gainestown Landing. Here lived Alabama Indians for whom State & River named. At Battle of Maubila De Soto's hogs escaped, from whence . . . — — Map (db m101609) HM
On November 12, 1813, the Canoe Fight, one of the key assaults of the Creek War, took place nearby at the mouth of Randon’s Creek where it flows into the Alabama River. Following the Fort Mims Massacre in August, small bands of . . . — — Map (db m101574) HM
Here was located the large and important Central Salt Works. Official government reports indicate that salt was being mined at this works as early as 1816, but the Indians had obtained salt here for centuries prior to this. During the blockade of . . . — — Map (db m101605) HM
Near this site, is the gravesite of Maj. Jeremiah Austill, folk hero & prominent figure in the early settlement of Clarke County. Born in 1794 in S. C., he lived, along with his parents, Capt. Evan and Sara Austill, among the . . . — — Map (db m101588) HM
This marks the site of pioneer stockade
commanded by Captains Sam Dale and
Evan Austill. Choctaw Chieftain
Pushmattaha often here. Expedition
terminating in noted Canoe Fight on
Alabama River immediately east of
this site, was . . . — — Map (db m101566) HM
Sept. 1, 1813
Creek Indian War. 1813-14
Part of War of 1812. British used Pensacola as base to arm, incite Indians against U.S..
Prophet Francis led Indians in this raid on Kimbell home. They Killed and scalped 12 of 14 (two survivors . . . — — Map (db m47635) HM
Commences at the Cut-Off, or the first high ground in that vicinity, follows the watershed between the Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers, and ends at Choctaw Corner. Established in 1808 by the Creek and Choctaw Indians as the dividing line between their . . . — — Map (db m47628) HM
Originally home to Creek and Choctaw Indians, Whatley was first settled by pioneers about 1808. Some of the most famous events in Clarke County’s history happened in or near Whatley. A Creek War battle occurred here in 1812 at Fort . . . — — Map (db m110971) HM
Clay County and the
Creek Indian War of 1813-14
During the Creek Indian War of 1813-14, a subset of the War of 1812 with England, numerous figures prominent in American history marched over what would become Clay . . . — — Map (db m95100) HM
Hostile Creeks attacked Andrew Jackson, withdrawing to Ft. Strother, Jan. 24, 1814. His troops broke through lines, kept on to Ft. Strother. But Creeks boasted that they defeated 'Capt. Jack', drove him to the Coosa. — — Map (db m95076) HM
The De Soto Trail
Hernando De Soto in Alabama
Hernando de Soto brought his 700-man army to Alabama in the fall of 1540. This was the first major European expedition to the interior of the southeastern United States. The De Soto . . . — — Map (db m114373) HM
During the early 1800s, a slave-owning planter class including George Colbert’s family, emerged among the Chickasaw.
George’s success stemmed from a variety of endeavors. He fought with the Americans against the Shawnee and Creeks, traveled to . . . — — Map (db m107261) HM
Here, near the bubbling waters of Buzzard Roost Spring, Levi Colbert (Itawamba Minko, “Bench Chief”) built one of the many inns—called stands—along the Natchez Trace.
But it was Colbert’s negotiating and language skills . . . — — Map (db m107265) HM
George Colbert's stand sat atop the ridge before you. As one of many inns that dotted the Trace between Nashville and Natchez, it provided travelers with food and lodging.
With a Scottish father and Chickasaw mother, George Colbert used his . . . — — Map (db m107260) HM
In the early 1800s, ferries like the one George Colbert ran near here on the Tennessee River linked segments of the Natchez Trace. Ferries carried people across the river—for a fee. Post riders, Kaintucks, military troops, casual travelers, . . . — — Map (db m107258) HM
Inns, or stands, provided occasional shelter for travelers along the Natchez Trace. These stands offered flood to eat and food for thought: local news, information, and ideas. The ever-changing mix of diverse populations—whites, American . . . — — Map (db m107263) HM
Frontier America once walked along the Natchez Trace.
The Chickasaw and Choctaw used the Trace for transportation and trade. After 1801, with tribal permission, post riders who rode the Trace connected isolated settlements in Mississippi and . . . — — Map (db m107257) HM
Natural and Cultural Preservation
TVA is fully committed to protecting our natural and cultural resources. And nowhere is that more evident than right here at Wilson Dam.
Here, the 25-acre Old First quarters Small Wild Area showcases the . . . — — Map (db m106189)
Side A Prehistoric man arrived in this area bout 10,000 years ago.
Later Indian cultures left many stone artifacts and pottery vessels.
In the 1780s, a French trading post and Indian village were located near the mouth of Spring Creek. . . . — — Map (db m83389) HM
Oka Kapassa (Ococoposa), meaning "Cold Water", was the Chickasaw name given to Spring Creek and to a trading post established near the Tennessee River about 1780. About 1817, Michael Dickerson and others were greeted at what by . . . — — Map (db m83393) HM
The area around the Big Spring was inhabited by prehistoric Native Americans as early as 10,000 years ago. The first settlement was a French trading post and Indian village about 1780 on Cold Water Creek (Spring Creek) near the . . . — — Map (db m83396) HM
Tuscumbia and much of the Shoals area played an integral part in the "Trail of Tears" with the Tennessee River route and the overland routes. In 1825, the U.S. Government formally adopted a removal policy, which was carried out . . . — — Map (db m83403) HM
Big Spring (average daily flow 35,000,000 gallons) provided water for town founded on its banks.
Michael Dickson of Tennessee was first settler (about 1817). Town laid out in 1819 and incorporated as Ococoposo (Cold Water, 1820).
Name changed to . . . — — Map (db m83453) HM
Near Bermuda was the home of Jeremiah Austill, who won fame in the canoe fight on the Alabama River during the Creek Indian War. His first wife, Sarah, died of injuries from falling off a fence during an Indian raid. — — Map (db m81280) HM
Evergreen, the county seat of Conecuh County, is located in the central part of the county on the Louisville & Nashville Railroad. Founded in 1819 by James Cosey, George Andrews and the Clough Brothers, Evergreen was originally . . . — — Map (db m81287) HM
Midway was one of the first settlements established in Conecuh County along the Post Road which later became the Old Federal Road. Long serving as a hub for Indian trails branching out to the north, northeast and northwest, the Midway town site once . . . — — Map (db m81277) HM
Andrew Jackson in Seminole War
with an army of 1200 camped here
in May 1818
enroute westward from Fort Gadsden
to subdue marauding Indians
abetted by Spaniards at Pensacola.
Jackson determined to seize Pensacola . . . — — Map (db m99237) HM
Daleville, originally called Dale, was the county seat of Dale County from 1831-1841. William Harper was probate judge of Dale County, which was originally included in present-day Coffee County until 1841, present-day Geneva County until 1868, and . . . — — Map (db m41145) HM
Site of Alabama's first permanent capital 1820-26. County seat Dallas County, 1820-66. Prison for Union soldiers during the War Between the States 1863-65. Indians were the first inhabitants over 4000 years ago. Their large fortified village could . . . — — Map (db m75779) HM
Two Ghost Towns?
Long before Cahawba was built as
Alabama's first state capital, there was
another village at this location. Just like
Cahawba, it thrived for about 50 years,
About the year 1500 a group of . . . — — Map (db m112450) HM
Under the provisions of the Cherokee Removal Act of 1830, a log stockade was built, “Two hundred yards Northeast of Big Spring.” The spring supplied abundant water for the Cherokees, the soldiers and livestock. Fort Payne was used as . . . — — Map (db m36743) HM
In 1837 Federal Troops arrived in this area to select a fort location for the collection, holding and removal of the Cherokee. Part of a much larger compound, this site contained a cabin seized by the troops for use as part of the fort. Today a . . . — — Map (db m100286) HM
The fort, consisting of a log house and large stockade, was built in 1838 by order of General Winfield Scott, commander of military forces responsible for the removal of Cherokee Indians.
Soldiers occupying the fort were commanded by Captain . . . — — Map (db m28030) HM
Born in Tennessee, Sequoyah moved to Wills Town (DeKalb County, Alabama) area of the Cherokee Nation in 1818.
Here, in 1821, he invented an 86 symbol alphabet providing the Cherokees with the only written Indian language in the United States. . . . — — Map (db m28033) HM
The first detachment of 1,103 Cherokees to emigrate under their own officers, prior to leaving for the west held a final council at Rattlesnake Springs (near present-day Charleston, TN) and, by unanimous vote, declared their . . . — — Map (db m113846) HM
The mission was established in 1823 by the American Board of Missions to further education and Christianity among the Cherokee Indians. Mission operated until the Indian removal in 1838.
Grave site of Reverend Ard Hoyt, first superintendent, . . . — — Map (db m28035) HM
Clear, bubbling springs have enticed people to this vicinity for thousands of years. Native American hunting paths led to them and after the defeat of the Creek Indians by the United States in 1813, old trails became the Jackson and . . . — — Map (db m71177) HM
On this bend of the Tallapoosa River, stretching out before you, lay one of the ancient towns of the Muscogee Creek People, called Tukabatchee. Tukabatchee is one of the original four mother towns of the . . . — — Map (db m92945) HM
The land area which now comprises the City of Wetumpka was inhabited by various Indian cultures prior to the inward migration of the white man at the turn of the 19th century. The largest Indian village near here was located on . . . — — Map (db m67936) HM
Fort Crawford was established in 1816 by elements of the 7th U.S. Infantry under orders from Major General Andrew Jackson. Purpose was to monitor Spanish activities in West Florida and curtail hostile Creek Indian activities.
Named after . . . — — Map (db m84373) HM
For thousands of years, two important Indian trade routes ran across what was to become Etowah County. The “High Town Path” ran from Charlestown, S.C. west to the Mississippi River, near Memphis, TN. The “Creek Path” begins . . . — — Map (db m39226) HM
White settlers in the hills of Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, and South Carolina pushed the Cherokee Indian tribes into North Alabama. The Cherokee in turn encroached upon Creek Territory. There were sporadic battles between the . . . — — Map (db m83738) HM
The surrounding area and this well was part of Turkey’s Town, once a capital of the proud Cherokee Nation. Chief Turkey was the principal chief during the late 1700’s.
On October 25, 1864, the Turkey Town Valley Expedition of the XV Corps Union . . . — — Map (db m83740) HM
In 1838, Greene County citizens voted to change the town seat from Erie to Eutaw. The City of Eutaw, Alabama was incorporated as a town by an act of the State Legislature on January 2, 1841. Greene County had been named for General Nathaniel Greene. . . . — — Map (db m83752) HM
Site of a prehistoric Native American political and ceremonial center from about A. D. 1100-1500 that, at its height in the 13th century, was America’s largest community north of Mexico. Between 1,000 and 3,000 people lived in this town fortified by . . . — — Map (db m30700) HM
The Treaty of Fort Jackson on August 9, 1814 by Major General Andrew Jackson on behalf of the President of the United States of America and the Chiefs, Deputies and Warriors of the Creek Indian Nation, established a boundary line between the . . . — — Map (db m71836) HM
The Treaty of Fort Jackson on August 9, 1814 by Major General Andrew Jackson on behalf of the President of the United States of America and the Chiefs, Deputies and Warriors of the Creek Indian Nation, established a boundary line between the . . . — — Map (db m71838) HM
Site of the 1831 Irwin homeplace where over 50,000 acres of land was owned by Major General William Irwin (1794-1850). He was an Indian fighter, farmer, politician, statesman and considered one of the nation’s richest and most influential men. A . . . — — Map (db m71824) HM
The frontier village of Franklin was established here by Colonel Robert Irwin in 1814 on the site of the Indian town of Cheeska Talofa. It was the first colonial village in east Alabama. Fort Gaines, Georgia, was constructed in 1816 to protect the . . . — — Map (db m71844) HM
Near where you stand lies Omussee Creek Mound, the southernmost
platform mound along the Chattahoochee River, occupied
approximately 1300 to 1550 A.D. as part of an important
Native American settlement. This region of southeastern Alabama and . . . — — Map (db m115032) HM
We do not know the exact date that residents of the community of which Omussee Creek Mound was a part abandoned the mound, but by around 1550 it was definitely in decline. Many believe this may have been part of a broader, regional depopulation due . . . — — Map (db m115034) HM
The original builders of the Omussee Creek mound
had abandoned the site by around 1550, but the
area continued to be occupied by Native American
groups well into the early nineteenth century. As early as
the 1630s, Spanish missionaries from . . . — — Map (db m115037) HM
Located near this marker is the Poplar Head Spring which served as a meeting place for Indian traders prior to the arrival of the white and black settlers. The Alibamu Indians of the Chattahoochee River basin met the Creeks of the Choctawahatchee . . . — — Map (db m41141) HM
In May 1838 soldiers, under the command of U.S. Army General Winfield Scott, began rounding up Cherokee Indians in this area who had refused to move to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. About 16,000 Cherokees were placed in stockades in . . . — — Map (db m18047) HM
Side A One of the Five Lower Towns established by the Chickamauga Cherokees in 1782 under the leadership of Dragging Canoe. Territorial Governor William Blount reported to the Secretary of War in 1792 that: “Crow Town lies on the north . . . — — Map (db m28473) HM
Red Mountain, where you are standing, and Jones Valley, which stretches before you, were sites of human activity long before Birmingham's founding in 1871.
Native American presence
Recorded history and archaeological evidence indicate the . . . — — Map (db m83805) HM
The Creek Indian Cession of 1814 opened this section of Alabama to settlement. At the time of statehood in 1819 many pioneer families had located here in what later became known as Jones Valley. By 1820 the area was called Ruhama Valley as a result . . . — — Map (db m26680) HM
Center Star was spelled Centre Star into the 1900s. The name evolved from the US Postal Service, which served remote areas by "star routes." The Post Office here, which existed from 1850 to 1914 (except between 1902 and 1913), . . . — — Map (db m82398) HM
Construction of this road, as ordered by General Andrew Jackson, began in May 1817 by troops of the U.S. Army for national defense purposes. Beginning near Nashville, Tennessee and continuing to Madison, Louisiana, it shortened the distance from . . . — — Map (db m80321) HM
About 1800 Doublehead located his village at this site, where his brother-in-law Tahlonteeskee had previously lived. Doublehead's log house was built along the same style of those of the white settlers. Chief Doublehead had previously led raids . . . — — Map (db m83942) HM
The Trail of Tears led groups of Cherokee up the Tennessee River here. The Cherokee are one of southeastern tribes who were relocated to Oklahoma due to the US Indian removal policy in the 1830s.
During removal, most Cherokee went by land, but . . . — — Map (db m107267) HM
This is the highest domiciliary mound in the Tennessee Valley. It was probably built between 100 B.C. and 400 A.D. by a prehistoric people of the ancient Woodland Culture. Such mounds served as bases for ceremonial temples or chief's houses. This . . . — — Map (db m28457) HM
Side A This area near the mouth of Cypress Creek was inhabited by Archaic People as early as 8,000 B.C. Their main food consisted of freshwater mollusks from the river.
(These mussels were the origin of the name "Muscle Shoals.")
The . . . — — Map (db m84044) HM
The settlement of what is now eastern Lauderdale County (known as "Over Elk)" by non-Native Americans commenced by 1807.
Federal land sales were held in Huntsville during the spring of 1818.
Although much of the land was described . . . — — Map (db m84296) HM
From about 1775 until his death on August 9, 1807, Chickamauga Cherokee Chief Doublehead controlled the Muscle Shoals of the Tennessee River. Two major Indian trails, Sipsie Trail and an east-west trail, intersected in the . . . — — Map (db m99972) HM
Thousands of Cherokee Indians passed through Waterloo in the 1830s when they were forced by the U.S. government to move West on the "Trail of Tears". Most came by boat from Tuscumbia and camped here to await transfer to larger steamboats. During the . . . — — Map (db m84301) HM
Created by Territorial Legislature
in 1818 from lands ceded by
Cherokee and Chickasaw Indians
Named for U.S, Navy hero of War of 1812
Capt. James Lawrence
Fatally wounded, his famous command was
"Don't Give Up The Ship"
County . . . — — Map (db m69672) HM
This area was the home to Indians, settlers, people of mixed ancestry and their descendants. Local bluff shelters contain evidence of occupation from Paleo Indian (10,000 BC) through the Mississippian Period (1540 AD). Chief Tuscaloosa (Black . . . — — Map (db m84313) HM
The Oakville Indian Mounds Museum is based on a seven sided Cherokee council house. This type of council house was used during the cooler months and an open sided rectangular pavilion during warmer weather. The descriptions used for the museum's . . . — — Map (db m84314) HM
In the early 1800's Cherokees of this area were under the leadership of Doublehead and Tahlonteskee. After Doublehead's assassination in 1807, Tahlonteskee notified President Jefferson that he and his people were ready to move west. In 1808 . . . — — Map (db m36030) HM
Copena Indians built this mound with baskets of dirt some 2000 years ago. The Copena name was derived from their use of copper and galena (lead ore) found in their burials along with gorgets and celts. The mounds were a burial site with the dead . . . — — Map (db m84315) HM
Black Warriors' Path played a critical role as a route for Creek Removal. On December 19, 1835, some 511 Creek emigrants passed along the path through present ~ day Oakville Indian Mounds Park. In September 1836, a group of Creeks left Tallassee in . . . — — Map (db m36027) HM
Doublehead, (c1744-1807), aka Dsugweladegi or Chuqualatague, was the son of Great Eagle (Willenawah) and grandson of Moytoy. Among his siblings were Pumpkin Boy, Old Tassel and the unnamed grandmother of Sequoyah. After his sister's son John Watts . . . — — Map (db m84316) HM
Five Historic Indian tribes lived in this area. By 1701, The Yuchi were living at the shoals on the Tennessee River. In early 1700s the Yuchi left, some moving to the Cherokee Nation on the Hiwassee River, TN and others to Chattahoochee River, GA. . . . — — Map (db m36040) HM
Rising 27 feet high, this is the largest woodland mound in Alabama, with a base covering 1.8 acres and a flat top of over one acre. Built by prehistoric Copena Indians, the mound is 2,000 years old and constructed from earth probably carried one . . . — — Map (db m84317) HM
Based on the large number of local mounds and artifacts, this site shows evidence of Indian occupation over 2000 years ago. According to tradition about 1780, Oakville became a Cherokee town located on Black Warriors' Path. By the early 1820's, . . . — — Map (db m36036) HM
Form the late 1700's to 1807 a Cherokee Chief named Doublehead guarded this area, that was claimed by both the Cherokee and Chickasaw Nations as sacred hunting grounds against encroachment of white settlers.
Chief Doublehead had the reputation of . . . — — Map (db m84646) HM
Settled by Judge J. J. Harper and others from Harris County, Georgia, in 1836.
This region was opened to settlement
in 1836-37 by the removal of the
Creek Indians to lands west
of the Mississippi River.
The Alabama . . . — — Map (db m39830) HM
Following the signing of the Creek Treaty in 1832, the early white settlers constructed a 16 by 30 foot hand hewn log fort for protection against a possible Indian uprising from Cussetaw Indian Village on Osanippa Creek just north of here. Walls of . . . — — Map (db m71643) HM
One of the larger settlements of the Upper Creeks at the time of Indian removal to the west, 1835-1837. Their last council fire was held here before their forced migration to Oklahoma. Pioneer families began pouring in after 1836. Today's cemetery . . . — — Map (db m85169) HM
created Feb. 6, 1818 by Alabama Territorial Legislature from lands ceded by Cherokee Nation 1806 and by Chickasaw Nation in 1816. Named for creek (and its limestone bed), which runs through county.
Few settlers here until Indian treaties.
Athens . . . — — Map (db m29109) HM
Lucy's Branch This site is named for Lucy Bedingfield, daughter of a slave and a Cherokee Indian. She was born 1832, and her Indian name was Finch. She married Meredith Bedingfield, a slave and had 9 children. Lucy was an astute and avid . . . — — Map (db m85421) HM
A church older than the county and state. First meeting house built in the fall of 1816, on Indian land, a few miles south of here along Round Island Creek. The first Govt. Land sales were in Feb. 1818 after treaties with the . . . — — Map (db m85422) HM
Side A (North side) In the fall of 1806 a group of settlers led by William and James Sims, traveled from east Tennessee on flatboats down the Tennessee River and up the Elk River to this area. They landed near Buck Island and spread out . . . — — Map (db m85454) HM
Franklin School, originally constructed on this lot, was in operation as early as the 1890s teaching grades 1-11. By the mid 1930s, it was downsized to grades 1-6. There were northern and southern classrooms adjoined by a common . . . — — Map (db m68028) HM
Unmarked grave in Cubahatchie Baptist Church Cemetery. Half-blooded Creek Indian, planter, soldier, Indian agent,
and historian, Stiggins lived on a nearby farm fronting the Federal Road from 1831 until his death. There he wrote "A . . . — — Map (db m60534) HM
Shorter was originally called Cross Keys for the birthplace in South Carolina of an early settler, J.H. Howard. It was later named Shorter for former Alabama Governor John Gill Shorter. The town embodies the memories of the proud Creek Indian . . . — — Map (db m85463) HM
In May 1838 soldiers, under the command of U.S. Army General Winfield Scott, began rounding up Cherokee Indians in this area who had refused to move to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. About 16,000 Cherokees were placed in stockades in Tennessee and . . . — — Map (db m33318) HM
Tennessee. Lincoln County. Established 1809; named in honor of MAJOR GEN. BENJAMIN LINCOLN of the Revolutionary Army. After service at Saratoga, he was put in Chief Command in the Southern Colonies. Later, he was Secretary of War under the . . . — — Map (db m30570) HM
After the Civil War, the future of African-Americans in the United States Army was in doubt. In July 1866, Congress passed legislation establishing two cavalry and four infantry regiments to be made up of African-American . . . — — Map (db m75092) HM WM
Brahan Spring Park, formerly Beaty's Spring, was the site of Camp Beaty, the encampment of Andrew Jackson's army of volunteers and militia after their celebrated non-stop march of "32 miles in 5 hours" from Fayetteville, Tennessee . . . — — Map (db m105131) HM
Made a county in 1808 by order of Governor of Mississippi Territory.
Area ceded 1805, 1806 by Cherokees, Chickasaws.
This was the first land in Alabama ceded by these great civilized tribes. — — Map (db m27848) HM
Early in the 1800's gold was found from Virginia to Alabama including a rich belt on Cherokee Indian land in what is now Dahlonega, GA.
causing a huge influx of miners and a land grab by new settlers.
Pressure and greed from politicians led to . . . — — Map (db m85838) HM
Composed of limestone or “Selma
chalk” which abounds in fossils.
Called “Ecor Blanc” by
eighteenth-century French explorers
Named “Chickasaw Gallery” because
early Indian inhabitants . . . — — Map (db m38001) HM
Hamilton was established on November 17, 1882 and was named in honor of Capt. Albert James Hamilton. Hamilton was first known as "Toll Gate," named for a toll gate on the Jackson Military Road. The original county seat of Marion . . . — — Map (db m96479) HM
Starting as an ancient Indian trail, the north–south road through Arab in 1816 was known as Bear Meat Cabin Road. By 1818, it had become an important Federal trade route through the Alabama Territory known as the St. Stephens – . . . — — Map (db m40134) HM
(Side A) This area's proximity to the Tennessee River and Indian trails made it a crossroads for early habitation, settlement, and trade. Archaeological studies reveal it was first inhabited about 12,000 years ago by Paleo-Indians. They . . . — — Map (db m33305) HM
The name Chickasaw originated from Native Americans living in the area prior to the arrival of the French settlement at Twenty-Seven Mile Bluff in 1702. Native Americans from the Apalachee and Choctaw Tribes referred to the creek . . . — — Map (db m111286) HM
The origin of this Cathedral was established on July 20, 1703, by Jean-Baptiste de La Croix de Chevrieres de Saint Vallier, Bishop of Quebec at Fort Louis de la Mobile, the city’s first permanent settlement. The Bishop also . . . — — Map (db m117245) HM
Mt. Vernon Arsenal and Barracks
Established 1828 by Congress to store arms and munitions for U. S. Army. Original structures completed 1830's.
Arsenal appropriated by Confederacy 1861; equipment moved to Selma . . . — — Map (db m70593) HM
In 1811, the Mount Vernon Cantonment, located on a hill about three miles west of the Mobile River, was laid out by Col. Thomas H. Cushing. The cantonment was on the site of a spring called Mount Vernon Springs. In 1814, the garrison at Mt. Vernon . . . — — Map (db m85911) HM
Burnt Corn, Monroe County's earliest settlement, became the crossroads of the Great Pensacola Trading Path and The Federal Road. Settler Jim Cornells returned from Pensacola in 1813, finding his home destroyed and his wife kidnapped by a Creek . . . — — Map (db m47687) HM
Built by Gen. Ferdinand L. Claiborne as a base for his invasion of the Alabama country with U.S. Regulars, Lower Tombigbee Militia, and friendly Choctaws. Claiborne’s campaign culminated in the American victory over the Creeks at the Holy Ground. — — Map (db m47641) HM
Piache, an Indian town visited by DeSoto in 1540 was near here.
DeLuna made a settlement here, Nanipacna in 1560.
Fort Claiborne was erected on the south bluff, in 1813.
LaFayette was entertained here, 1825.
. . . — — Map (db m47639) HM
Little River was the home of Creek Chief William Weatherford, also known as War Chief Red Eagle. This was the area of much discussion and debate, bringing the Creeks into the War of 1812 and the Creek Civil War of 1813-1814. These events weighed . . . — — Map (db m86271) HM
Twelve miles above Montgomery the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers unite to form the Alabama which meanders over four hundred miles on its way to Mobile Bay. This river has played major role in region's history, being a thoroughfare for Native Americans, . . . — — Map (db m26591) HM
Augusta, home of Old Augusta Cemetery, was built on the site of a former Indian village, “Sawanogi,” on high ground close to the Tallapoosa River. In 1824 a disastrous flood swept over the plateau, invading shops and residences. A year . . . — — Map (db m68260) HM
Here at the Indian village of Encanchata, future site of Montgomery, Col. John Tate, last British agent to the Muscogee Nation, recruited and drilled Creek warriors in 1780 to relieve Tories in Augusta, Ga. being besieged by American patriots. — — Map (db m71373) HM
Here on May 24, 1703, Alabama Indians ambushed the first French explorers from Mobile, killing three and wounding two critically. The Indians were armed and were used as pawns by British agents from Carolina in the European struggle for dominion . . . — — Map (db m67999) HM
The Federal Road
The 1803 Louisiana Purchase acquired 828,000 sq. mi. for the U.S., doubling its size. The Federal Road was built to provide a shorter route from Washington to New Orleans and the new territory. The Treaty . . . — — Map (db m71535) HM
Alabama Territorial Legislature created this county in 1818 from lands ceded by Cherokee Indians in 1816. County first named Cotaco, for large creek in county. Named Morgan County in 1821 for Maj. Gen. Daniel Morgan, Revolutionary hero, winner over . . . — — Map (db m27759) HM
The Second Creek War of 1836 broke out when many Creek Indians resisted forced removal after an 1832 treaty ceded the last of their tribal lands in Alabama. As hostility increased between white settlers pouring into the area and Creeks who were . . . — — Map (db m111577) HM
In the early 1800s, south Alabama was still inhabited by many groups of Native Americans: Creek, Chickasaw, and Choctaw among others. They traveled, hunted, traded, and made war on the many ancient trails here. European settlers improved these roads . . . — — Map (db m95359) HM
Near this site soon after Threat of Cusseta 1832, Peter A. Hogg built a grist mill on Wehadkee Creek, named for local Indian tribe. Settlement first called Prothro's Mill for James Prothro, who, with John McPherson, obtained a U.S. land patent in . . . — — Map (db m118127) HM
Archaeology is the scientific study of the past through analysis of physical traces of daily life discovered through excavation. It enables us to extend our knowledge of human history beyond the limits of written records and to learn details about . . . — — Map (db m101816) HM
In September 1821 Rev. William Capers was sent to Fort Mitchell, by the South Carolina Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, to negotiate with the chiefs of the Creek Indian Nations for a mission which would teach their children reading, . . . — — Map (db m26121) HM
Creek Towns At its height, the Creek Nation consisted of about 20,000 people living in more
than seventy townships, or talwas (tvlwv), scattered throughout modern-day Alabama and Georgia. Creek townships commonly consisted of a primary . . . — — Map (db m120007) HM
Cultural Exchange and Cooperation Though significant cultural conflict characterized Creek-American relations in the Chattahoochee Valley, and Creeks faced numerous forms of exploitation, not all relationships between Creeks and settlers were . . . — — Map (db m120019) HM
Built during Creek War 1813 by Georgia Militia on main Indian trade route to Tombigbee River
U.S. Troops stationed here until 1837 1836 Lower Creeks corralled here for forced removal to the West — — Map (db m26069) HM
Fort Mitchell is located on the Federal Road on the West bank overlooking the Chattahoochee River.
General John Floyd received orders from Governor David B. Mitchell to pick up supplies, cross the Chattahoochee River and . . . — — Map (db m120003) HM
Fort Mitcheli served as a primary point of concentration for creeks being sent westward to Indian Territory before, during, and after the Second Creek War (1836-1837). By the terms of the 1832 Treaty of Washington, Creek heads of household and . . . — — Map (db m101840) HM
This military graveyard was established soon after Fort Mitchell was built by General John Floyd of the Georgia Militia. Located just south of the stockade, the cemetery was used between 1813 and 1840 during the fort's occupation by Georgia and . . . — — Map (db m26122) HM
The most popular game among the Indians of this region was "stick ball." This field has been constructed so that the game may be enjoyed again in the Chattahoochee Valley where it was played for hundreds of years. Sometimes known as "little brother . . . — — Map (db m26020) HM
Native plants played a significant role in the daily life of the Creek Indian civilization that inhabited the Chattahoochee Valley until relocation to Oklahoma in the 19th century. During the Woodland Period, the local inhabitants were skilled . . . — — Map (db m48166) HM
Near here is the site where John Crowell lived, died, and is interred. Colonel Crowell was born in Halifax County, North Carolina, on September 18, 1780; moved to Alabama in 1815, having been appointed as Agent of the United States to the . . . — — Map (db m26116) HM
Pokkecheta, or the ball play, was an ancient and vital part of the social life of the Creeks and a popular game among many groups of Southeastern Indians. The game enhanced
interaction between towns and provided highly ritualized sport and . . . — — Map (db m101817) HM
The Creek Indians and their neighbors, the Yuchi, once lived in these woods in harmony with nature and in accordance with their beliefs and customs. During the 1700s and early 1800s, they were progressively dispossessed of . . . — — Map (db m101282) HM
In 1832, a treaty with the United States allotted parcels of land to every Indian household in the Valley. A government census enumerated, according to tribal towns, every Indian head of household, along with the number of males, females, and slaves . . . — — Map (db m101415) HM
The Creek Nation
The Creek Nation was a loose confederacy of independent towns that ranks among the most sophisticated and powerful native political organizations in North American history. Largely speakers of the Muskogee dialect, the . . . — — Map (db m101284) HM
Approximately one mile due east of this marker, back down the Old Federal Road, called by frontiersmen and Indians the Three Notched Trail or the Three Chopped Way, stood Fort Mitchell, an early 19th century American fort that in 1836 was one of the . . . — — Map (db m26100) HM
Today there are federally recognized Creek tribal groups in Oklahoma, Texas, Louisiana, and Alabama. The largest, the Muscogee (Creek) Nation, is based in the state of Oklahoma. The nation is comprised of the descendants of the Creeks who were . . . — — Map (db m101823) HM
United States Indian Trading Post
The Battle of Horseshoe Bend, March 1814, ended the Creek Indian War. General Andrew Jackson met with Chief William Weatherford and signed the Treaty. The Creek Indians returned to their own land in the . . . — — Map (db m120004) HM
One of the oldest white settlements in the Chattahoochee Valley before and after the removal of the Indians; land deeds between whites date back to 1832, the year of Russell County's founding. The name of the town . . . — — Map (db m69422) HM
Coweta was the home of many influential Creek leaders, including three individuals who figured prominently in the history of the Creek people; "Emperor” Brims, Mary Musgrove, Chief William McIntosh.
The Coweta chieftain Brims, who . . . — — Map (db m101336) HM
To the native people of the Chattahoochee River Valley, the Creek or Muskogulgi Indians, the shoals of the river were a source of recreation and food. In the spring, the women and children of Coweta Town came here to fish, using dip nets, spears, . . . — — Map (db m69045) HM
During the tumultuous decades prior to the Removal of the Creeks from their ancestral homelands in the 1830s, the vicinity of the town of Coweta became an important location for interaction between the Creek Nation and the American government. . . . — — Map (db m101339) HM
Coweta Town, located east of this marker on the banks of the Chattahoochee River, is sometimes called New or Upper Coweta to distinguish it from its predecessor, Coweta Tallahassee, down river. Among other well-known Creeks, Coweta was the . . . — — Map (db m69068) HM
Coweta served as a critical place of interaction between Creeks and Europeans throughout
the colonial era. Situated at the intersection of regional trading routes and the claims
of expanding Spanish, English and French colonial empires, it became . . . — — Map (db m101334) HM
In November 1836, six Creek and Yuchi Indians were hanged near this spot for their role in a last desperate uprising against the frontier whites of Georgia and Alabama. Following decades of provocation from whites anxious to gain control of their . . . — — Map (db m69065) HM
The town of Coweta was actually two separate Native American settlements and dozens of affiliated outlying communities occupied at different times in what is now northeastern Russell County. "Coweta Tallahassee" (old Coweta), regarded by most . . . — — Map (db m101328) HM
The Creek Indians believed this section of the river was inhabited by a giant Tie-Snake, a mythical monster that snared the unwary and dragged them down into the watery underworld. The Tie-Snake was but one of many strange creatures and natural . . . — — Map (db m69067) HM
Russell County occupies land that once sat at the heart of the Creek Nation. Within the county's boundaries were several important Creek towns, many of which would figure prominently in the Creek and Seminole Wars era and the saga of Removal. . . . — — Map (db m111596) HM
Russell County was one of several counties created by the Alabama legislature in December, 1832 from land that had been part of the Creeks' ancestral homeland. The community of Girard (modern Phenix City) along the Chattahoochee River became the . . . — — Map (db m111609) HM
The Second Creek War came about as a result of the frustration of local Creeks at their treatment following the signing of the Treaty of Washington (1832). That compact called for the Creeks to be given allotments of land which they could keep or . . . — — Map (db m111603) HM
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