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Native Americans Historical Markers

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Autauga County Courthouse image, Touch for more information
By Tim Carr, August 1, 2009
Autauga County Courthouse
Alabama (Autauga County), Prattville — A County Older Than the State, Autauga County
Created in 1818 by an act of Alabama Territorial Legislature. Autauga Indians lived on creek from which the county takes its name. Autaugas were members of the Alibamo tribe. They sent many warriors to resist Andrew Jackson's invasion in . . . — Map (db m27907) HM
Alabama (Autauga County), Prattville — Old Kingston Historical Cemetery
This cemetery is one of the oldest cemeteries in Autauga County having been established as a burial ground by at least 1841. The land was officially set aside as a burial ground when the county seat was in this area from 1834 to 1868. The area . . . — Map (db m82561) HM
Alabama (Baldwin County), Bay Minette — Bottle Creek Site
Bottle Creek Site has been designated a National Historic Landmark This site possesses National Significance in Commemorating the History of the United States of America . . . — Map (db m100849) HM
Alabama (Baldwin County), Daphne — 1814 ~ ~ ~ 1977General Andrew Jackson
  Standing on a low limb of a giant oak tree near here, General Andrew Jackson made a pep talk to his troops, fresh from their victory at the Battle of Horse Shoe Bend and poised before advancing on the British and Spanish at Pensacola, and the . . . — Map (db m100852) HM
Alabama (Baldwin County), Daphne — City of DaphneIncorporated July 8, 1927
The City of Daphne was incorporated July 8, 1927 with a population of 500. its history, however, dates to a much earlier period. Research and artifacts show that Tensaw, Alabama, Choctaw, Creeks, and Seminole Indians all lived in the this area prior . . . — Map (db m100843) HM
Alabama (Baldwin County), Gulf Shores — Indian Village Achuse
This Shell Banks Baptist Church rests near the location of the first Indian village in America visited by a white man. This was the Indian village of “Achuse” visited by Admiral Maldonado who was one of De Soto’s officers. He scouted . . . — Map (db m66295) HM
Alabama (Baldwin County), Spanish Fort — Caisson Trace
A trail used in early times by Indians, Spanish Explorers, French Settlers and later by soldiers during the battle of Spanish Fort 1865. At one time a stream driven train paralleled this trace. Its ancient road bed can still be seen south of this . . . — Map (db m100877) HM
Alabama (Baldwin County), Spanish Fort — Spanish Fort
Rendezvous for Indians, Spanish, French and English Explorers. In 1865, Three Confederate Brigades, outnumbered 10 to 1, engaged the Army of West Mississippi (Union Forces) in the last battle of the War Between the States. March 26~April 9, 1865. — Map (db m100844) HM
Alabama (Baldwin County), Stockton — First Creek WarBattles in Alabama & Baldwin County
27 July 1813 – Battle of Burnt Corn 30 August 1813 – Fort Mims Massacre 31 August 1813 – Kimbell – James Massacre 2 September 1813 – Attack at Fort Sinquefield 13 September 1813 – Wood's Bluff . . . — Map (db m122631) HM WM
Alabama (Baldwin County), Stockton — Fort Mims And The Creek Indian War, 1813-14
Front: In 1813, people on the United State’s southwestern frontier were fearful. The Redstick faction of the Creek Indian Nation opposed growing American influence in the area and had voted for war. However, Creeks living in the Tensaw . . . — Map (db m116678) HM
Alabama (Baldwin County), Stockton — Historic Stockton / Old Schoolyard Park
Front: Historic Stockton Modern Stockton is situated on a hill just above the original settlement, which was abandoned around 1840 because of Yellow Fever outbreaks. No verified source for the town name exists. Most likely it was . . . — Map (db m66390) HM
Alabama (Barbour County), Batesville — Providence Methodist Church & Schoolhouse
Side 1 In 1828, Reverend John Wesley Norton left his native South Carolina with his family and a wagon train of followers, crossed into the Creek Indian Nation and just into the edge of what was then Pike County, settling near the . . . — Map (db m78123) HM
Alabama (Barbour County), Eufaula — Chief Eufaula (Yoholo Micco)In Life and Legend — Creek Heritage Trail
"Chief Eufaula," the man often referred to in the historical record as "Yoholo Micco," was a Creek chieftain from the Upper Creek town of Eufaula. Born in the late 1700s, he fought alongside allied Creeks with United States forces against his Red . . . — Map (db m101427) HM
Alabama (Barbour County), Eufaula — Cotton and Creek Country — Creek Heritage Trail
A primary factor in the eventual expulsion of the Creeks from their ancestral homeland was the fact that their territory was some of the best suited in the nation for the production of cotton. Containing enormous tracts of productive soils, a long . . . — Map (db m101658) HM
Alabama (Barbour County), Eufaula — Creek Indian Removal
At the dawn of the recorded history of this land, the Creek Indians owned it. Before the men who built the great houses and the men who made the laws settled this area, the United States of America ceded this land to the Creek Indians for “As . . . — Map (db m89608) HM
Alabama (Barbour County), Eufaula — The City of Eufaula — Creek Heritage Trail
The Second Creek war resulted in the final expulsion of the Creeks from eastern Alabama and paved the way for large-scale American settlement. The town of Irwinton gradually expanded westward from the bluff overlooking the Chattahoochee in the years . . . — Map (db m101361) HM
Alabama (Barbour County), Eufaula — The Creek Town of Eufaula — Creek Heritage Trail
The area surrounding Eufaula was once part of a regional Creek population center. Towns of note in the region included Sawokli (also known as Sabacola) and the town of Eufaula for which the modern city is named. Trails linked these closely-connected . . . — Map (db m101355) HM
Alabama (Barbour County), Eufaula — The Second Creek War in the Eufaula Area — Creek Heritage Trail
In 1836 long-simmering tensions between Creeks and American settlers erupted into warfare. The Creeks, crowded onto the last portion of their ancestral homeland and witnessing the rampant theft of their lands, had also become subject to harsh laws . . . — Map (db m101360) HM
Alabama (Barbour County), Eufaula — The Town of Irwinton — Creek Heritage Trail
A small group of American settlers from Georgia formed a community called Eufaula in this vicinity as early as 1823. The settlement began to grow in importance later in the decade through the influence of prominent local landholder and Creek War . . . — Map (db m101357) HM
Alabama (Barbour County), Louisville — Louisville and "Old Alabama" — Creek Heritage Trail
Louisville is one of the oldest communities in southeastern Alabama. Locąted within territory ceded by the Creeks in the Treaty of Fort Jackson (1814) ending the Creek War, the area was first settled by Americans as early as 1817. Many of its . . . — Map (db m111642) HM
Alabama (Barbour County), Louisville — The Battles of Hobdy's Bridge and Pea River — Creek Heritage Trail
The battles of Hobdy's Bridge and Pea River were the result of the desperate attempt of Creeks to avoid removal to the West by fleeing to Florida along trails bordering the Pea and Conecuh Rivers. The battles marked the last large-scale . . . — Map (db m111627) HM
Alabama (Barbour County), Louisville — The Opening of the Second Phase of the Second Creek War — Creek Heritage Trail
The Second Creek War began in May of 1836 when a portion of area Creeks, angry at their treatment in the wake of the Treaty of Cusseta and in desperate circumstances, struck out against American settlements. A series of small battles occurred . . . — Map (db m111618) HM
Alabama (Blount County), Blountsville — Blountsville
1820-1889 seat of Blount County a county older than the State. Named for Tennessee Governor W. G. Blount who sent Andrew Jackson to aid Alabama settlers in Creek Indian War, 1812-1814. Indian Chief Bear Meat lived here at crossing of . . . — Map (db m28038) HM
Alabama (Blount County), Oneonta — Blount CountyA County Older Than the State
Created Feb. 7, 1818 by Alabama Territorial Legislature from lands ceded by the Creek Indian Nation. Named for the Tennessee Governor W. G. Blount, who sent militia under Andrew Jackson to punish the Creeks for Fort Mims massacre. Jackson fought and . . . — Map (db m24353) HM
Alabama (Bullock County), Union Springs — Indian Treaty Boundary Line
The Treaty of Fort Jackson of August 9, 1814, by Major General Andrew Jackson on behalf of the President of the United States of America and the Chiefs, Deputies and Warriors of the Creek Nation, established a boundary line between the Mississippi . . . — Map (db m61025) HM
Alabama (Bullock County), Union Springs — Indian Treaty Boundary Line
The Treaty of Fort Jackson of August 9, 1814, by Major General Andrew Jackson on behalf of the President of the United States of America and the Chiefs, Deputies and Warriors of the Creek Nation, established a boundary line between the Mississippi . . . — Map (db m61026) HM
Alabama (Butler County), Forest Home — The Butler Massacre / Fort Bibb
(obverse) The Butler Massacre On March 20, 1818, Capt. William Butler, Capt. James Saffold, William Gardener, Daniel Shaw and John Hinson left Fort Bibb to meet Col. Sam Dale. They were attacked near Pine Barren Creek by Savannah . . . — Map (db m83259) HM
Alabama (Butler County), Greenville — Butler CountyA County Older Than The State
Side 1 Created in 1819 by Act of Alabama Territorial Legislature from lands ceded by the Creek Indian Nation by the Treaty of Fort Jackson, 1814. Named for Captain William Butler, soldier of Creek Indian War, 1813-14, early settler . . . — Map (db m70755) HM
Alabama (Butler County), Greenville — Ogly-Stroud Massacre / Gary's Stockade
Ogly-Stroud Massacre William Ogly built his cabin near this site at Poplar Springs along the Federal Road, and was killed here with most of his family on March 13, 1818. His friend Eli Stroud's wife was fatally wounded and their infant . . . — Map (db m120933) HM
Alabama (Butler County), Greenville — Pioneer Cemetery
Greenville's oldest, established 1819. Captain William Butler, for whom the county was named, buried here. He was killed fighting Indians led by Savannah Jack in March, 1818. Greenville's oldest church, a community church established in 1822, . . . — Map (db m70751) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Alexandria — Lincoyerand The Battle of Tallasehatchee
At this site, on Nov. 3, 1813, after the Battle of Tallasehatchee, known then as Talluschatches, during the Creek Indian War, Gen. Andrew Jackson found a dead Creek Indian woman embracing her living infant son. Gen. Jackson, upon hearing that . . . — Map (db m36551) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Alexandria — TallasseehatcheeCreek Indian War 1813-14 — Nov. 3, 1813
Gen. John Coffee, commanding 900 Tennessee Volunteers, surrounded Indians nearby; killed some 200 warriors. This was first American victory. It avenged earlier massacre of 517 at Ft. Mims by Indians. — Map (db m27610) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Jacksonville — Chief Ladiga Trail - Jacksonville
The Chief Ladiga Trail was named for a Creek Indian leader who signed the Cusseta Treaty in 1832. Under the terms of that agreement, the Creeks gave up claim to their remaining lands in northeast Alabama. Because he had signed the treaty, Ladiga was . . . — Map (db m36438) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Jacksonville — Jacksonville, Alabama“Gem of the Hills”
Life here has long centered on education beginning in 1834 when a one-acre plot of land was reserved for a schoolhouse. Through the years, various institutions of higher learning developed that culminated into present-day Jacksonville State . . . — Map (db m36429) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Jacksonville — Site of Indian Trading Post
This is the place where one of the original Creek Indian Trading Posts stood in 1830. Ladiga was Chief of the tribe. — Map (db m36483) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Oxford — Historic Oxford
First incorporated as a town, February 7, 1852, in Benton County, Oxford's second incorporation was approved February 21, 1860 in Calhoun County. Long before this territory was “settled”, it was inhabited by Creek Indians. In the time . . . — Map (db m106589) HM
Alabama (Chambers County), LaFayette — Chambers County
Chambers County, created December 18, 1832 from Creek Indian cession. Named for Dr. Henry C. Chambers of Madison County, member of Constitutional Convention 1819, legislature of 1820, elected U.S. Senator 1825 but died enroute to Washington. . . . — Map (db m18162) HM
Alabama (Chambers County), LaFayette — Muscogee Indians
. . . — Map (db m71639) HM
Alabama (Chambers County), Lanett — 141-10 — Ocfuskooche Tallauhassee
A flourishing, ancient town of the Muscogee Indians known as Ocfuskooche Tallahassee (Old Town) stood on this site. English traders from Charles Town visited it about 1685. A trail known as "Old Horse Path" led from this village to the Tallapoosa. . . . — Map (db m36315) HM
Alabama (Cherokee County), Cedar Bluff — Indian Village of Costa
This general area is believed to be the site of the Indian village of Costa visited by DeSoto July 2, 1540. The very old cedar trees may have been here at that time. They are some of the largest in the Southeast. These cedars are among the . . . — Map (db m114988) HM
Alabama (Cherokee County), Centre — Cherokee County's Beginnings
This area had long been home to the Cherokee Indians and the first white settlers did not arrive until the early 1800's. On December 29, 1835, the Cherokees signed a controversial treaty surrendering their lands here to the U.S. Government. A short . . . — Map (db m114840) HM
Alabama (Cherokee County), Centre — Garrett Cemetery
Final resting place of Chief Pathkiller (B. 1749 - D. 1827) who served as principal chief of the Cherokee Nation. Many prominent early settlers are also interred here including newspaper editor and publisher, Confederate infantry captain and . . . — Map (db m114282) HM
Alabama (Cherokee County), Centre — Pathkiller - Childers - Garrett Ferry
Cherokee Chief Pathkiller owned a ferry across the Coosa River at this location in the early 1820's. His home was a short distance on the east side of the river. Upon Pathkiller's death in 1827, John Ride, a prominent Cherokee gained a majority . . . — Map (db m114281) HM
Alabama (Cherokee County), Centre — Turkey Town Council Site
One mile south was an important Indian Council site from about 1707. Named for noted chief, the "Turkey". Here in October 1816, a council of Cherokees, Creeks, and Chickasaws met to settle boundaries and ratify a peace treaty. General Andrew . . . — Map (db m114989) HM
Alabama (Cherokee County), Gaylesville — Barry Springs Indian Stockade
One hundred feet east was one site where "The Trail of Tears" began. On May 23, 1838 the Indians of this general area, who had been held in a chestnut log stockade after being gathered by the U.S. Army, began their long trek to Oklahoma. The . . . — Map (db m114398) HM
Alabama (Cherokee County), Gaylesville — History of Taff, Alabama
Cherokee County established - 1836 Area Cherokee Indians relocated - 1838 Taff Community established - 1842 Community named in honor of Taff family - 1842 Union and Confederate soldiers occupied the area - 1864 Taff post office established . . . — Map (db m114743) HM
Alabama (Clarke County), Bashi — Choctaw Corner
Established by Choctaw and Creek Indians about 1808 as the northern limit of boundary line between their lands. This line begins at the cut-off in South Clarke County, follows the watershed between Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers without crossing . . . — Map (db m83271) HM
Alabama (Clarke County), Claiborne — 93001517 — Dellet-Bedsole PlantationC. 1850 — National Register of Historic Places
This 4000 acre complex has been recognized for its contribution to our understanding of the history of Monroe County and the State of Alabama. Originally developed as a cotton plantation during the Antebellum period, this farm has been in continuous . . . — Map (db m80345) HM
Alabama (Clarke County), Gainestown — Gainestown
Founded in 1809 by George Strother Gaines as Choctaw-Creek Indian Trading Post on Alabama River, now Gainestown Landing. Here lived Alabama Indians for whom State & River named. At Battle of Maubila De Soto's hogs escaped, from whence . . . — Map (db m101609) HM
Alabama (Clarke County), Gainestown — The Canoe Fight
Side 1 On November 12, 1813, the Canoe Fight, one of the key assaults of the Creek War, took place nearby at the mouth of Randon’s Creek where it flows into the Alabama River. Following the Fort Mims Massacre in August, small bands of . . . — Map (db m101574) HM
Alabama (Clarke County), Rockville — Central Salt Works
Here was located the large and important Central Salt Works. Official government reports indicate that salt was being mined at this works as early as 1816, but the Indians had obtained salt here for centuries prior to this. During the blockade of . . . — Map (db m101605) HM
Alabama (Clarke County), Rockville — Gravesite of Major Jeremiah Austill
Side 1 Near this site, is the gravesite of Maj. Jeremiah Austill, folk hero & prominent figure in the early settlement of Clarke County. Born in 1794 in S. C., he lived, along with his parents, Capt. Evan and Sara Austill, among the . . . — Map (db m101588) HM
Alabama (Clarke County), Suggsville — Fort Madison-Creek War 1812-13
This marks the site of pioneer stockade commanded by Captains Sam Dale and Evan Austill. Choctaw Chieftain Pushmattaha often here. Expedition terminating in noted Canoe Fight on Alabama River immediately east of this site, was . . . — Map (db m101566) HM
Alabama (Clarke County), Whatley — Fort Sinquefield
Fort Sinquefield Kimbell - James Massacre Creek War 1812-13 Erected by Clarke County School Children 1931 Lest we forget Hayden and his dogs. — Map (db m115627) HM
Alabama (Clarke County), Whatley — Kimbell - James Massacre←½ mile—
Sept. 1, 1813 Creek Indian War. 1813-14 Part of War of 1812. British used Pensacola as base to arm, incite Indians against U.S.. Prophet Francis led Indians in this raid on Kimbell home. They Killed and scalped 12 of 14 (two survivors . . . — Map (db m47635) HM
Alabama (Clarke County), Whatley — Old Indian Trail
Here passed the Old Indian Trail used as a dividing line between the Choctaw and Creek Tribes. General Andrew Jackson and his troops rested here for the night in 1813. — Map (db m47633) HM
Alabama (Clarke County), Whatley — Old Line Road
Commences at the Cut-Off, or the first high ground in that vicinity, follows the watershed between the Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers, and ends at Choctaw Corner. Established in 1808 by the Creek and Choctaw Indians as the dividing line between their . . . — Map (db m47628) HM
Alabama (Clarke County), Whatley — Whatley, Alabama
Front Originally home to Creek and Choctaw Indians, Whatley was first settled by pioneers about 1808. Some of the most famous events in Clarke County’s history happened in or near Whatley. A Creek War battle occurred here in 1812 at Fort . . . — Map (db m110971) HM
Alabama (Clay County), Ashland — Clay County and the Creek Indian War of 1813-14 / Clay County and the Creek Indian Confederacy
Side 1 Clay County and the Creek Indian War of 1813-14 During the Creek Indian War of 1813-14, a subset of the War of 1812 with England, numerous figures prominent in American history marched over what would become Clay . . . — Map (db m95100) HM
Alabama (Clay County), Goodwater — Battle of EnitachopkoCreek Indian War 1813-14. — ← 4 mi. E.
Hostile Creeks attacked Andrew Jackson, withdrawing to Ft. Strother, Jan. 24, 1814. His troops broke through lines, kept on to Ft. Strother. But Creeks boasted that they defeated 'Capt. Jack', drove him to the Coosa. — Map (db m95076) HM
Alabama (Cleburne County), Muscadine — Hernando de Soto in Alabama
The De Soto Trail Hernando De Soto in Alabama Hernando de Soto brought his 700-man army to Alabama in the fall of 1540. This was the first major European expedition to the interior of the southeastern United States. The De Soto . . . — Map (db m114373) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Cherokee — A Chickasaw PlanterNatchez Trace Parkway
During the early 1800s, a slave-owning planter class including George Colbert’s family, emerged among the Chickasaw. George’s success stemmed from a variety of endeavors. He fought with the Americans against the Shawnee and Creeks, traveled to . . . — Map (db m107261) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Cherokee — Bridging CulturesNatchez Trace Parkway
Here, near the bubbling waters of Buzzard Roost Spring, Levi Colbert (Itawamba Minko, “Bench Chief”) built one of the many inns—called stands—along the Natchez Trace. But it was Colbert’s negotiating and language skills . . . — Map (db m107265) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Cherokee — Chickasaw HospitalityNatchez Trace Parkway
George Colbert's stand sat atop the ridge before you. As one of many inns that dotted the Trace between Nashville and Natchez, it provided travelers with food and lodging. With a Scottish father and Chickasaw mother, George Colbert used his . . . — Map (db m107260) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Cherokee — Safe CrossingNatchez Trace Parkway
In the early 1800s, ferries like the one George Colbert ran near here on the Tennessee River linked segments of the Natchez Trace. Ferries carried people across the river—for a fee. Post riders, Kaintucks, military troops, casual travelers, . . . — Map (db m107258) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Cherokee — Something to Chew onNatchez Trace Parkway
Inns, or stands, provided occasional shelter for travelers along the Natchez Trace. These stands offered flood to eat and food for thought: local news, information, and ideas. The ever-changing mix of diverse populations—whites, American . . . — Map (db m107263) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Cherokee — Trace TravelersNatchez Trace Parkway
Frontier America once walked along the Natchez Trace. The Chickasaw and Choctaw used the Trace for transportation and trade. After 1801, with tribal permission, post riders who rode the Trace connected isolated settlements in Mississippi and . . . — Map (db m107257) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Muscle Shoals — Natural and Cultural Preservation/Protecting Resources
Natural and Cultural Preservation TVA is fully committed to protecting our natural and cultural resources. And nowhere is that more evident than right here at Wilson Dam. Here, the 25-acre Old First quarters Small Wild Area showcases the . . . — Map (db m106189)
Alabama (Colbert County), Sheffield — History of Sheffield
Side A Prehistoric man arrived in this area bout 10,000 years ago. Later Indian cultures left many stone artifacts and pottery vessels. In the 1780s, a French trading post and Indian village were located near the mouth of Spring Creek. . . . — Map (db m83389) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Tuscumbia — American Indian History
Side 1 Oka Kapassa (Ococoposa), meaning "Cold Water", was the Chickasaw name given to Spring Creek and to a trading post established near the Tennessee River about 1780. About 1817, Michael Dickerson and others were greeted at what by . . . — Map (db m83393) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Tuscumbia — History of Tuscumbia, Alabama
(Obverse): The area around the Big Spring was inhabited by prehistoric Native Americans as early as 10,000 years ago. The first settlement was a French trading post and Indian village about 1780 on Cold Water Creek (Spring Creek) near the . . . — Map (db m83396) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Tuscumbia — Sacred TearsBy Branko Medenica — September 19, 2003
Panel 1 Tuscumbia and much of the Shoals area played an integral part in the "Trail of Tears" with the Tennessee River route and the overland routes. In 1825, the U.S. Government formally adopted a removal policy, which was carried out . . . — Map (db m83403) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Tuscumbia — Tuscumbia Big Spring
Big Spring (average daily flow 35,000,000 gallons) provided water for town founded on its banks. Michael Dickson of Tennessee was first settler (about 1817). Town laid out in 1819 and incorporated as Ococoposo (Cold Water, 1820). Name changed to . . . — Map (db m83453) HM
Alabama (Conecuh County), Bermuda — Old Federal Road
Near Bermuda was the home of Jeremiah Austill, who won fame in the canoe fight on the Alabama River during the Creek Indian War. His first wife, Sarah, died of injuries from falling off a fence during an Indian raid. — Map (db m81280) HM
Alabama (Conecuh County), Evergreen — City of EvergreenThe Emerald City
Side 1 Evergreen, the county seat of Conecuh County, is located in the central part of the county on the Louisville & Nashville Railroad. Founded in 1819 by James Cosey, George Andrews and the Clough Brothers, Evergreen was originally . . . — Map (db m81287) HM
Alabama (Conecuh County), Midway — Midway
Midway was one of the first settlements established in Conecuh County along the Post Road which later became the Old Federal Road. Long serving as a hub for Indian trails branching out to the north, northeast and northwest, the Midway town site once . . . — Map (db m81277) HM
Alabama (Covington County), Florala — Lake Jackson
Andrew Jackson in Seminole War with an army of 1200 camped here in May 1818 enroute westward from Fort Gadsden to subdue marauding Indians abetted by Spaniards at Pensacola. Jackson determined to seize Pensacola . . . — Map (db m99237) HM
Alabama (Dale County), Daleville — Daleville, Alabama
Daleville, originally called Dale, was the county seat of Dale County from 1831-1841. William Harper was probate judge of Dale County, which was originally included in present-day Coffee County until 1841, present-day Geneva County until 1868, and . . . — Map (db m41145) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Beloit — Cahawba
Site of Alabama's first permanent capital 1820-26. County seat Dallas County, 1820-66. Prison for Union soldiers during the War Between the States 1863-65. Indians were the first inhabitants over 4000 years ago. Their large fortified village could . . . — Map (db m75779) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Cahaba — Cahawba - circa 1500
Two Ghost Towns? Long before Cahawba was built as Alabama's first state capital, there was another village at this location. Just like Cahawba, it thrived for about 50 years, then disappeared. About the year 1500 a group of . . . — Map (db m112450) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Ecor Bienville1702-1743 — The first recorded name of Selma
. . . — Map (db m37658) HM
Alabama (DeKalb County), Fort Payne — Cherokee Indian Removal
Under the provisions of the Cherokee Removal Act of 1830, a log stockade was built, “Two hundred yards Northeast of Big Spring.” The spring supplied abundant water for the Cherokees, the soldiers and livestock. Fort Payne was used as . . . — Map (db m36743) HM
Alabama (DeKalb County), Fort Payne — Fort Payne Cabin Historic Site
In 1837 Federal Troops arrived in this area to select a fort location for the collection, holding and removal of the Cherokee. Part of a much larger compound, this site contained a cabin seized by the troops for use as part of the fort. Today a . . . — Map (db m100286) HM
Alabama (DeKalb County), Fort Payne — Fort Payne’s Fort
The fort, consisting of a log house and large stockade, was built in 1838 by order of General Winfield Scott, commander of military forces responsible for the removal of Cherokee Indians. Soldiers occupying the fort were commanded by Captain . . . — Map (db m28030) HM
Alabama (DeKalb County), Fort Payne — Sequoyah(1760-1843)
Born in Tennessee, Sequoyah moved to Wills Town (DeKalb County, Alabama) area of the Cherokee Nation in 1818. Here, in 1821, he invented an 86 symbol alphabet providing the Cherokees with the only written Indian language in the United States. . . . — Map (db m28033) HM
Alabama (DeKalb County), Fort Payne — Site of the Willstown Mission1823-1839
Also resting place of Supt Ard Hoyt 1770-1828 Missionary to the Cherokee Indians Here and at Brainerd 1818-1828 — Map (db m36965) HM
Alabama (DeKalb County), Fort Payne — Trail of TearsJohn Benge Route — Fort Payne, Alabama to Oklahoma
(side 1) The first detachment of 1,103 Cherokees to emigrate under their own officers, prior to leaving for the west held a final council at Rattlesnake Springs (near present-day Charleston, TN) and, by unanimous vote, declared their . . . — Map (db m113846) HM
Alabama (DeKalb County), Fort Payne — Wills Town Mission
The mission was established in 1823 by the American Board of Missions to further education and Christianity among the Cherokee Indians. Mission operated until the Indian removal in 1838. Grave site of Reverend Ard Hoyt, first superintendent, . . . — Map (db m28035) HM
Alabama (DeKalb County), Valley Head — Site of Cherokee Council Tree
Here stood The giant Black Spanish Oak Under which Traditionally Sequoyah Taught his newly invented Alphabet Tree felled by a storm 1934 — Map (db m28036) HM
Alabama (Elmore County), Millbrook — Robinson Springs Neighborhood
Side 1: Clear, bubbling springs have enticed people to this vicinity for thousands of years. Native American hunting paths led to them and after the defeat of the Creek Indians by the United States in 1813, old trails became the Jackson and . . . — Map (db m71177) HM
Alabama (Elmore County), Tallassee — Tukabatchee / Tokvpvcce
(north side) Tukabatchee On this bend of the Tallapoosa River, stretching out before you, lay one of the ancient towns of the Muscogee Creek People, called Tukabatchee. Tukabatchee is one of the original four mother towns of the . . . — Map (db m92945) HM
Alabama (Elmore County), Wetumpka — Here Stood Fort Toulouse
Here stood Fort Toulouse A defense against the Indians Built by Bienville 1714 The Alabama Society of Colonial Dames preserves the memory of faithful service 1912 — Map (db m69567) HM
Alabama (Elmore County), Wetumpka — Wetumpka Historical Marker
(obverse) The land area which now comprises the City of Wetumpka was inhabited by various Indian cultures prior to the inward migration of the white man at the turn of the 19th century. The largest Indian village near here was located on . . . — Map (db m67936) HM
Alabama (Escambia County), East Brewton — Site of Fort Crawford
 Fort Crawford was established in 1816 by elements of the 7th U.S. Infantry under orders from Major General Andrew Jackson. Purpose was to monitor Spanish activities in West Florida and curtail hostile Creek Indian activities.  Named after . . . — Map (db m84373) HM
Alabama (Etowah County), Attalla — “The Junction”Attalla
For thousands of years, two important Indian trade routes ran across what was to become Etowah County. The “High Town Path” ran from Charlestown, S.C. west to the Mississippi River, near Memphis, TN. The “Creek Path” begins . . . — Map (db m39226) HM
Alabama (Etowah County), Gadsden — The Legend Of Noccalula
White settlers in the hills of Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, and South Carolina pushed the Cherokee Indian tribes into North Alabama. The Cherokee in turn encroached upon Creek Territory. There were sporadic battles between the . . . — Map (db m83738) HM
Alabama (Etowah County), Gadsden — Turkey Town MonumentChief Turkey-Turkey Town Valley Expedition-May We Never Forget
The surrounding area and this well was part of Turkey’s Town, once a capital of the proud Cherokee Nation. Chief Turkey was the principal chief during the late 1700’s. On October 25, 1864, the Turkey Town Valley Expedition of the XV Corps Union . . . — Map (db m83740) HM
Alabama (Greene County), Eutaw — Welcome to Eutaw, Alabama: The Gateway To The Black BeltCounty Seat of Greene County
In 1838, Greene County citizens voted to change the town seat from Erie to Eutaw. The City of Eutaw, Alabama was incorporated as a town by an act of the State Legislature on January 2, 1841. Greene County had been named for General Nathaniel Greene. . . . — Map (db m83752) HM
Alabama (Hale County), Moundville — Moundville
Site of a prehistoric Native American political and ceremonial center from about A. D. 1100-1500 that, at its height in the 13th century, was America’s largest community north of Mexico. Between 1,000 and 3,000 people lived in this town fortified by . . . — Map (db m30700) HM
Alabama (Henry County), Screamer — Indian Treaty Boundary Line
The Treaty of Fort Jackson on August 9, 1814 by Major General Andrew Jackson on behalf of the President of the United States of America and the Chiefs, Deputies and Warriors of the Creek Indian Nation, established a boundary line between the . . . — Map (db m71836) HM
Alabama (Henry County), Screamer — Indian Treaty Boundary Line
The Treaty of Fort Jackson on August 9, 1814 by Major General Andrew Jackson on behalf of the President of the United States of America and the Chiefs, Deputies and Warriors of the Creek Indian Nation, established a boundary line between the . . . — Map (db m71838) HM
Alabama (Henry County), Shorterville — "Irwin Empire"
Site of the 1831 Irwin homeplace where over 50,000 acres of land was owned by Major General William Irwin (1794-1850). He was an Indian fighter, farmer, politician, statesman and considered one of the nation’s richest and most influential men. A . . . — Map (db m71824) HM
Alabama (Henry County), Shorterville — Franklin - First Beachhead into East Alabama
The frontier village of Franklin was established here by Colonel Robert Irwin in 1814 on the site of the Indian town of Cheeska Talofa. It was the first colonial village in east Alabama. Fort Gaines, Georgia, was constructed in 1816 to protect the . . . — Map (db m71844) HM
Alabama (Houston County), Columbia — Omussee Creek Mound and Mississippian Period Societies — Creek Heritage Trail
Near where you stand lies Omussee Creek Mound, the southernmost platform mound along the Chattahoochee River, occupied approximately 1300 to 1550 A.D. as part of an important Native American settlement. This region of southeastern Alabama and . . . — Map (db m115032) HM
Alabama (Houston County), Columbia — Omussee Creek Mound and the Ancestors of the Creeks — Creek Heritage Trail
We do not know the exact date that residents of the community of which Omussee Creek Mound was a part abandoned the mound, but by around 1550 it was definitely in decline. Many believe this may have been part of a broader, regional depopulation due . . . — Map (db m115034) HM
Alabama (Houston County), Columbia — The Chacato People — Creek Heritage Trail
The original builders of the Omussee Creek mound had abandoned the site by around 1550, but the area continued to be occupied by Native American groups well into the early nineteenth century. As early as the 1630s, Spanish missionaries from . . . — Map (db m115037) HM
Alabama (Houston County), Dothan — Poplar Head Spring
Located near this marker is the Poplar Head Spring which served as a meeting place for Indian traders prior to the arrival of the white and black settlers. The Alibamu Indians of the Chattahoochee River basin met the Creeks of the Choctawahatchee . . . — Map (db m41141) HM
Alabama (Jackson County), Rocky Springs — Trail of Tears
In May 1838 soldiers, under the command of U.S. Army General Winfield Scott, began rounding up Cherokee Indians in this area who had refused to move to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. About 16,000 Cherokees were placed in stockades in . . . — Map (db m18047) HM
Alabama (Jackson County), Stevenson — Crow Town
Side A One of the Five Lower Towns established by the Chickamauga Cherokees in 1782 under the leadership of Dragging Canoe. Territorial Governor William Blount reported to the Secretary of War in 1792 that: “Crow Town lies on the north . . . — Map (db m28473) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Before Birmingham: Jones Valley
Red Mountain, where you are standing, and Jones Valley, which stretches before you, were sites of human activity long before Birmingham's founding in 1871. Native American presence Recorded history and archaeological evidence indicate the . . . — Map (db m83805) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — East Lake Community
The Creek Indian Cession of 1814 opened this section of Alabama to settlement. At the time of statehood in 1819 many pioneer families had located here in what later became known as Jones Valley. By 1820 the area was called Ruhama Valley as a result . . . — Map (db m26680) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Center Star — Center (Centre) Star
(side 1) Center Star was spelled Centre Star into the 1900s. The name evolved from the US Postal Service, which served remote areas by "star routes." The Post Office here, which existed from 1850 to 1914 (except between 1902 and 1913), . . . — Map (db m82398) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Andrew Jackson's Military Road-1817-
Construction of this road, as ordered by General Andrew Jackson, began in May 1817 by troops of the U.S. Army for national defense purposes. Beginning near Nashville, Tennessee and continuing to Madison, Louisiana, it shortened the distance from . . . — Map (db m80321) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Cherokee Chief Doublehead's village around 1800
About 1800 Doublehead located his village at this site, where his brother-in-law Tahlonteeskee had previously lived. Doublehead's log house was built along the same style of those of the white settlers. Chief Doublehead had previously led raids . . . — Map (db m83942) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Driven Up The WatersNatchez Trace Parkway
The Trail of Tears led groups of Cherokee up the Tennessee River here. The Cherokee are one of southeastern tribes who were relocated to Oklahoma due to the US Indian removal policy in the 1830s. During removal, most Cherokee went by land, but . . . — Map (db m107267) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Prehistoric Mound(Probably Built Between 100 B.C and 400 A.D.)
This is the highest domiciliary mound in the Tennessee Valley. It was probably built between 100 B.C. and 400 A.D. by a prehistoric people of the ancient Woodland Culture. Such mounds served as bases for ceremonial temples or chief's houses. This . . . — Map (db m28457) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Prehistoric Native Americans / Historic Native Americans(Circa 8,000 B.C. ~1500 A.D.) / (Circa 1550 A.D.~ 1816 A.D.)
Side A This area near the mouth of Cypress Creek was inhabited by Archaic People as early as 8,000 B.C. Their main food consisted of freshwater mollusks from the river. (These mussels were the origin of the name "Muscle Shoals.") The . . . — Map (db m84044) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Rogersville — Heritage Park
Side A The settlement of what is now eastern Lauderdale County (known as "Over Elk)" by non-Native Americans commenced by 1807. Federal land sales were held in Huntsville during the spring of 1818. Although much of the land was described . . . — Map (db m84296) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Rogersville — Lamb’s Ferry Road
(Side 1) From about 1775 until his death on August 9, 1807, Chickamauga Cherokee Chief Doublehead controlled the Muscle Shoals of the Tennessee River. Two major Indian trails, Sipsie Trail and an east-west trail, intersected in the . . . — Map (db m99972) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Waterloo — Trail of Tears
Thousands of Cherokee Indians passed through Waterloo in the 1830s when they were forced by the U.S. government to move West on the "Trail of Tears". Most came by boat from Tuscumbia and camped here to await transfer to larger steamboats. During the . . . — Map (db m84301) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Moulton — A County Older Than The StateLawrence County
Created by Territorial Legislature in 1818 from lands ceded by Cherokee and Chickasaw Indians Named for U.S, Navy hero of War of 1812 Capt. James Lawrence Fatally wounded, his famous command was "Don't Give Up The Ship" County . . . — Map (db m69672) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Moulton — Warrior Mountains
This area was the home to Indians, settlers, people of mixed ancestry and their descendants. Local bluff shelters contain evidence of occupation from Paleo Indian (10,000 BC) through the Mississippian Period (1540 AD). Chief Tuscaloosa (Black . . . — Map (db m84313) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Oakville — Cherokee Council House Museum
The Oakville Indian Mounds Museum is based on a seven sided Cherokee council house. This type of council house was used during the cooler months and an open sided rectangular pavilion during warmer weather. The descriptions used for the museum's . . . — Map (db m84314) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Oakville — Cherokee Indian Removal
In the early 1800's Cherokees of this area were under the leadership of Doublehead and Tahlonteskee. After Doublehead's assassination in 1807, Tahlonteskee notified President Jefferson that he and his people were ready to move west. In 1808 . . . — Map (db m36030) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Oakville — Copena Burial Mound
Copena Indians built this mound with baskets of dirt some 2000 years ago. The Copena name was derived from their use of copper and galena (lead ore) found in their burials along with gorgets and celts. The mounds were a burial site with the dead . . . — Map (db m84315) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Oakville — Creek Indian Removal
Black Warriors' Path played a critical role as a route for Creek Removal. On December 19, 1835, some 511 Creek emigrants passed along the path through present ~ day Oakville Indian Mounds Park. In September 1836, a group of Creeks left Tallassee in . . . — Map (db m36027) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Oakville — Doublehead
Doublehead, (c1744-1807), aka Dsugweladegi or Chuqualatague, was the son of Great Eagle (Willenawah) and grandson of Moytoy. Among his siblings were Pumpkin Boy, Old Tassel and the unnamed grandmother of Sequoyah. After his sister's son John Watts . . . — Map (db m84316) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Oakville — Historic Indians
Five Historic Indian tribes lived in this area. By 1701, The Yuchi were living at the shoals on the Tennessee River. In early 1700s the Yuchi left, some moving to the Cherokee Nation on the Hiwassee River, TN and others to Chattahoochee River, GA. . . . — Map (db m36040) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Oakville — Oakville Indian Mound
Rising 27 feet high, this is the largest woodland mound in Alabama, with a base covering 1.8 acres and a flat top of over one acre. Built by prehistoric Copena Indians, the mound is 2,000 years old and constructed from earth probably carried one . . . — Map (db m84317) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Oakville — Town of Oakville
Based on the large number of local mounds and artifacts, this site shows evidence of Indian occupation over 2000 years ago. According to tradition about 1780, Oakville became a Cherokee town located on Black Warriors' Path. By the early 1820's, . . . — Map (db m36036) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Town Creek — Trail of Tears
Form the late 1700's to 1807 a Cherokee Chief named Doublehead guarded this area, that was claimed by both the Cherokee and Chickasaw Nations as sacred hunting grounds against encroachment of white settlers. Chief Doublehead had the reputation of . . . — Map (db m84646) HM
Alabama (Lee County), Auburn — Auburn - Alabama
Settled by Judge J. J. Harper and others from Harris County, Georgia, in 1836. This region was opened to settlement in 1836-37 by the removal of the Creek Indians to lands west of the Mississippi River. Erected by The Alabama . . . — Map (db m39830) HM
Alabama (Lee County), Cusseta — Fort CussetaChambers County
Following the signing of the Creek Treaty in 1832, the early white settlers constructed a 16 by 30 foot hand hewn log fort for protection against a possible Indian uprising from Cussetaw Indian Village on Osanippa Creek just north of here. Walls of . . . — Map (db m71643) HM
Alabama (Lee County), Loachapoka — Loachapoka Historic District
One of the larger settlements of the Upper Creeks at the time of Indian removal to the west, 1835-1837. Their last council fire was held here before their forced migration to Oklahoma. Pioneer families began pouring in after 1836. Today's cemetery . . . — Map (db m85169) HM
Alabama (Limestone County), Athens — A County Older Than the StateLimestone County
created Feb. 6, 1818 by Alabama Territorial Legislature from lands ceded by Cherokee Nation 1806 and by Chickasaw Nation in 1816. Named for creek (and its limestone bed), which runs through county. Few settlers here until Indian treaties. Athens . . . — Map (db m29109) HM
Alabama (Limestone County), Athens — Lucy's Branch/Legacy of The Little Elk Community
Lucy's Branch This site is named for Lucy Bedingfield, daughter of a slave and a Cherokee Indian. She was born 1832, and her Indian name was Finch. She married Meredith Bedingfield, a slave and had 9 children. Lucy was an astute and avid . . . — Map (db m85421) HM
Alabama (Limestone County), Athens — Round Island Baptist Church
Side A A church older than the county and state. First meeting house built in the fall of 1816, on Indian land, a few miles south of here along Round Island Creek. The first Govt. Land sales were in Feb. 1818 after treaties with the . . . — Map (db m85422) HM
Alabama (Limestone County), Elkmont — Sims Settlement
Side A (North side) In the fall of 1806 a group of settlers led by William and James Sims, traveled from east Tennessee on flatboats down the Tennessee River and up the Elk River to this area. They landed near Buck Island and spread out . . . — Map (db m85454) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Franklin — Franklin's Educational Legacy
(obverse) Franklin School, originally constructed on this lot, was in operation as early as the 1890s teaching grades 1-11. By the mid 1930s, it was downsized to grades 1-6. There were northern and southern classrooms adjoined by a common . . . — Map (db m68028) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Shorter — George Stiggins1788-1845
Unmarked grave in Cubahatchie Baptist Church Cemetery. Half-blooded Creek Indian, planter, soldier, Indian agent, and historian, Stiggins lived on a nearby farm fronting the Federal Road from 1831 until his death. There he wrote "A . . . — Map (db m60534) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Shorter — Shorter, AlabamaA New Town in an Older Community
Shorter was originally called Cross Keys for the birthplace in South Carolina of an early settler, J.H. Howard. It was later named Shorter for former Alabama Governor John Gill Shorter. The town embodies the memories of the proud Creek Indian . . . — Map (db m85463) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Brownsboro — Trail of TearsDrane/Hood Overland Route
In May 1838 soldiers, under the command of U.S. Army General Winfield Scott, began rounding up Cherokee Indians in this area who had refused to move to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. About 16,000 Cherokees were placed in stockades in Tennessee and . . . — Map (db m33318) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Fisk — 2F3 — Tennessee / AlabamaLincoln County /
Tennessee. Lincoln County. Established 1809; named in honor of MAJOR GEN. BENJAMIN LINCOLN of the Revolutionary Army. After service at Saratoga, he was put in Chief Command in the Southern Colonies. Later, he was Secretary of War under the . . . — Map (db m30570) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Andrew Jackson
On this spot, camped his army, October 11, 1813, after marching from Fayetteville, Tenn.,~"32 miles without halting,"~ enroute to the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. — Map (db m30382) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Buffalo SoldiersHuntsville, AL
(south side) After the Civil War, the future of African-Americans in the United States Army was in doubt. In July 1866, Congress passed legislation establishing two cavalry and four infantry regiments to be made up of African-American . . . — Map (db m75092) HM WM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Camp Beaty Brahan Spring Park
(side 1) Brahan Spring Park, formerly Beaty's Spring, was the site of Camp Beaty, the encampment of Andrew Jackson's army of volunteers and militia after their celebrated non-stop march of "32 miles in 5 hours" from Fayetteville, Tennessee . . . — Map (db m105131) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Madison County
Made a county in 1808 by order of Governor of Mississippi Territory. Area ceded 1805, 1806 by Cherokees, Chickasaws. This was the first land in Alabama ceded by these great civilized tribes. — Map (db m27848) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Madison — Trail of TearsDrane Overland Route
Early in the 1800's gold was found from Virginia to Alabama including a rich belt on Cherokee Indian land in what is now Dahlonega, GA. causing a huge influx of miners and a land grab by new settlers. Pressure and greed from politicians led to . . . — Map (db m85838) HM
Alabama (Marengo County), Demopolis — White Bluff
Composed of limestone or “Selma chalk” which abounds in fossils. Called “Ecor Blanc” by eighteenth-century French explorers and cartographers. Named “Chickasaw Gallery” because early Indian inhabitants . . . — Map (db m38001) HM
Alabama (Marion County), Hamilton — Hamilton, Alabama
Side 1 Hamilton was established on November 17, 1882 and was named in honor of Capt. Albert James Hamilton. Hamilton was first known as "Toll Gate," named for a toll gate on the Jackson Military Road. The original county seat of Marion . . . — Map (db m96479) HM
Alabama (Marshall County), Arab — Bear Meat Cabin Road
Starting as an ancient Indian trail, the north–south road through Arab in 1816 was known as Bear Meat Cabin Road. By 1818, it had become an important Federal trade route through the Alabama Territory known as the St. Stephens – . . . — Map (db m40134) HM
Alabama (Marshall County), Guntersville — History of Guntersville
(Side A) This area's proximity to the Tennessee River and Indian trails made it a crossroads for early habitation, settlement, and trade. Archaeological studies reveal it was first inhabited about 12,000 years ago by Paleo-Indians. They . . . — Map (db m33305) HM
Alabama (Mobile County), Chickasaw — City of Chickasaw
Front The name Chickasaw originated from Native Americans living in the area prior to the arrival of the French settlement at Twenty-Seven Mile Bluff in 1702. Native Americans from the Apalachee and Choctaw Tribes referred to the creek . . . — Map (db m111286) HM
Alabama (Mobile County), Dauphin Island — Dauphin Island Indian Shell Mound Park
This park and bird refuge dates from the Mississippian Period (AD 1100 to 1550). Native Americans, who roasted oysters and fished in adjacent Dauphin Island Bay, visited the shell mounds for centuries. From excavations carried out in 1990, . . . — Map (db m122350) HM
Alabama (Mobile County), Mobile — John Forbes & Co.
Here stood in Spanish times, the great Indian trading house of John Forbes & Co. — Map (db m86435) HM
Alabama (Mobile County), Mobile — The Cathedral-Basilica of the Immaculate Conception
(front side) The origin of this Cathedral was established on July 20, 1703, by Jean-Baptiste de La Croix de Chevrieres de Saint Vallier, Bishop of Quebec at Fort Louis de la Mobile, the city’s first permanent settlement. The Bishop also . . . — Map (db m117245) HM
Alabama (Mobile County), Mt. Vernon — Mt. Vernon Arsenal and Barracks/Searcy Hospital
(obverse) Mt. Vernon Arsenal and Barracks Established 1828 by Congress to store arms and munitions for U. S. Army. Original structures completed 1830's. Arsenal appropriated by Confederacy 1861; equipment moved to Selma . . . — Map (db m70593) HM
Alabama (Mobile County), Mt. Vernon — Mt. Vernon Federal Highway
In 1811, the Mount Vernon Cantonment, located on a hill about three miles west of the Mobile River, was laid out by Col. Thomas H. Cushing. The cantonment was on the site of a spring called Mount Vernon Springs. In 1814, the garrison at Mt. Vernon . . . — Map (db m85911) HM
Alabama (Monroe County), Burnt Corn — Old Federal RoadBurnt Corn
Burnt Corn, Monroe County's earliest settlement, became the crossroads of the Great Pensacola Trading Path and The Federal Road. Settler Jim Cornells returned from Pensacola in 1813, finding his home destroyed and his wife kidnapped by a Creek . . . — Map (db m47687) HM
Alabama (Monroe County), Perdue Hill — Fort ClaiborneCreek Indian War 1813-1814
Built by Gen. Ferdinand L. Claiborne as a base for his invasion of the Alabama country with U.S. Regulars, Lower Tombigbee Militia, and friendly Choctaws. Claiborne’s campaign culminated in the American victory over the Creeks at the Holy Ground. — Map (db m47641) HM
Alabama (Monroe County), Perdue Hill — Piache
Piache, an Indian town visited by DeSoto in 1540 was near here. DeLuna made a settlement here, Nanipacna in 1560. Fort Claiborne was erected on the south bluff, in 1813. LaFayette was entertained here, 1825. . . . — Map (db m47639) HM
Alabama (Monroe County), Uriah — Creek Indian Removal
Little River was the home of Creek Chief William Weatherford, also known as War Chief Red Eagle. This was the area of much discussion and debate, bringing the Creeks into the War of 1812 and the Creek Civil War of 1813-1814. These events weighed . . . — Map (db m86271) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — Site of Indian Town Tawasa1540-1814
This stone marks the site of the Indian town Tawasa Visited by De Soto September 5-13-1540 Also by Bienville 1715 — Map (db m72176) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Alabama River: The Grand Avenue
Twelve miles above Montgomery the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers unite to form the Alabama which meanders over four hundred miles on its way to Mobile Bay. This river has played major role in region's history, being a thoroughfare for Native Americans, . . . — Map (db m26591) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Augusta and the Old Augusta CemeteryCirca 1819
Augusta, home of Old Augusta Cemetery, was built on the site of a former Indian village, “Sawanogi,” on high ground close to the Tallapoosa River. In 1824 a disastrous flood swept over the plateau, invading shops and residences. A year . . . — Map (db m68260) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Encanchata
Here at the Indian village of Encanchata, future site of Montgomery, Col. John Tate, last British agent to the Muscogee Nation, recruited and drilled Creek warriors in 1780 to relieve Tories in Augusta, Ga. being besieged by American patriots. — Map (db m71373) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Struggle For Colonial Empire
Here on May 24, 1703, Alabama Indians ambushed the first French explorers from Mobile, killing three and wounding two critically. The Indians were armed and were used as pawns by British agents from Carolina in the European struggle for dominion . . . — Map (db m67999) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Pintlala — The Federal Road / Manac's Tavern
Side 1 The Federal Road The 1803 Louisiana Purchase acquired 828,000 sq. mi. for the U.S., doubling its size. The Federal Road was built to provide a shorter route from Washington to New Orleans and the new territory. The Treaty . . . — Map (db m71535) HM
Alabama (Morgan County), Decatur — A County Older Than The State, Morgan County
Alabama Territorial Legislature created this county in 1818 from lands ceded by Cherokee Indians in 1816. County first named Cotaco, for large creek in county. Named Morgan County in 1821 for Maj. Gen. Daniel Morgan, Revolutionary hero, winner over . . . — Map (db m27759) HM
Alabama (Pike County), Banks — Hobdy's Bridge: Last Indian Battles in Alabama
The Second Creek War of 1836 broke out when many Creek Indians resisted forced removal after an 1832 treaty ceded the last of their tribal lands in Alabama. As hostility increased between white settlers pouring into the area and Creeks who were . . . — Map (db m111577) HM
Alabama (Pike County), Troy — The Great Pensacola Trading Path
In the early 1800s, south Alabama was still inhabited by many groups of Native Americans: Creek, Chickasaw, and Choctaw among others. They traveled, hunted, traded, and made war on the many ancient trails here. European settlers improved these roads . . . — Map (db m95359) HM
Alabama (Randolph County), Rock Mills — Wehadkee Yarn Mills
Near this site soon after Threat of Cusseta 1832, Peter A. Hogg built a grist mill on Wehadkee Creek, named for local Indian tribe. Settlement first called Prothro's Mill for James Prothro, who, with John McPherson, obtained a U.S. land patent in . . . — Map (db m118127) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — Archaeology And Our Understanding of the Creek People — Creek Heritage Trail
Archaeology is the scientific study of the past through analysis of physical traces of daily life discovered through excavation. It enables us to extend our knowledge of human history beyond the limits of written records and to learn details about . . . — Map (db m101816) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — Asbury School and Mission1 Mile North of Ft. Mitchell
In September 1821 Rev. William Capers was sent to Fort Mitchell, by the South Carolina Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, to negotiate with the chiefs of the Creek Indian Nations for a mission which would teach their children reading, . . . — Map (db m26121) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — Creek TownsCreek Heritage Trail — Historic Chattahoochee Commission
Creek Towns At its height, the Creek Nation consisted of about 20,000 people living in more than seventy townships, or talwas (tvlwv), scattered throughout modern-day Alabama and Georgia. Creek townships commonly consisted of a primary . . . — Map (db m120007) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — Cultural Exchange and CooperationCreek Heritage Trail — Historic Chattahoochee Commission
Cultural Exchange and Cooperation Though significant cultural conflict characterized Creek-American relations in the Chattahoochee Valley, and Creeks faced numerous forms of exploitation, not all relationships between Creeks and settlers were . . . — Map (db m120019) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — Fort Mitchell<----- 5 miles -----
Built during Creek War 1813 by Georgia Militia on main Indian trade route to Tombigbee River U.S. Troops stationed here until 1837 1836 Lower Creeks corralled here for forced removal to the West — Map (db m26069) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — Fort Mitchell
Fort Mitchell Fort Mitchell is located on the Federal Road on the West bank overlooking the Chattahoochee River. General John Floyd received orders from Governor David B. Mitchell to pick up supplies, cross the Chattahoochee River and . . . — Map (db m120003) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — Fort Mitchell and Creek Removal — Creek Heritage Trail
Fort Mitcheli served as a primary point of concentration for creeks being sent westward to Indian Territory before, during, and after the Second Creek War (1836-1837). By the terms of the 1832 Treaty of Washington, Creek heads of household and . . . — Map (db m101840) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — Fort Mitchell Military Cemetery
This military graveyard was established soon after Fort Mitchell was built by General John Floyd of the Georgia Militia. Located just south of the stockade, the cemetery was used between 1813 and 1840 during the fort's occupation by Georgia and . . . — Map (db m26122) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — Indian Ball Ground
The most popular game among the Indians of this region was "stick ball." This field has been constructed so that the game may be enjoyed again in the Chattahoochee Valley where it was played for hundreds of years. Sometimes known as "little brother . . . — Map (db m26020) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — J.W. and Ethel I. Woodruff Foundation Interpretive Trail
Native plants played a significant role in the daily life of the Creek Indian civilization that inhabited the Chattahoochee Valley until relocation to Oklahoma in the 19th century. During the Woodland Period, the local inhabitants were skilled . . . — Map (db m48166) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — John Crowell
Near here is the site where John Crowell lived, died, and is interred. Colonel Crowell was born in Halifax County, North Carolina, on September 18, 1780; moved to Alabama in 1815, having been appointed as Agent of the United States to the . . . — Map (db m26116) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — Pokkecheta, or the Ball Play — Creek Heritage Trail
Pokkecheta, or the ball play, was an ancient and vital part of the social life of the Creeks and a popular game among many groups of Southeastern Indians. The game enhanced interaction between towns and provided highly ritualized sport and . . . — Map (db m101817) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — Removal of the Creeks
Side 1 The Creek Indians and their neighbors, the Yuchi, once lived in these woods in harmony with nature and in accordance with their beliefs and customs. During the 1700s and early 1800s, they were progressively dispossessed of . . . — Map (db m101282) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — The Census of 1832
In 1832, a treaty with the United States allotted parcels of land to every Indian household in the Valley. A government census enumerated, according to tribal towns, every Indian head of household, along with the number of males, females, and slaves . . . — Map (db m101415) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — The Creek Nation / The Chattahoochee Indian Heritage Center
The Creek Nation The Creek Nation was a loose confederacy of independent towns that ranks among the most sophisticated and powerful native political organizations in North American history. Largely speakers of the Muskogee dialect, the . . . — Map (db m101284) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — The Creek Trail of Tears
Approximately one mile due east of this marker, back down the Old Federal Road, called by frontiersmen and Indians the Three Notched Trail or the Three Chopped Way, stood Fort Mitchell, an early 19th century American fort that in 1836 was one of the . . . — Map (db m26100) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — The Creeks Today — Creek Heritage Trail
Today there are federally recognized Creek tribal groups in Oklahoma, Texas, Louisiana, and Alabama. The largest, the Muscogee (Creek) Nation, is based in the state of Oklahoma. The nation is comprised of the descendants of the Creeks who were . . . — Map (db m101823) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — United States Indian Trading Post
United States Indian Trading Post The Battle of Horseshoe Bend, March 1814, ended the Creek Indian War. General Andrew Jackson met with Chief William Weatherford and signed the Treaty. The Creek Indians returned to their own land in the . . . — Map (db m120004) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Hatchechubbee — Uchee / Good Hope Baptist Church, Uchee
(obverse) Uchee One of the oldest white settlements in the Chattahoochee Valley before and after the removal of the Indians; land deeds between whites date back to 1832, the year of Russell County's founding. The name of the town . . . — Map (db m69422) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Phenix City — "Emperor" Brims, Mary Musgrove and Chief William McIntosh — Creek Heritage Trail
Coweta was the home of many influential Creek leaders, including three individuals who figured prominently in the history of the Creek people; "Emperor” Brims, Mary Musgrove, Chief William McIntosh. The Coweta chieftain Brims, who . . . — Map (db m101336) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Phenix City — Ancient Fisheries
To the native people of the Chattahoochee River Valley, the Creek or Muskogulgi Indians, the shoals of the river were a source of recreation and food. In the spring, the women and children of Coweta Town came here to fish, using dip nets, spears, . . . — Map (db m69045) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Phenix City — Coweta and Northeastern Russell County:Focal Point for Creek-American Diplomacy — Creek Heritage Trail
During the tumultuous decades prior to the Removal of the Creeks from their ancestral homelands in the 1830s, the vicinity of the town of Coweta became an important location for interaction between the Creek Nation and the American government. . . . — Map (db m101339) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Phenix City — Coweta Town(KVWETV)
Coweta Town, located east of this marker on the banks of the Chattahoochee River, is sometimes called New or Upper Coweta to distinguish it from its predecessor, Coweta Tallahassee, down river. Among other well-known Creeks, Coweta was the . . . — Map (db m69068) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Phenix City — Coweta: Center for International Diplomacy — Creek Heritage Trail
Coweta served as a critical place of interaction between Creeks and Europeans throughout the colonial era. Situated at the intersection of regional trading routes and the claims of expanding Spanish, English and French colonial empires, it became . . . — Map (db m101334) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Phenix City — Six Indians Hanged
In November 1836, six Creek and Yuchi Indians were hanged near this spot for their role in a last desperate uprising against the frontier whites of Georgia and Alabama. Following decades of provocation from whites anxious to gain control of their . . . — Map (db m69065) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Phenix City — The Creek Town of Coweta — Creek Heritage Trail
The town of Coweta was actually two separate Native American settlements and dozens of affiliated outlying communities occupied at different times in what is now northeastern Russell County. "Coweta Tallahassee" (old Coweta), regarded by most . . . — Map (db m101328) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Phenix City — The Tie-Snake
The Creek Indians believed this section of the river was inhabited by a giant Tie-Snake, a mythical monster that snared the unwary and dragged them down into the watery underworld. The Tie-Snake was but one of many strange creatures and natural . . . — Map (db m69067) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Seale — Creek Settlements in Russell County — Creek Heritage Trail
Russell County occupies land that once sat at the heart of the Creek Nation. Within the county's boundaries were several important Creek towns, many of which would figure prominently in the Creek and Seminole Wars era and the saga of Removal. . . . — Map (db m111596) HM

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