“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
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Civil Rights Topic

The Lynching of Rueben Sims Marker image, Touch for more information
By Mark Hilton, October 2, 2022
The Lynching of Rueben Sims Marker
1 Alabama, Baldwin County, Bay Minette — Lynching in America / The Lynching of Rueben Sims — Community Remembrance Project
Lynching in America Between 1865 and 1950, at least 6,500 African Americans were victims of lynch mob violence in the United States. After the Civil War, an ongoing commitment to white supremacy led to organized resistance to Black . . . Map (db m207065) HM
2 Alabama, Bullock County, Midway — Old Merritt School Midway Community Center
Margaret Elizabeth Merritt of Midway sold two acres for $5 to the state of Alabama in 1921 as a site for an elementary school for African-American children. Built in 1922 with matching Rosenwald funds, the Midway Colored Public School featured oak . . . Map (db m60910) HM
3 Alabama, Calhoun County, Anniston — 1031 Gurnee Avenue — 1952
has been placed on the National Register of Historic Places by the United States Department of the InteriorMap (db m217295) HM
4 Alabama, Calhoun County, Anniston — 50 Years Later — Freedom Riders National Monument —
On May 11, 2011, 40 students who were retracing the route of the original Freedom Ride, arrived in Anniston. The student Freedom Ride was part of a promotion organized by WGBH/Boston, a member of the Public Broadcasting system. The goal was to . . . Map (db m217423) HM
5 Alabama, Calhoun County, Anniston — 7 — Anniston Memorial Hospital — May 14, 1961 — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
When seven injured "Freedom Riders" arrived at the Hospital on this date, the mob that had attacked them earlier in the day followed. The Riders were testing desegregation of public transportation in the South by riding buses. The bus they . . . Map (db m106647) HM
6 Alabama, Calhoun County, Anniston — 6 — Anniston Public Library Desegregation — September 15-16, 1963 — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
Desegregation of the Library began when two African American pastors, Reverends William B. McClain and Nimrod Q. Reynolds, peacefully attempted to enter the building on September 15, 1963. Their actions were endorsed by the city of Anniston . . . Map (db m106644) HM
7 Alabama, Calhoun County, Anniston — Civic Purpose — Exploring the History of Block No. 148 - The Site of Anniston's Federal Courthouse
In the early 1940s, all of the buildings on Block 148 were demolished to make way for two new buildings, the USO Recreation Center and a public health building. Paul W. Hofferbert designed the USO building for the Army. Hofferbert was a local . . . Map (db m217677) HM
8 Alabama, Calhoun County, Anniston — Freedom Riders
On May 14, 1961, a Greyhound bus left Atlanta, GA carrying among its passengers seven members of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), a.k.a. the “Freedom Riders,” on a journey to test interstate bus segregation. The bus was met by an angry mob . . . Map (db m35737) HM
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9 Alabama, Calhoun County, Anniston — 3 — Greyhound Bus Station Protest, May 14, 1961 — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
Front This was the site of the Greyhound bus terminal where on May 14, 1961, a bus carrying black and white Civil Rights Activists known as "Freedom Riders" was attacked by a mob of whites who were protesting desegregation of public . . . Map (db m106621) HM
10 Alabama, Calhoun County, Anniston — Horror and Disbelief — 1:55 p.m. - 2:30 p.m. — Freedom Riders National Monument —
The violence reached a crescendo when a flaming bundle of rags was thrown into one of the broken windows. Within seconds, the bundle exploded, sending dark gray smoke throughout the bus. Three of the Riders found open windows, dropping to the . . . Map (db m217417) HM
11 Alabama, Calhoun County, Anniston — Prelude / Arrival — Freedom Riders National Monument —
Prelude: 12 p.m.- 12:54 p.m. Just before this picture of the Greyhound Bus Depot at 1031 Gurnee (below left) was taken, approximately 75 men had gathered in front of it. They quickly dispersed as free-lance photographer for The Anniston Star, . . . Map (db m217412) HM
12 Alabama, Calhoun County, Anniston — Pursuit / Trapped — Freedom Riders National Monument —
Pursuit: 1:25 p.m. - 1:35 p.m. Heading to Birmingham, the battered bus turned south on Gurnee from the station and west on 10th St. while men rushed to their cars to follow. Police escorted the bus to the city limits where they turned back, . . . Map (db m217416) HM
13 Alabama, Calhoun County, Anniston — Rescue / Escape — Freedom Riders National Monument —
Rescue Once there, all of the injured were treated at the urging of an FBI agent on the scene. In the meantime, the crowd outside the hospital grew larger and more menacing, with some Klansmen threatening to burn the building to the ground. At . . . Map (db m217420) HM
14 Alabama, Calhoun County, Anniston — 10 — Saint John United Methodist Church — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
Saint John, founded at the turn of the 19th century, is the first African-American Methodist Episcopal Church in South Anniston. The original structure was built in 1922. The current building was erected in 1951 on the corner of D Street and . . . Map (db m144905) HM
15 Alabama, Calhoun County, Anniston — 9 — Seventeenth Street Missionary Baptist Church, Organized 1887 — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
Seventeenth Street Missionary Baptist Church served as the home of "mass meetings" for black Annistonians who planned and executed Anniston's part of the Civil Rights Movement. Reverends D.C. Washington (1937-1960) and Nimrod Q. Reynolds . . . Map (db m106651) HM
16 Alabama, Calhoun County, Anniston — 1 — Southern Railway Station Attack — January 2, 1961 — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
Local "Jim Crow" laws in the first half of the 20th century enforced racial segregation in public transportation facilities throughout the South. The U.S. Supreme Court decision in Boynton v. Virginia (1960) upheld that segregation in these . . . Map (db m106602) HM
17 Alabama, Calhoun County, Anniston — The Ambush / The Police — Freedom Riders National Monument —
The Ambush: 12:54 p.m. - 1:10 p.m. The silence didn't last long. Anniston Klansman William Chappell and a screaming mob of about 50 white men surrounded the bus. An 18-year-old Klansman, Roger Couch, lay on the pavement in front of the bus to . . . Map (db m217413) HM
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18 Alabama, Calhoun County, Anniston — The Burning Bus — Freedom Riders National Monument —
While the Riders awaited rescue, the bus continued to burn. The Anniston Fire Department extinguished the flames and administered oxygen. A state trooper called an ambulance, but it took Cowling to force the driver to carry the injured black Riders . . . Map (db m217419) HM
19 Alabama, Calhoun County, Anniston — The Freedom Rides — Freedom Riders National Monument —
The Rides began in May 1961 when the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) decided to test a 1960 U. S. Supreme Court ruling that outlawed segregation in depot restaurants and restrooms serving interstate passengers. Previously, CORE had organized a . . . Map (db m217406) HM
20 Alabama, Calhoun County, Anniston — 5 — The Human Relations Council — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
The Anniston City Commission, on May 16, 1963, established by resolution the Human Relations Council, consisting of five white men and four black men. The Council's purpose was to "make recommendations concerning human relations," and its members . . . Map (db m106627) HM
21 Alabama, Calhoun County, Anniston — 4 — The Murder of Willie Brewster — July 15, 1965 — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
Willie Brewster became the target of white extremists after words spoken at a National States Rights Party encouraged them to commit acts of violence against blacks. As Brewster drove home with co-workers from the night shift at Union Foundry, he . . . Map (db m106626) HM
22 Alabama, Calhoun County, Anniston — The Photograph — Freedom Riders National Monument —
The most famous photograph of the Freedom Rides and one of the most iconic of the Civil Rights movement was taken by a freelance photographer for The Anniston Star. Joe Postiglione, called “Little Joe” by his friends, was tipped off by the Greyhound . . . Map (db m217422) HM
23 Alabama, Calhoun County, Anniston — The Segregationists — Freedom Riders National Monument —
The Alabama Knights of the Ku Klux Klan had known about the Freedom Ride since mid-April and had detailed information on the city-by-city itinerary, thanks to FBI memos forwarded to the Birmingham Police Department. In a series of secret meetings in . . . Map (db m217411) HM
24 Alabama, Calhoun County, Anniston — The Selection Process — Freedom Riders National Monument —
CORE leadership solicited applicants for the Ride from outside the organization as well as CORE veterans. They tried to achieve a reasonably balanced mixture of black and white, young and old, religious and secular. The only deliberate imbalance was . . . Map (db m217410) HM
25 Alabama, Calhoun County, Anniston — Trailways Attack — Seeking Justice
1st Panel Two busloads of Freedom Riders arrived in Alabama on Sunday, May 14, 1961, bound for New Orleans. It was an organized effort by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) to challenge the South's continued defiance of U. S. . . . Map (db m106721) HM
26 Alabama, Calhoun County, Anniston — 2 — Trailways Bus Station Attack — May 14, 1961 — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
Throughout the first half of the 20th century, race relations in the South were dominated by local "Jim Crow" laws. Although in 1960 the Supreme Court ruled that racial segregation violated the Interstate Commerce Act, local laws persisted. . . . Map (db m106605) HM
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27 Alabama, Calhoun County, Anniston — Triumph — Freedom Riders National Monument —
But the Ride didn't end. The national newspaper and television coverage of what had happened galvanized the Nashville Student Movement, which already had experience successfully challenging segregationist practices through lunch counter sit-ins, . . . Map (db m217421) HM
28 Alabama, Calhoun County, Anniston — 8 — West 15th Street Historic District — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
This district was once the economic and social hub of Anniston's African American community. In its heyday (1940-1950), the District was a "city within a city," with businesses that catered to the black community. Grocery stores, restaurants, . . . Map (db m106650) HM
29 Alabama, Calhoun County, Anniston — Who Were the Riders? — Freedom Riders National Monument —
In Atlanta, the Riders separated into two integrated groups to board two different buses; the seven who were on the Greyhound bus destined for Anniston included: • Albert Bigelow, 55 white male from Connecticut (a retired naval officer, . . . Map (db m217409) HM
30 Alabama, Clarke County, Grove Hill — Colored and White Soldiers of World War I
This is a replica of the original tablet from the 1924 World War I monument located in front of the Clarke County Courthouse. The monument was the first memorial ever erected to honor county war dead. It cost $1,650 and was paid for with . . . Map (db m57385) HM
31 Alabama, Colbert County, Tuscumbia — Howell Thomas Heflin — 1921~2005
Howell Thomas Heflin retired from a lifetime of distinguished public service in 1997, having served Alabama in the U.S. Senate for three consecutive terms. There he was known as a national leader on judicial, agricultural, defense, and space issues. . . . Map (db m28586) HM
32 Alabama, Dale County, Ozark — D. A. Smith High School/ Professor D. A. Smith, Principal — Dale County
D. A. Smith High School Dale County The first school building on this site for African Americans was constructed in 1939 and was named Ozark Negro High School. It was replaced during the “separate but equal” period in 1952 and . . . Map (db m132087) HM
33 Alabama, Dallas County, Montgomery — "Builders of Movements and Monuments"
Presented By SCLC W.O.M.E.N. Inc., Women's Organizational Movement for Equality Now Southern Christian Leadership Conference The Voting Rights Bridge Crossing/Selma to Montgomery March/Jubilee Foundation and others, Dr. Joseph E. . . . Map (db m224569) HM
34 Alabama, Dallas County, Selma — A Grassroots Movement — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail —
For centuries, Selma was a city where the rules of race were enforced by humiliation and fear. But Selma gave birth to one of the greatest grassroots campaigns in history—the voting rights movement. The Selma to Montgomery march was the . . . Map (db m112370) HM
35 Alabama, Dallas County, Selma — 'Bloody Sunday' Attack at Edmund Pettus Bridge / U.S. Congress Approves Voting Rights Act of 1965 — Reported permanently removed
'Bloody Sunday' Attack at Edmund Pettus Bridge A voting registration campaign in 1965 turned tragic Feb. 17 when an Alabama state trooper fatally shot Jimmie Lee Jackson in Marion. It prompted a protest march from Selma to Montgomery that . . . Map (db m81944) HM
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36 Alabama, Dallas County, Selma — Brown Chapel A.M.E. Church — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail —
Brown A.M.E. Chapel (in front of you) served as a safe haven for supporters during the voting rights campaign. Pastor P.H. Lewis and his congregation courageously broke the injunction prohibiting African Americans from holding mass meetings, making . . . Map (db m131995) HM
37 Alabama, Dallas County, Selma — Campsite 1 — Selma to Montgomery Trail
Hall Farm March 21, 1965Map (db m61846) HM
38 Alabama, Dallas County, Selma — Civil Rights Memorial Park — Never Forget, Never Again
The bloodshed on this bridge named to honor Klan Leader, Edmund Pettus, must fuel our resolve to secure the right to vote in perpetuity. This park was designed and donated by Hank and Rose Sanders to honor their parents, Rev. D.A. and Ora . . . Map (db m224571) HM
39 Alabama, Dallas County, Selma — Edmund Pettus Bridge — National Historic Landmark
Edmund Pettus Bridge has been designated a National Historic Landmark This site possesses national significance for its association with "Bloody Sunday," a seminal event in the Civil Rights Movement. Here, on March 7, 1965, . . . Map (db m82037) HM
40 Alabama, Dallas County, Selma — First Baptist Church — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail —
First Baptist was the first church in Selma to open its doors to members of the Dallas County Voters League as well as to young activists from the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. From 1963 to 1965, under the leadership of Reverend M.C. . . . Map (db m112366) HM
41 Alabama, Dallas County, Selma — George Washington Carver Homes Projects — Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Street
In 1952, the City of Selma accepted federal funds to build the George Washington Carver Homes Projects. The residences became “The Face of the Civil Rights Movement” to many in the 1960s because Dr. King, the Southern Christian . . . Map (db m112354) HM
42 Alabama, Dallas County, Selma — George Washington Carver Neighborhood — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail —
The George Washington Carver neighborhood served as base camp for the votings rights movement during the tumultuous weeks of March 1965. These blocks of brick two-story homes—the city's first and largest federal housing project for blacks, built in . . . Map (db m112365) HM
43 Alabama, Dallas County, Selma — Highlights of Selma History / William Rufus DeVane King 1786-1853
Highlights of Selma History Dallas County was created by Territorial Legislature Feb. 9, 1818. Selma Land Company formed Mar. 19, 1819 by George Phillips, William Rufus King, Jesse Beene, Gilbert Shearer and Caleb Tate. Selma incorporated . . . Map (db m37679) HM
44 Alabama, Dallas County, Selma — Honoring: Amelia Boynton Robinson - Marie Foster
The Selma-Montgomery March "Bloody Sunday", March 7, 1965 Mothers of the Civil Rights Movement Before and Beyond the Bridge Didn't Let Nothing Turn Them Around! Presented by The Evelyn Gibson Lowery . . . Map (db m111691) HM
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45 Alabama, Dallas County, Selma — I Had A Dream — Dr. Martin L. King Jr.
The demonstration that led to the most important advance in civil rights for millions of Black Americans began here March 21, 1965. It was the 50-mile march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, the State Capital. Defying threats of death, Dr. . . . Map (db m83578) HM
46 Alabama, Dallas County, Selma — In Honor of James Joseph Reeb — 1927-1965 — “This Good Man” —
Rev. James J. Reeb, an Army Veteran and Unitarian minister from Casper, Wyoming, was working in Boston when Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. appealed for clergymen of all faiths to come to Selma to protest the violence that occurred at the Edmund Pettus . . . Map (db m37683) HM
47 Alabama, Dallas County, Selma — In Memory of Reverend Hosea Williams, Sr.
Leader of The Selma-Montgomery March "Bloody Sunday", March 7, 1965 He Fed the Hungry "Unbossed and Unbought" 1926-2000 Presented by SCLC/W.O.M.E.N. Inc. Women's Organizational Movement for Equality . . . Map (db m111689) HM
48 Alabama, Dallas County, Selma — Lynching in America / Lynching in Selma — Community Remembrance Project
Lynching in America Thousands of African Americans were victims of lynching and racial violence in the United States between the Civil War and World War II. The lynching of African Americans during this era was a form of racial terrorism used . . . Map (db m132071) HM
49 Alabama, Dallas County, Selma — R.B. Hudson High School — Dallas County
This school was the city of Selma's first public high school for African-Americans. Completed in 1949, the school was named in honor of Richard Byron Hudson, a black educator who had served for 41 years as principal of Clark Elementary School, . . . Map (db m82741) HM
50 Alabama, Dallas County, Selma — Sanctuary to Stage — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail —
The shooting of Jimmie Lee Jackson in nearby Marion, Alabama, transformed Brown Chapel from a sanctuary into a staging area for the Selma march, In a passionate sermon SCLC worker James Bevel suggested making a pilgrimage to the State Capitol to . . . Map (db m112364) HM
51 Alabama, Dallas County, Selma — St. Paul’s Episcopal Church Est. 1838
Side A The original church, built one block south of the present site, was consecrated in 1843 by Bishop Leonidas Polk. In 1861, the second Bishop of Alabama, the Rt. Rev. Richard H. Wilmer, was elected there. During the Battle of Selma, St. . . . Map (db m37691) HM
52 Alabama, Dallas County, Selma — Tabernacle Baptist Church — Dallas County
Side 1 In January 1885, Dr. Edward M. Brawley, President, Alabama Baptist Normal and Theological School (now Selma University) formed Tabernacle Baptist Church to be an integral part of the students' Christian formation and education. . . . Map (db m82034) HM
53 Alabama, Dallas County, Selma — Tabernacle Baptist Church — Dallas County
Side 1 Tabernacle Baptist Church was founded in 1885, and in March of that year, the congregation purchased this site. Built in 1922 under the leadership of Dr. David Vivian Jemison, the current church features bricks from the original . . . Map (db m83677) HM
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54 Alabama, Dallas County, Selma — The Honorable John Lewis
Honoring: Leader of The Selma-Montgomery March "Bloody Sunday", March 7, 1965 "Get in the Way" "When We Pray, We Move Our Feet" Presented by: The Evelyn Gibson Lowery . . . Map (db m111683) HM
55 Alabama, Dallas County, Selma — The Selma Movement — (The Beginning) / (The Prize) — Reported permanently removed
(The Beginning) The major civil rights protest, which focused national attention on the issue of racial discrimination in voting & led to the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, was centered in Selma. In January of 1963 local . . . Map (db m37662) HM
56 Alabama, Dallas County, Selma — Turning Point — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail —
By early 1964, the Dallas County Voters League (DCVL) and Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee's (SNCC) efforts to organize for voting rights had reached a turning point. In July 1964 Judge James Hare, pressured by Selma law enforcement to . . . Map (db m112369) HM
57 Alabama, Dallas County, Selma — 72 — Votes for Women — Road to the 19th Amendment — National Votes for Women Trail —
Selma Suffrage Association established here March 1910. Joined the Birmingham League to form the Alabama Equal Suffrage Association in 1912.Map (db m224540) HM
58 Alabama, Etowah County, Gadsden — Lynching in America / The Lynching of Bunk Richardson — Community Remembrance Project
Lynching in America. Thousands of Black people were the victims of lynching and racial violence in the United States between 1877 and 1950. The lynching of African Americans during this era was a form of racial terrorism intended to intimidate . . . Map (db m116817) HM
59 Alabama, Greene County, Eutaw — Thomas Earl Gilmore, Sr.
On this site, in January 1971, Thomas Earl Gilmore, Sr. was sworn in as Sheriff of Greene County. He was the first African American Sheriff in the county's history and served three consecutive terms until he retired from local politics. Gilmore, . . . Map (db m203630) HM
60 Alabama, Henry County, Abbeville — Rosa Parks Lived Here — Reported missing
Civil rights pioneer Rosa McCauley Parks was born on February 4, 1913 in Tuskegee, Alabama. Shortly after her birth her parents James and Leona McCauley, moved here to a 260 acre farm owned by her grandparents, Anderson and Louisa McCauley. Her . . . Map (db m182833) HM
61 Alabama, Jackson County, Paint Rock — The History of Paint Rock, Alabama / Paint Rock Arrests in 1931 Began 'Scottsboro Boys' Cases
(side 1) The History of Paint Rock, Alabama Originally Camden circa 1830, the post office was renamed Redman in 1846 and became Paint Rock on May 17, 1860. After the Memphis and Charleston Railroad Co. built a depot and water . . . Map (db m69756) HM
62 Alabama, Jackson County, Scottsboro — Jackson County Courthouse And The Scottsboro Boys
Marker front: Constructed in 1911-1912 and designed by architect Richard H. Hunt, the Jackson County Courthouse is a Neo-Classical, brick building situated on a town square in Scottsboro, the county seat of Jackson County. The front, . . . Map (db m22264) HM
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63 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — "Peace Be Still" — Mark 4:39
On Palm Sunday, 1963 Rev. N. H. Smith, Rev. John T. Porter and Rev. A. D. King led a sympathy march from St. Paul United Methodist Church down 6th Avenue North in support of Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth and Rev. Ralph . . . Map (db m73023) HM
64 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — 1963 Church Bombing Victims
This cemetery is the final resting place of three of the four young girls killed in the September 15, 1963 church bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church. Addie Mae Collins, Cynthia Wesley and Carol Robertson are buried here. The fourth victim, . . . Map (db m61197) HM
65 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — 4th Avenue District
The Fourth Avenue "Strip" thrived during a time when downtown privileges for blacks were limited. Although blacks could shop at some white-owned stores, they did not share the same privileges and services as white customers, so they created tailor . . . Map (db m26985) HM
66 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — A14 — A City of Two Governments — March Route to Government — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
In 1963, Birmingham underwent a major political transformation. To force Commissioner “Bull” Connor from office, progressive Whites and Blacks plotted to change the form of government from Commissioners to a Mayor-Council system. Mayor Albert . . . Map (db m187705) HM
67 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — F3 — A New Organization is Born — March Route for Moral Justice — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Rev. Shuttlesworth and his fellow ministers agreed to call the replacement organization the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights (ACMHR) so that its reach was both statewide and its aims wider than the African American community. Adding . . . Map (db m188971) HM
68 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — F4 — A New Strategy: All-Out Attack — March Route for Moral Justice — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
The ACMHR used nonviolent direct action as its preferred method of attacking racial segregation. This was a clear break from the tactics and strategies of the traditional black middle-class leadership that focused on petitions and lawsuits. Under . . . Map (db m188978) HM
69 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — C10 — A. G. Gaston Building — Destination — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Built 1959-60, 1517 5th Ave. N. The A. G. Gaston Building's second floor conference room was the location of regular meetings of “Project C's” Coordinating Committee. Here, they planned strategies for the April - May 1963 marches, boycotts, . . . Map (db m187976) HM
70 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — F15 — ACMHR & the Second Revolution — March Route for Moral Justice — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Rev. Shuttlesworth returned frequently to Birmingham to lead the ACMHR in a strategic alliance with the SCLC to bring national attention to Birmingham and the need to end racial discrimination in America. ACMHR staff worked with the SCLC's . . . Map (db m189139) HM
71 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — F13 — ACMHR & the Student Activists — March Route for Moral Justice — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Because of his fearlessness, college student activists who staged sit-ins and integrated bus rides in the 1960s knew they could depend on support from Rey. Shuttlesworth and the ACMHR. He supported Miles College student leader Frank Dukes and his . . . Map (db m189134) HM
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72 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — C22 — Alabama Penny Savings Bank/Pythian Temple Building — Destination — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Built 1913, 310 18th St. N. The Alabama Penny Savings Bank, founded by Sixteenth Street Baptist Church pastor Rev. William R. Pettiford, was Alabama's first Black-owned bank and the second-largest Black bank in the country by 1907. He . . . Map (db m188950) HM
73 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — D6 — Alabama's Rebel Yell — March Route for Education — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Southern members of the U.S. Congress in 1956 issued the "Southern Manifesto” that called the U.S. Supreme Court's Brown decision an "abuse of judicial power." By forcing public school integration contrary to social custom, the high court had . . . Map (db m187661) HM
74 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — E4 — Answering the Call — March Route Towards a Purposeful Life — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Shuttlesworth began to dedicate himself to the ministry and enrolled in Cedar Grove Bible College, a Baptist institution in the Mobile suburb of Pritchard. He took classes at night while he worked during the day. The young couple added two more . . . Map (db m187628) HM
75 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — A10 — Arrested at City Hall — March Route to Government — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Child protestors overwhelmed police, who found it hard to confine them to the Kelly Ingram Park area. Organizers used clever methods to get them to City Hall before police could stop them. Children were sent out in pairs. When they got closer to . . . Map (db m187836) HM
76 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — Arthur D. Shores — "Dean of Black Lawyers in The State of Alabama."
During the first 30 years of his 54-year-old practice, Attorney Shores practiced all over the State of Alabama - from the Tennessee line to the Gulf of Mexico at Mobile Bay, and from the Mississippi borders to the Georgia limits. During the period . . . Map (db m26720) HM
77 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — H21 — Attorney for His People — March Route for Fair Housing — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
1949 For four decades, Shores was deeply involved in civil rights challenges handling dozens of cases primarily for the Birmingham branch of the NAACP on behalf of African Americans. In the 1940s, the Birmingham NAACP had grown to more . . . Map (db m189188) HM
78 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — C6 — Ballard-Hamilton House and Office — Destination — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Built 1940, 1420 7th Ave. N. The Ballard House honors a time when thriving neighborhoods; businesses, churches, social, cultural, and civic organizations; made up a dynamic African-American community during the first half of the 20th . . . Map (db m187886) HM
79 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — F2 — Bethel's Pastor Leads the Leaders — March Route for Moral Justice — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Alabama's chapters of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) were particularly effective in filing federal lawsuits that challenged racial segregation laws and advocating for voting rights. NAACP members also . . . Map (db m188970) HM
80 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — C30 — Birmingham City Hall — Destination — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Built 1947-50, 710 20th St. N. Birmingham City Hall was the administrative center for the enforcement of local segregation codes. Thus, this building was one of the major destination points for the “Project C" marchers in the 1963 . . . Map (db m187717) HM
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81 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — C1 — Birmingham Civil Rights Institute — Destination — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Built 1992, 520 16th St. N. The Birmingham Civil Rights Institute contains permanent exhibitions and photo galleries, offering visitors a self-directed journey through the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s to the human rights . . . Map (db m187515) HM
82 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — E1 — Birth of an Icon — March Route Towards a Purposeful Life — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Freddie Lee Robinson was born March 18, 1922, in Mt. Meigs, Montgomery County, Alabama, to Alberta Robinson and Vetter Greene. The unmarried couple also conceived a girl, Cleola. Because Vetter could not provide for his growing family, Alberta's . . . Map (db m187631) HM
83 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — F8 — Birth of the SCLC — March Route for Moral Justice — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
In January 1957, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., called ministers of the church-led movements in Southern cities, including Montgomery and Birmingham, to a meeting in Atlanta to form a national organization to help them all. Civil rights activist . . . Map (db m189109) HM
84 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — Bishop Calvin Wallace Woods, Sr. — Civil Rights Pioneer and Pastor — Reported damaged
Civil rights activist and pastor, the Rev. Calvin Wallace Woods Sr. was born in Birmingham in 1933. The son of a Baptist preacher, Woods attended historic miles college and various seminary institutions. He distinguished himself as a leader during . . . Map (db m187533) HM
85 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — H2 — Black Birmingham Housing — March Route for Fair Housing — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
1937 Most of Birmingham's housing started as cheap, poorly built living quarters that large coal and mining companies created near their factories for their workers. Living in camp town housing carried a stigma that many Blacks and . . . Map (db m189162) HM
86 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — B4 — Black Business Plans — March Route to Retail — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
The economic center of the Black retail district was on nearby Fourth Avenue North. This historic area also served as the main cultural, social and religious center of Black Birmingham. Blacks felt more relaxed among their own people in and . . . Map (db m187761) HM
87 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — H13 — Black Classes and the Masses — March Route for Fair Housing — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
1955 By the 1950s, North Smithfield was the residential area of choice for a new generation of Black middle-class families, despite the terror bombings meant to scare them away. This new generation of African American leaders included A. . . . Map (db m189171) HM
88 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — C34 — Boutwell Auditorium — (Former Municipal Auditorium) — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Built 1924 (Extended in 1957), 1930 8th Ave. N. In 1924, Municipal Auditorium was one of the South's largest (6,000 seats) and most modern auditoriums. In April of 1956, Ku Klux Klansman Asa Carter led an attack on Montgomery native and . . . Map (db m187715) HM
89 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — B17 — Celebrity Star Power — March Route to Retail — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Celebrities of all races - but particularly Black singers and actors such as Harry Belafonte, Sammy Davis, Jr., Eartha Kitt, Lena Horne, and Ossie Davis with wife Ruby Dee - played important roles in the Movement. Some, including comedian Dick . . . Map (db m187822) HM
90 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — H17 — Children of Dynamite Hill — March Route for Fair Housing — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
1961 Black middle-class families who moved to North Smithfield included the Davises, the Coars, the Monks, the Browns, the Coles, the Adamses, the Wesleys, the Gaillards, the Powells, the Halls, the Nalls, the Browns, the Nixons, the . . . Map (db m189181) HM
91 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — A6 — Children Under Attack — March Route to Government — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
The use of schoolchildren in the Movement unnerved Police Commissioner "Bull” Connor, as well as the rest of Birmingham. But the success of “D-Day” led to a second day, “Double D-Day," where more children, about 2,000, skipped school to protest. . . . Map (db m187838) HM
92 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — B6 — Children Under Pressure — March Route to Retail — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Rev. Bevel gave Birmingham children a chance to play important roles in the struggle for equality. As their field marshal, he turned hundreds of recruits into an effective non-violent army that “Project C" unleashed on the retail district. Images . . . Map (db m187767) HM
93 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — D9 — Children's Crusade for Education — March Route for Education — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Birmingham's Black schoolchildren played an important role in moving the city toward ending legal segregation. Under the leadership of SCLC field coordinators, thousands of children left their segregated schools to join the marches in the downtown . . . Map (db m187682) HM
94 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — Civil Rights Freedom Riders — May 14, 1961
On Mother's Day, May 14, 1961, a group of black and white CORE youth on a "Freedom Ride" from Washington, D.C. to New Orleans arrived by bus at the Birmingham Greyhound terminal. They were riding through the deep south to test a court case, "Boynton . . . Map (db m83809) HM
95 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — C16 — Colored Masonic Temple — Destination — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Built 1922, 1630 4th Ave. N. Built and designed by African Americans, the Colored Masonic Temple served as their only major business and social meeting place for decades. The Temple's gilded auditorium hosted many elegant social functions . . . Map (db m188188) HM
96 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — B10 — Courthouse Prayer — March Route to Retail — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
In the 1940s and 1950s, the NAACP filed a stream of lawsuits against Jim Crow laws that had given Whites political, economic and social superiority over Blacks for more than 100 years. Most of Birmingham's NAACP cases, filed by local Black . . . Map (db m187775) HM
97 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — E20 — Death of an Icon — March Route Towards a Purposeful Life — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Rev. Shuttlesworth often said he expected to die at an early age in his toe-to-toe battles with violent White segregationists who were bent on maintaining power. But he outlived Dr. King and Rev. Abernathy, the last of "the Big Three." He lived . . . Map (db m187571) HM
98 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — D13 — Desegregating Ramsay School — March Route for Education — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Many African Americans continued to push for the right to an equal education that the 1954 Brown decision gave them. Despite angry threats of violence and intense economic pressure, those first few African American families in Birmingham who chose . . . Map (db m187693) HM
99 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — D12 — Desegregating West End School — March Route for Education — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Community civil rights leaders who helped organize the Movement and embraced the philosophy of nonviolence looked for well-disciplined children with good moral character who would at retaliate if they encountered bullying or violence by White . . . Map (db m187690) HM
100 Alabama, Jefferson County, Birmingham — B1 — Don't Tread on Me — March Route to Retail — Birmingham Civil Rights Heritage Trail —
Leaders of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) learned they could apply economic pressure to White businesses with more effective results than moral persuasion alone. Therefore, the central strategy of the Birmingham Campaign . . . Map (db m73037) HM

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Nov. 30, 2023