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Natural Resources Historical Markers

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Doster Road Artesian Well House image, Touch for more information
By Mark Hilton, December 17, 2013
Doster Road Artesian Well House
Alabama (Autauga County), Prattville — Doster Road Artesian Well House
On Doster Road at Mobile Drive, on the right when traveling south on Doster Road.
Prattville is often referred to as “The Fountain City” for the numerous free-flowing artesian wells found here. A 1933 edition of the Prattville Progress noted that there were more than 400 of these artesian wells in Prattville . . . — Map (db m70805) HM
Alabama (Blount County), Blount Springs — Blount Springs
On U.S. 31 at County Road 7, on the right when traveling north on U.S. 31.
Famous Health Resort 1843-1914 Here fashionable ladies and gentlemen of the South vacationed with their families. — Map (db m33782) HM
Alabama (Choctaw County), Gilbertown — First Oil Well In Alabama
On Paragon Road (County Road 16) 2 miles west of State Route 17, on the left when traveling west.
On January 2, 1944, the State of Alabama granted Hunt Oil Company a permit to drill the A.R. Jackson Well No. 1 at this location near Gilbertown. Hunt Oil Company was owned by the famous oil man, H.L. Hunt of Dallas, Texas. Drilling commenced on . . . — Map (db m80351) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Tuscumbia — Cold Water Falls
On S. Main Street.
World's Largest Man-Made Natural Stone Waterfall to be known in existence 80 feet wide, 48 feet tall 1,780 tons of Colbert County Sandstone 4,320,000 gallons of water per day passes over falls Largest stone weights 77,000 pounds 120 days . . . — Map (db m83394) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Tuscumbia — Petrified Conifer Tree / Petrified Lycopod Tree Stump
On S. Main Street.
Plaque A 85-90 Million Years Old Possibly a Bald Cypress from the Cretaceous Period or the Age of Dinosaurs Plaque B 325 Million Years Old A Member of the Giant Club Mosses from the early Coal Age — Map (db m29287) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Cahaba — Missing Pieces
Near Cahaba Road at Capitol Avenue, on the right when traveling north.
"We by-and-by discovered...a pair of those splendid birds, the Ivory-billed Woodpeckers (Picus principalis). They were engaged in rapping some tall dead pines, in a dense part of the forest, which rang with their loud notes." . . . — Map (db m112801) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — King's Spring
Near 5th Avenue South at 41st Street South.
Avondale Park, dedicated in 1886, is one of Birmingham's earliest parks. The park site was chosen because of its natural spring, which was a popular attraction with the local people, as well as a favorite stopping point for weary travelers along . . . — Map (db m55951) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Lane Park
On Cahaba Road at Park Lane, on the right when traveling north on Cahaba Road.
In 1822 William Pullen, Revolutionary War veteran, acquired this land from the Federal Government for farming. In 1889 his heirs sold the land to the City of Birmingham for use as the New Southside Cemetery which operated from 1889 to 1909 with . . . — Map (db m27096) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Roebuck Spring
On Roebuck Boulevard, on the left when traveling east.
In 1850 George James Roebuck and his wife Ann Hawkins Roebuck built a log cabin at the mouth of Roebuck Spring. His Influence and leadership led to the area around it to be known as Roebuck. In 1900 Alabama Boys Industrial School was located . . . — Map (db m26688) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Clay — The Cahaba Heart River of Alabama
On Old Springville Road / County Road 30, on the left when traveling north.
On Cahaba Mountain to the NW, springs form a fragile stream that grows as it carves through the steep, rocky terrain of Birmingham suburbs, flowing south on the Gulf Coastal Plain to the Alabama River, at the site of Alabama's first capital, . . . — Map (db m25110) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Hoover — Shades Crest Road Historical District
On Shades Crest Road (County Road 97) at Park Avenue, on the right when traveling north on Shades Crest Road.
Indian, Wagon Trail, now Shades Crest Road, led to popular chalybeate springs. Summit, now Bluff Park, was a resort known for its view, cool air and healing mineral water. In 1899 school / church was built. In 1909 Bluff Park Hotel, built on land . . . — Map (db m27311) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Hoover — Shades Crest Road Historical District
On Shades Crest Road east of Mimosa Lane, on the right when traveling east.
Indian, Wagon Trail, now Shades Crest Road, led to popular chalybeate springs. Summit, now Bluff Park, was a resort known for its view, cool air and healing mineral water. In 1899 school / church was built. In 1909 Bluff Park Hotel, built on land . . . — Map (db m28517) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), St. Florian — Shoals Creek Preserve Tract
On County Road 61.
Nature Preserve and Recreation Area This tract was protected through the efforts of the Alabama's Forever Wild Land Trust, The Alabama Lands of The Department of Conservation and Natural Resources with assistance of the Lauderdale County . . . — Map (db m106468) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — John Hunt
Near Westside Square.
For whom Huntsville was named lived in a cabin near this spring about the year 1805. — Map (db m27847) HM
Alabama (Mobile County), Dauphin Island — Energy from the Sands of Time
On Bienville Boulevard 0.1 miles east of Albatross Street, on the left when traveling east.
The platform that you can see east of Dauphin Island is operated by one of many oil and gas companies operating in Alabama waters. These platforms are extracting natural gas (methane), a relatively clean-burning petroleum product. The platform . . . — Map (db m122548) HM
Alabama (Mobile County), Mobile — Caldwell Field
On Marmotte Street north of Dr Martin Luther King Jr Avenue, on the right when traveling north.
Caldwell Field is named in honor of James Henry Caldwell, celebrated for bringing the concept of the manufactured gas business to the City of Mobile. On September 20, 1836, Mr. Caldwell entered into a contract with the City of Mobile, which granted . . . — Map (db m111390) HM
Alabama (Morgan County), Lacey's Spring — Lacey's Spring
On U.S. 231 0.2 miles north of State Route 36, on the right when traveling north.
Abundant water and fertile land in this area south of the Tennessee River attracted pioneer settlement in the early 1800s. The community established here by three Virginia-born brothers, Hopkins, John, and Theophilus Lacy, took on their name and . . . — Map (db m27611) HM
Alabama (Randolph County), Goldville — GoldvilleGoldville, Alabama
On Goldville Cut Off Road at Bluff Springs Road, on the right when traveling west on Goldville Cut Off Road.
Incorporated on January 25, 1843 Was at one time one of the largest cities in Alabama with a population of near 5,000 With the coming of the California gold rush in 1849 the city became a dormant municipality later to . . . — Map (db m95077) HM
Alabama (Talladega County), Sylacauga — Sylacauga Marble
On South Norton Avenue south of West Fort Williams Street, on the right when traveling north.
This example of the world's purest white marble is 500 million years old, is 98 percent pure calcium carbonate, and weighs 29,000 pounds. This quality marble is found only in the Sylacauga area in a seam 32 miles long, 12 miles wide and 400 feet . . . — Map (db m131729) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — Burns’ Shoals
Near Greensboro Avenue north of 2nd Street (Jack Warner Parkway).
The remains of Burns' Shoals now lie nearly 40 feet underwater. This rock outcropping was the first of the shoals known as the "Falls of Tuscaloosa" and represents the "Fall Line" or contact point of the Coastal Plain and the Appalachian Plateau, . . . — Map (db m28904) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — Masons Marks
Near 6th Street at 28th Avenue.
To identify their work masons often carved special marks into the bottom, sides, or back of the stones. Their supervisors were thus able to distinguish between the quality and quantity of each mason's work. Blocks for the building were quarried from . . . — Map (db m29116) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — The Black Warrior River
Near Greensboro Avenue north of 2nd Street (Jack Warner Parkway).
Plied for thousands of years by Indians, then by early explorers and American settlers, this river extends 169 miles from the Sipsey and Mulberry Forks near Birmingham to its confluence with the Tombigbee at Demopolis. It drains 6228 square miles of . . . — Map (db m28901) HM
Alaska (Fairbanks North Star Borough), Fairbanks — Alaska's Gold Rush Era
On Richardson Highway (Alaska Route 2), on the right when traveling south.
Gold discoveries brought Alaska and the Yukon to the attention of the world. A series of stampedes occurred over more than three decades. Drawn by dreams of gold, men and women from many places and all walks of life participated in an adventure that . . . — Map (db m59836) HM
Alaska (Fairbanks North Star Borough), Fairbanks — Tanana Valley Gold
On Richardson Highway (Alaska Route 2), on the right when traveling south.
The gold deposit found in 1902 north of present-day Fairbanks proved to be the richest in Alaska. Prospector Felix Pedro and trader E.T. Barnette played key roles in the discovery and initial rush. A second strike made the following summer . . . — Map (db m59826) HM
Alaska (Juneau Borough), Juneau — 3 — Alaska Juneau Mill
Near South Franklin Street 0.5 miles north of Mr. Roberts Street.
At the Alaska Juneau mill from 1917-1944, ore was sorted, crushed, and treated to extract gold. Electric-powered engines hauled trains of 40 ore cars along the main haulage route form the mine two miles away in Silver Bow Basin to the AJ mill, . . . — Map (db m42823) HM
Alaska (Juneau Borough), Juneau — Hard Rock Miners
Near Marine Way near South Franklin Street, on the left when traveling west.
This bronze sculpture was commissioned by the city and borough of Juneau during its centennial anniversary year, and is dedicated to the mine whose work provided the lifeblood of Juneau during it first six decades. In the late 1800’s, compressed . . . — Map (db m42809) HM
Alaska (Kenai Peninsula Borough), Moose Pass — Gold Discoveries Trigger Stampede
On Seward Highway (Alaska Route 1 at milepost 56.6).
Prospectors found gold in 1895 under the present Canyon Creek Highway Bridge and on Mills Creek. Those discoveries launched a rush to Turnagain Arm more than a year before the Klondike Gold Rush. Prospectors Poke Around After gold was . . . — Map (db m49599) HM
Arizona (Cochise County), Bisbee — The Lavender Pit
On Arizona Route 80 at milepost 343, on the right when traveling east.
This open pit mine is named The Lavender Pit In honor of Harrison M. Lavender 1890 – 1952 Who as vice president and general manager of Phelps Dodge Corporation conceived and carried out this plan for making the . . . — Map (db m28281) HM
Arizona (Cochise County), Cochise — Sulphur Springs
On Birch Road 3.1 miles east of U.S. 191, on the right when traveling east.
This valley owes its name to the two springs located one mile north of this monument. From 400 A.D. to 1450 A.D. Indigenous Indians farmed the region. Their bedrock mortar pits remain on the nearby hill. Later Chiricahua Apaches, Spaniards, . . . — Map (db m37768) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Orphan Mine
On Hermits Road, on the right when traveling east.
Something unexpected once stood on the rim in front of you. A steel headframe towered over a mineshaft that dropped 1,500 feet (460 m) to one of the richest uranium mines in the United States. From 1956 to 1969, miners extracted ton after ton of . . . — Map (db m108885) HM
Arizona (La Paz County), Cibola — 104 — Cibola Arizona
Near Cibola Road at Baseline Road. Reported missing.
Gold and silver strikes in the 1860's created growth in the area. It is said Wyatt Earp served as sheriff of Cibola for one year in the 1890's. The town of Cibola formed in 1898 and construction began on a 16 mile canal to bring water from the river . . . — Map (db m78552) HM
Arizona (La Paz County), Quartzsite — 060-019 — Tyson's WellOld Stage Station
On West Main Street (Arizona Route 95), on the right when traveling east.
This was a stage stop between Ehrenberg and Wickenburg and points east. Travelers in the 1870's and 80's made their first stop here on eastward journeys from the Colorado River. "No grass, but good water," an early desert guide indicated . . . — Map (db m7004) HM
Arizona (La Paz County), Quartzsite — Tyson's Well
On West Main Street (U.S. 95) 0.3 miles west of Arizona Route 95, on the right when traveling west.
Dug by hand around 1864 by a miner named Tyson. This 40-foot-deep well marked the spot around which grew the town of Quartzsite. Originally known as "Tyson's Well," "Tyson Wells," or "Tyson's Wells," the small community served as an important . . . — Map (db m39416) HM
Arizona (La Paz County), Salome — Harrisburg
On Salome Road 5 miles south of U.S. 60, on the right when traveling south.
Harrisburg was established on this site in 1886 by Captain Charles Harris, and his partner Governor Fredrick Tritle, as a mill town to process ore from the Socorro and other mines in the area. By 1887 two mills were operating here. The post . . . — Map (db m31821) HM
Arizona (Maricopa County), Apache Junction — Apache Lake
On Arizona Route 88 at milepost 229, on the left when traveling east.
Apache Lake is the deepest on the entire chain of reservoir lakes on the Salt River. It was created by the construction of Horse Mesa Dam in 1927. Apache Lake Marina will help you enjoy the Lake. Food, lodging and marina services are available. . . . — Map (db m34063) HM
Arizona (Maricopa County), Fort McDowell — Canyon Lake
On Apache Trail (Arizona Route 88 at milepost 208), on the right when traveling east.
Canyon Lake was formed following the construction of Mormon Flat Dam from 1923-25 by USDI, Bureau of Reclamation. Salt River Project manages the dam for water storage and power generation. Water stored in this reservoir is collected from the 13,000 . . . — Map (db m34062) HM
Arizona (Maricopa County), Gilbert — Pump HouseHeritage District
On West Page Avenue, on the right when traveling east.
In 1925 the well for Gilbert’s domestic water was drilled to the depth of 475 feet where a large flow of pure water was found. A six-inch pipe was sunk to bring the water to the surface. The tower and pumping station were constructed during the . . . — Map (db m90238) HM
Arizona (Maricopa County), Wickenburg — Vulture Gold Mine
Near Vulture Mine Road 12 miles south of Grand Avenue (Route 60).
In 1863 Austrian Henry Wickenburg discovered gold, legend has it, while retrieving a vulture he had shot. The vulture mine went on to become one of Arizona's richest gold mines and sparked the development of Arizona and the city of Phoenix. In the . . . — Map (db m40319) HM
Arizona (Maricopa County), Wickenburg — Vulture Mine
On West Wickenburg Way (U.S. 60) at Vulture Mine Road, on the left when traveling west on West Wickenburg Way.
Discovered in 1863 by Henry Wickenburg and his Burro To supply the needs of the mines and protecting military camps, the Salt River Valley irrigated agricultural industry was developed. The Vulture Mine produced 10 millions in gold and was the . . . — Map (db m29477) HM
Arizona (Mohave County), Chloride — Chloride"Oldest Silver Mining Town in Arizona"
On 2nd Street, on the left when traveling south.
Founded in 1862 with the discovery of silver, Chloride became the first mining town of the Cerbat Mountains. During it's heyday, 1900 to 1920, the population swelled to over 2000 with 75 mines in operation. Chloride was the first incorporated town . . . — Map (db m31845) HM
Arizona (Mohave County), Kingman — Camp Beale Springs Arizona
On Fort Beale Road at Wagon Trail Road, on the left when traveling north on Fort Beale Road.
This camp, established March 25, 1871 by Company F, 12th Infantry commanded by Capt. Thomas Bryne, was located at a spring used by Indians for centuries. It was named for Navy Lt. Edward F Beale who established a wagon road along the 35th parallel. . . . — Map (db m29411) HM
Arizona (Mohave County), Kingman — Cerbat
On U.S. 93 at Golden Valley Drive, on the right when traveling north on U.S. 93.
Site of Cerbat third historical Mohave County seat. Three miles from this highway in Cerbat Mountains and in canyon of the same name. It came to existence in 1860's as mining camp, and had mill, smelter, post-office, school, stores and saloons. Only . . . — Map (db m20808) HM
Arizona (Mohave County), Kingman — 31805 — Chloride
On U.S. 93 at County Road 125, on the right when traveling north on U.S. 93.
Four miles east is former mining town of Chloride which was started in 1864 with discovery of few mines. In 1900, it had two thousand population. Fifty or more mines were in operation around Chloride, including Tennessee – Schuykill, large . . . — Map (db m20737) HM
Arizona (Mohave County), Kingman — Mineral Park
On U.S. 93 at County Road 255, on the right when traveling north on U.S. 93.
Five miles northeast is site of Mineral Park mining town, county seat in 1873 – 1887 with courthouse and jail; stores, hotels, saloons, shops, doctor, lawyer, assay offices, and two stagecoach stations; all lined up few streets. It is now . . . — Map (db m20809) HM
Arizona (Mohave County), Kingman — White Hills
On County Route 145 at U.S. 93, on the right when traveling east on County Route 145.
Formerly known as Indian Secret Mining District or Silverado, the White Hills Mining Camp started in the 1890's. The mines were rich producers of silver, especially horn silver, also called chloride silver. This large community was devastated by a . . . — Map (db m31880) HM
Arizona (Mohave County), Mohave Valley — Oatman
On County Route 153 at Arizona Route 95, on the right when traveling east on County Route 153.
Fifteen miles east in the Black Mountains, is the historic Oatman mining district. Many original buildings still exist in the ghost town site. The Tom Reed United Eastern Gold Road and other mines produced more than thirty million dollars of gold . . . — Map (db m31903) HM
Arizona (Mohave County), Oatman — Gold Road Mine
On Oatman -Topock Highway (Historic Route 66) (County Road 10).
In 1900 Jose Jerez discovered gold here in a chunk of quartz. It was assayed out 40 ounces to the ton! The claim was resold for $275,000. By 1907 the mine milled 140,625 ounces of gold worth $2,250,000. Addwest Minerals acquired the mine . . . — Map (db m50762) HM
Arizona (Mohave County), Oatman — OatmanGold Mining Town
On Oatman-Topock Highway at Rock Hound Road, on the left when traveling north on Oatman-Topock Highway.
Named for a migrating pioneer family attacked and killed by Indians near Gila Bend, Arizona, in 1851. Some fifty mines operated in the Oatman area. From its beginning in 1904 and through 1931, the Oatman district produced $36,000,000 in ore. . . . — Map (db m29464) HM
Arizona (Mohave County), Oatman — 80 — Oatman Arizona and its Burros
On Oatman -Topock Highway / Main Street (Old Route 66 at Rock Hound Road, on the left when traveling north on Oatman -Topock Highway / Main Street (Old Route 66.
Oatman was founded around 1906 as part of Arizona's richest gold mining area. Oatman was reborn in the late 1960's and early 1970's as a tourist town. The main attraction was the wild burro herd. The burros roaming the Oatman area are descendants of . . . — Map (db m78570) HM
Arizona (Mohave County), Peach Springs — Guano Point
Near Diamond Bar Road (County Route 7) near Eagle Point Service Road.
During the 1930'2 a boater passing through the Canyon discovered a cave which later was found to be rich with "Guano", bat droppings. This material was rich with nitrogen and very useful as fertilizer. The U.S. Guano Corporation had purchased the . . . — Map (db m99266) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Holbrook — From Wood to Stone
On Petrified Forest Road, on the right when traveling north.
Approximately 225 million years ago, during the Triassic Period, a floodplain existed here – littered with fallen trees. Periodic flooding buried the logs beneath layers of silt. Over time, silica-laden waters filtered through these deposits . . . — Map (db m68870) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Holbrook — Jasper Forest
Near Jasper Forest Road, on the left when traveling west.
The petrified wood strewn in the valley below was once encased in the bluffs around you. When erosional forces removed the softer rocks, the petrified wood tumbled and accumulated on the valley floor. Once filled with fallen logs, Jasper Forest was . . . — Map (db m68871) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Holbrook — Pioneers of Paleontology
Near Petrified Forest Road, on the left when traveling north.
Petrified Forest is a laboratory where scientists study not only the fossil record, but the records of earlier discoveries by naturalists and paleontologists. Interest in the area’s fossils goes back to 1853, when a U.S. Army expedition . . . — Map (db m68873) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Holbrook — Triassic Landscape
Near Petrified Forest Road, on the right when traveling north.
The dry plateau lands of this region today are far different from the tree-littered floodplains of 225 million years ago during the geologic period called the Triassic. Imagine a forested Triassic land where crocodile-like phytosaurs inhabited the . . . — Map (db m68868) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Ajo — The Ajo Mining District
On La Mina Avenue, on the right when traveling north.
Americans first worked the copper deposits at Ajo in 1854, one year after the Gadsden Purchase. These early American miners found abandoned workings and crude mining tools as mute evidence of earlier mining in the district. During the next half . . . — Map (db m30802) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Ajo — The City of Ajo
On La Mina Avenue, on the right when traveling north.
Ajo was first located on the ground that later became the open pit mine. The modern city was founded in its present location in 1917 coincident with the beginning of large scale mining of the copper deposits. Ajo is the home of the New . . . — Map (db m30759) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Lukeville — Kris Eggle
On Puerto Blanco Drive, on the left when traveling south.
On August 9, 2002 While protecting visitors from harm, United States Park Ranger Kris Eggle Was slain in the line of duty. His service and sacrifice To the National Park Service And the people of this country Will never be . . . — Map (db m7003) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Agua Caliente Ranch and Hot Springs
Near East Roger Road.
Agua Caliente Ranch In 1873, Peter B. Bain filed the first formal claim to the land surrounding Agua Caliente Spring. Bain and a partner, Marion T. Beckwith, began a dairy cattle operation by bringing cows north from Sonora. Bain built a house, . . . — Map (db m34592) HM
Arizona (Pinal County), Apache Junction — Dons's Camp
On East Peralta Road 5.6 miles east of Superstition Freeway (U.S. 60).
. . . — Map (db m48355) HM
Arizona (Pinal County), Apache Junction — Goldfield Mining DistrictArizona
On East Apache Trail (Arizona Route 88 at milepost 199) east of North Mountain View Road, on the right when traveling east.
Originally called the Superstition Mining District, this district had its heyday from 1893 to 1898. The greatest producing mines were the Mammoth, Black Queen and Bull Dog. Their output was around a million dollars in gold and silver based on . . . — Map (db m34059) HM
Arizona (Pinal County), Apache Junction — Goldfield Mining District
Near North Apache Trail (Arizona Route 88) north of North Farside Lane, on the right when traveling north.
This Historical Spot 1892 to 1898 was part of the Mammoth Mine claims known as the Montezuma in 1893. Then after 1910 became known as Calamity. In 1944 this claim became known as the Bluebird. The Bluebird Mine was found in 1893 and first . . . — Map (db m93130) HM
Arizona (Pinal County), Apache Junction — Jacob Von Walzer1808 – 1891 — Lost Dutchman Gold Route —
Near North Apache Trail at Old West Highway.
Dedicated October 1961 To the Memory of Jacob Von Walzer 1808 – 1891 One of America's most famed legendary figures, whose exploits have stimulated the imagination of peoples everywhere by his contribution to the heritage of his . . . — Map (db m74394) HM
Arizona (Pinal County), Kerny — Sonora, Arizona
Near Arizona Route 177 at milepost 156.
Immigrant Mexican miners working for the Ray Consolidated Copper Company named the town of Sonora, built near here in 1911. It boomed as a thriving, dynamic community, rich in Mexican culture, language and traditions. In the mid-1950's, the company . . . — Map (db m34133) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Bagdad — Bagdad Copper Mine
On Main Street (State Highway 96E) 4.5 miles north of State Highway 97N, on the right when traveling north.
Cypress Copper ― Bagdad Corporation In memory of WJ. Pace and J.M. Murphy Who filed the Bagdad claim January 1, 1882; John Lawler who patented the claim in 1889; and the Lincoln family who developed the mine. — Map (db m31552) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Camp Verde — Pecan Lane Rural Historic Landscape
On North Montezuma Castle Highway 2 miles north of West Highway 260 & South Main Street, on the right when traveling north.
Upper Plaque: Pecan Lane Rural Historic Landscape Lower Plaque: Pecan Lane Rural Historic Landscape was added to the National Register of Historic Places on May 2, 2000. Pecan Lane played a significant part in the . . . — Map (db m27855) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Clarkdale — United Verde Copper Company Smelter
On 1st N Street at North 9th Street, on the right when traveling west on 1st N Street.
The U.V.C.C. Clarkdale smelter was built through the vision of William A. Clark, owner of the United Verde Mine in Jerome. The Smelter was constructed between 1912-1915 to replace the outdated Jerome smelter. On May 26, 1915 the first furnace . . . — Map (db m33199) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Jerome — Historic Audrey Shaft HeadframeLittle Daisy Mine
On State Park Road, on the left when traveling east.
Largest wooden headframe still standing in Arizona, it was completed in 1918 to haul ore up from mine. Shaft is 1900 feet deep, concrete lined with cross tunnels every 100 feet to Edith shaft. Edith shaft headframe was completed in 1915 to haul men . . . — Map (db m108834) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Jerome — Jerome Blast Furnace
On Main Street, on the right when traveling east.
This is one of the two old furnaces found in place on The Hampton Lode, United Verde Copper Company Mines, at Jerome Arizona on March 5, 1888 when I first visited the property. I started operation on this furnace and also the other one on May 22, . . . — Map (db m33147) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Jerome — Jerome, ArizonaToo Strong to Die
On Main Street (Arizona Route 89A), on the right when traveling east.
The first mining claims were filed in 1876, within 20 years Jerome was a billion dollar copper mecca and one of the wildest, wickedest mining towns in the west. Drinking, gambling, brawls and frolicking with ladies of the night occurred . . . — Map (db m33149) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Jerome — Rocket Shovel and Dragline
On Hampshire Avenue (Arizona Route A89).
This piece of equipment was the first successful mining device to replace human labor in removing the rubble from underground hard rock-blasting. The Model 12B, which weighs 4,200 pounds and requires 60 to 125 pounds-per-square-inch air pressure, . . . — Map (db m122889) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Jerome — The Audrey Shaft and UVX Operations
On State Park Road, on the left when traveling east.
State-of-the-art Audrey shaft and headframe was the largest facility of its kind built by the United Verde Extension (UVX) Company during its years of operation. The shaft was constructed in 1918 only after the location of an extraordinarily rich . . . — Map (db m108833) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Jerome — The Childs-Irving Project - Construction Challenges
On Douglas Road (AKA State Parks Road, on the left when traveling west.
Fossil Creek and its springs provided an ideal power source for a hydroelectric power plant. The springs gushed a constant water flow of over one million gallons an hour, and the terrain of the creek allowed for a drop of 160 feet in the less than . . . — Map (db m122896) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Prescott — Granite Creek
On West Gurley Street.
American History in Arizona is quite recent, although the history of the Native American, Spanish and Mexican occupation periods are much older. Encampments of Native Americans were drawn to the creeks, which offered a fairly reliable source of . . . — Map (db m33064) HM
Arizona (Yuma County), Roll — In Memory of Harold and Ethelind Woodhouse
On East County 5th Street near South Avenue 39 East, on the right when traveling east.
who carved this farm out of the desert. We, the Wellton-Mohawk Valley Kiwanis Club, dedicate this spot. Here on May 1, 1952 Michael W. Straus, United States Commissioner of Reclamation turned the first water on to lands of the Wellton-Mohawk . . . — Map (db m28967) HM
Arizona (Yuma County), Yuma — Castle Dome Mining District1864 - 1979
Near Castle Dome Mine Road 10 miles east of U.S. 95.
In 1863 Jacob Snively, founder of Gila City, and right hand to Sam Houston, avenger of the Alamo, following blazes left on the saguaros by Mexican and Conquistador predecessors, came to Castle Dome, and within 15 years, Castle Dome City’s population . . . — Map (db m48924) HM
Arkansas (Garland County), Hot Springs — Hot Springs
On Central Avenue (State Highway 7) just south of Fountain Street, on the right.
After 1877 when the title to the springs was finally vested in the federal government by the Supreme Court, Congress began to take an active interest in the Hot Springs Reservation. In 1921 the Reservation officially became Hot Springs National Park. — Map (db m103164) HM
Arkansas (Johnson County), Clarksville — C-23 — Johnson County First Anthracite Coal
On West Main Street (U.S. 64) at South Fulton Street, on the right when traveling east on West Main Street.
The first anthracite coal was mined near here on the land of E.B. Alston by a Mr. Walker in 1840. Sample of coal were taken to Little Rock and examined by William E. Woodruff, who pronounced it superior to that found in Pennsylvania. Mr. Walker went . . . — Map (db m96638) HM
Arkansas (Pike County), Murfreesboro — B-26 — Pike County Diamond Mines
On Courthouse Square at North Washington Avenue, on the left when traveling west on Courthouse Square.
Two and a half miles southeast of this point is the only locality in North America where diamonds have been found in the rock in which they were formed. They have been found principally in one igneous pipe which, with three small pipes, aggregates . . . — Map (db m121290) HM
Arkansas (Sevier County), Belleville — 136 — Sevier County in the Civil War
On Arkansas Route 317 0.3 miles east of U.S. 59/71, on the left when traveling east.
While no fighting took place in Sevier Co. during the Civil War, local men served in Confederate units. Men gathered at Belleville Church as part of Pettus’ Battalion of State Troops, marching to Arkadelphia under Gov. Harris Flanagin’s General . . . — Map (db m121145) HM
Arkansas (Union County), El Dorado — Oil in Arkansas — The Discovery
Near South Jefferson Avenue at East Cedar Street, on the right when traveling south.
On January 10th, 1921, shortly after 4:00 P.M., on a cold January day, a deafening roar from a drilling rig one mile west of El Dorado announced the discovery of oil in Arkansas. Dr. Samuel Busey brought in the Armstrong #1 as an earthshaking, . . . — Map (db m121350) HM
Arkansas (Union County), El Dorado — Oil in Arkansas — The Smackover Field
On South Jefferson Avenue near East Cedar Street, on the right when traveling south.
A little over a year after the initial oil discovery by Dr. Busey, the Oil Operators Trust--Murphy #1, a wildcat well staked on a geologic feature called the Norphlet dome, drilled into the gas-cap of what would become the huge Smackover Oil . . . — Map (db m121356) HM
Arkansas (Union County), El Dorado — Oil in Arkansas — The Wildcatters
On South Jefferson Avenue at East Cedar Street, on the right when traveling south on South Jefferson Avenue.
During the oil boom numerous individuals, or wildcatters, made their mark on the South Arkansas scene. H. L. Hunt, at one time the richest man in the world, opened a barrelhouse on Hamburger Row, made his financial stake there, and then . . . — Map (db m121357) HM
California (Alameda County), Fremont — Leal Tank House
Near Ardenwood Boulevard near California Highway 84.
Joseph Silviera Leal and Julia Perry Leal built this tank house on their ranch in the Mission San Jose area of Fremont in 1925. The lower floor was a storage room and the upper floor a bedroom. The tank on top stored 5,000 gallons of water pumped . . . — Map (db m29090) HM
California (Alameda County), Pleasanton — Alviso Adobe Community Park5,000 Years of History in Seven Acres
Near Old Foothill Road near Foothill Road.
[Panel 1:] Pleasanton’s past and the rich stories of the people that have come before can be discovered in the landscape and features of this park. Three periods of occupation trace regional settlement from prehistory to the present day. . . . — Map (db m24685) HM
California (Alameda County), Pleasanton — Gold CreekThe Great Gold Discovery of 1871
Near Pleasant Hill Road at Chestnut Way.
On Feb. 8, 1871 two men, the names of Neal F. Taylor and Timothy Cox, were looking for coal in the area and found more than they were looking for. On this creek which comes down through the then Dougherty Ranch the two men found a gold nugget. They . . . — Map (db m69728) HM
California (Alameda County), Sunol — Sunol Water Temple
Near Paloma Way.
[Main Marker:] California Historic Civil Engineering Landmark Alameda Creek Water System 1888 San Francisco Section A802 1975 [Second Marker:] Restoration of the Sunol Water Temple Started May 27, 1997 . . . — Map (db m24499) HM
California (Alpine County), Markleeville — Alpine County Historical Complex
Near School Street.
The construction of this historical complex was initiated in 1964, "Alpine County's Centennial Year", by the Historical Society of Alpine County. With concerted effort and fortitude it was completed and duly dedicated as a historical landmark on . . . — Map (db m3088) HM
California (Alpine County), Markleeville — Beautiful Hot Springs Valleydraws people now as it has for thousands of years
Near Hot Springs Road.
Summer after summer the Washoe Indian people visited the valley. Eventually their idyllic retreat was discovered. During the winter of 1844 Captain John Fremont may have seen this place during his crossing of the Sierra. Fremont’s diary of his . . . — Map (db m11001) HM
California (Alpine County), Markleeville — Grover Hot Springs
Near Hot Springs Road.
Telltale signs of geologic activity surround Grover Hot Springs State Park. Bold granite peaks to the northwest are the work of immense mountain building forces. Old lava flows cover hundreds of square miles to the east, giving the Markleeville area . . . — Map (db m13239) HM
California (Alpine County), Markleeville — Historic Silver Mountain City(Kongsberg)
On The Ebbetts Pass Scenic Byway (State Highway 4), on the right when traveling east.
Silver Boom Town in 1866 Population 3000 Remains of City Jail — Map (db m44990) HM
California (Amador County), Amador City — 15 — Bunker Hill Mine
On Bunker Hill Road at Fremont Mine Road on Bunker Hill Road.
The mine was first worked as the Rancheria Mine in 1853. Was renamed the South Mayflower in 1893. It was organized in 1899 as the Bunker Hill Consolidated Mine and operated till 1922, producing $5,154,382 in gold. The shaft reached 3440’ on an . . . — Map (db m44619) HM
California (Amador County), Amador City — 14 — Original Amador Mine
On East School Street at Amador Creek Street, on the right when traveling south on East School Street.
Opened in 1852 from six claims. Renamed Original Amador Consolidated working till 1918. Reopened in 1935 till 1937. Shaft reached 1238’. Total production was $3,500,000. — Map (db m10329) HM
California (Amador County), Amador City — 12 — South Spring Hill Mine
On String Bean Alley east of Old Route 49.
Founded in 1851 working continuously till 1893. Purchased by Keystone Company in 1920 and connected to it. Closed in 1942. Contained 3 shafts: South Spring Hill 1200’, Tallisman 600’, and Medean at 600’ deep. Produced $1,092,472 from . . . — Map (db m44608) HM
California (Amador County), Amador City — 16 — Treasure Mine
On Bunker Hill Road south of Fremont Mine Road.
Owned by the Treasure Mining Company of San Francisco. Founded prior to 1867. Sometimes called the Hazard Mine. Shaft reached 3030’ on the incline with winzes. Was connected to the Bunker Hill Mine to the south at the 1600; level. Produced . . . — Map (db m44620) HM
California (Amador County), Drytown — New ChicagoEst. 1877
On New Chicago Road at Old Drytown Plymouth Road on New Chicago Road.
Subdivision for the Grover Mine Appox. 50 mines north to Plymouth Peerless, California, New London — Map (db m44621) HM
California (Amador County), Jackson — Jackson
Near State Highway 49.
In 1848, was a village of huts and tents called "Bottileas” by the Mexicans from the bottles strewn about by those who tarried here. In 1849, it was named Jackson for Colonel Jackson an early day resident. In 1853, Amador . . . — Map (db m72060) HM
California (Amador County), Jackson — 3 — Kennedy MineArgonaut-Muldoon
On North Main Street, on the left when traveling north.
Viewpoint: 50 yards west, Two of the richest gold mines in Amador County, both reached depths of over one mile. Worked until 1942. Kennedy produced $28.5 million, the Argonaut $ 25 million. Notice headframes west toward Highway 49 and tailing wheels . . . — Map (db m44586) HM
California (Amador County), Jackson — Kennedy Mining and Milling Company1860 - 1942
Near Kennedy Mine Road.
In the late 1850’s, Andrew Kennedy discovered gold in an outcropping of quartz. The mine produced over $34.2 million in gold, making it one of the richest gold mines in the world. With a depth of 5,912 feet, it was the deepest mine in North America . . . — Map (db m19797) HM
California (Amador County), Jackson — 1 — Moore Mine
On Fuller Lane at California Highway 49, on the left when traveling west on Fuller Lane.
Founded and active in the 1880’s. 10 stamp mill and a 640’ shaft. Re-opened 1921 till 1929. 20 stamp mill and a 2,291’ incline shaft. Tailing dam north to Raley’s. Produced $564,624 in gold. Nearby Mines: South Jackson, Fern, Kearsling, . . . — Map (db m44582) HM
California (Amador County), Jackson — The Court House Well
On Summit Street near Court Street, on the right when traveling north.
Under This Tablet Is The Court House Well Dug in 1851, 52 feet in depth For generations it was a main source of domestic water for the community. “Gone is the ancient equipment but still the living water flows.” . . . — Map (db m27908) HM
California (Amador County), Jackson — 2 — Zeile Mine and Mine HouseMine location to the southeast.
On Broadway Street at French Bar Road, on the left when traveling south on Broadway Street.
Founded in the 1860’s as the Coney Mine, operated continuously from 1875-1914. Later sold to Kennedy. Incline shaft 1865’ deep. Total production $5 million. Note powder house on road to the east. — Map (db m44585) HM
California (Amador County), Plymouth — Forest Home1850's — Stage and Freight Stopover —
On Jackson Road (State Highway 16) 0.2 miles west of Forest Home Road, on the left when traveling east.
Copper mines patented 1873: Peak Outputs: Early 1860’s, 1895-1917, 1943-1947, Township organized 1854. A Methodist center for many years U.S. Postoffice: 1862-1905 — Map (db m11361) HM
California (Amador County), Plymouth — 18 — Plymouth Consolidated Mines
On Pacific Street south of California Highway 49, on the left when traveling south.
Founded in 1852 from several claims and consolidated in 1883. Sold to the Argonaut company in 1925 and closed in 1943. Empire workings reopened 1946-47. Pacific shaft 4450’ deep. Total production $13,500,000. Mines north to Cosumnes River: Aden, . . . — Map (db m44622) HM
California (Amador County), Sutter Creek — Central Eureka Mine
On Sutter Hill Road at Old Ridge Road when traveling east on Sutter Hill Road.
Was begun here in the early 1850’s as the Badger and later the Summit Mine. It consolidated with Hayward’s old Eureka Mine in 1924 as the Central Eureka Company, Amador Consolidated Mines. The main shaft reached a depth of 4,965’. It was the last of . . . — Map (db m13084) HM
California (Amador County), Sutter Creek — 8 — Emerson Shaft
On Cole Street.
Eastern Shaft of the Wildman Mine located at the Post Office site. Used as an air chute and hoist shaft to dispose of waste rock later used to pave roads. The mine founded by William T. Wildman, circa 1851 — Map (db m12601) HM
California (Amador County), Sutter Creek — In Memory of General John A. SutterBenefactor of the Great State of — California —
On Main Street (State Highway 49), on the right when traveling north.
Who mined here and gave Sutter Creek its name and under whose regime gold was discovered. Also to those pioneer mothers, fathers and miners of the Mother Lode, which has produced millions is gold. This rock used in Mother Lode Champion hand . . . — Map (db m13407) HM
California (Amador County), Sutter Creek — Leland Stanford, Jr.1824 – 1893
On Gopher Flat Road, on the left when traveling east on Gopher Flat Road.
A man of tremendous ambition, Leland Stanford, Sr., was one of California’s most distinguished businessmen, politicians, philanthropists, and proponents of education. Lured to California by the Gold Rush in 1852, he became an owner of Sutter Creek’s . . . — Map (db m12610) HM
California (Amador County), Sutter Creek — Lincoln Mine
On Amador Road at Hanford Street (Old Highway 49) on Amador Road.
First (1851) quartz mine & mill in Sutter Creek on Amador Road. Leland Stanford financier, politician and benefactor controlled this mine (1859-1872). Under Supt. R. C. Downs it proved a bonanza, aided Stanford to join the builders of the Central . . . — Map (db m42409) HM
California (Amador County), Sutter Creek — 11 — Lincoln Mine
On Old Sutter Creek-Amador City Highway north of Hanford Street (Old Highway 49).
Founded in 1851 as Amador #2. Renamed the Union Mine and finally the Lincoln Mine by new owner Leland Stanford. Worked until 1924, producing $2 million. Consolidated with Wildman- Mahoney Mines. Foundations and dump remain. — Map (db m44607) HM
California (Amador County), Sutter Creek — Mahoney Mine
Near Gopher Flat Road.
. . . — Map (db m12606) HM
California (Amador County), Sutter Creek — Miners' Bend ParkA Historic Gold Mining Park
On Old Route 49 (Main Street), on the left when traveling south.
Sutter Creek, California Left Panel: Like many communities in the Sierra Foothills, Sutter Creek grew out of the great gold rush of 1849. Thousands of men of every nationality arrived seeking fortunes through toil, sweat, and luck. . . . — Map (db m106380) HM
California (Amador County), Sutter Creek — 7 — Old Eureka Mine
On Main Street (Old California 49) at Sutter Hill Road, on the right when traveling south on Main Street (Old California 49).
Founded in early 1850’s by Alvinza Hayward, owner of the Badger and Wolverine Mines. Earned $65,000 a month, reaching a depth of 2,250 in late 1800’s. Shaft sunk to 3,500 feet in 1916. In 1924 was purchased by Central Eureka Company. Closed in 1942 . . . — Map (db m44606) HM
California (Amador County), Sutter Creek — Wildman MinePowder House
Near Gopher Flat Road.
Founded by William T. Wildman in 1851. Merged with Mahoney Mine and reached a depth of 1500 feet. Combined mines operated a 70 stamp mill and produced a total of $5 million in old by 1924. Powder house used to store explosives. Became part of . . . — Map (db m12598) HM
California (Amador County), Volcano — Volcano
On Main Street at Consolation Street, on the left when traveling north on Main Street.
Discovered in 1848 by Colonel Stevenson’s men who mined Soldiers’ Gulch in ’49. First covered wagon party sluiced rich gravel beds. By ’53, men swarmed flats and gulches naming them picturesquely. Hydraulic operations, begun in ’55, brought . . . — Map (db m11365) HM
California (Amador County), Volcano — 29 — Volcano
On Main Street at Consolation Street, on the right when traveling north on Main Street.
[Larger Marker]: Started 1848 by soldiers of Colonel Stevenson’s Regiment. Named by miners because of apparent volcanic appearance. Here the first California rental library, 1850, was established. And one of the first “Little . . . — Map (db m100574) HM
California (Butte County), Magalia — 771 — The Dogtown Nugget
On Old Skyway Road 0.3 miles north of Pentz-Magalia Road, on the right when traveling east.
This marker symbolizes the discovery of the first large gold nugget in California. It was found across this canyon in Willard Gulch April 12, 1859. Weight 54 pounds. — Map (db m29663) HM
California (Butte County), Oroville — Cherokee
On Cherokee Road 1.5 miles east of North General Sherman Way, on the left when traveling north.
Led from Indian Territory by their New England schoolmaster, a band of young Cherokee Argonauts discovered gold here 1850. Town established 1853 when first stores erected by Welsh miners. During heyday of 1875, Cherokee boasted its own theatre, race . . . — Map (db m234) HM
California (Butte County), Oroville — County Community Well
Near Bird Street at Huntoon Street.
1856 Renovated Oroville Rotary 1980 (Seal of the American Revolution Bicentennial 1776-1976) — Map (db m65844) HM
California (Butte County), Oroville — Edison Building
On Bird Street at Myers Street on Bird Street.
Edison Ore Mining & Miocene Mining Co. Oct. 1879 to May 1881 by Major Frank McLaughlin searched for platinum to use in Edison’s electric light globe. Used a process to remove gold from black sands found in mine tailings. Miocene Mining Co. . . . — Map (db m61556) HM
California (Calaveras County), Altaville — 288 — Altaville Foundry & Machine WorksFounded by J.M. Wooster — Est. 1854 —
Near State Highway 49.
Is the site of the longest running continuously operated foundry west of the Mississippi River. All quartz machinery needed for the numerous mines surrounding the Altaville, Angels Camp area was cast here. It was previously known as Altaville . . . — Map (db m13005) HM
California (Calaveras County), Angels Camp — 287 — Angels CampHome of the Jumping Frog — Romance - Gold - History —
On Main Street (State Highway 49) at State Highway 4, on the right when traveling south on Main Street.
Founded in 1849 by George Angel, who established a mining camp and trading store 200 feet below this marker. A rich gravel mining area and one of the richest quartz mining sections of the Mother Lode. Production records of over $100 million for . . . — Map (db m14460) HM
California (Calaveras County), Angels Camp — Gold Furnace
Near South Main Street/Golden Chain Highway (State Highway 49).
A gold furnace was commonly used to separate mercury from the gold. In gold placer mining, in which small specks and veins of gold were often found in quartz, mercury was used to separate the gold from the quartz. This bonding of the mercury . . . — Map (db m57172) HM
California (Calaveras County), Angels Camp — GPY-135-2 — Hogarth Stamp Mill
Near South Main Street/Golden Chain Highway (State Highway 49), on the right when traveling north.
In 1895 Harry Hogarth, James Candy and Naylor Williams filed a claim for the Relief Quartz Mine on a hillside above Six Mile Creek near Angels Camp. In 1920, after working the claim by hand for many years, the Hogarths; Harry Sr, Harry Jr, and . . . — Map (db m56553) HM
California (Calaveras County), Angels Camp — James H. Carson
On State Highway 49 3.7 miles south of State Highway 4, on the left when traveling south.
. . . — Map (db m7502) HM
California (Calaveras County), Angels Camp — Lightner Mine
Near Main Street (State Highway 49).
This mine site was located in 1855 by Peter Cameron, A.M. Wood, Will Powell and C.G. Lake. Lightner Mining Company organized and operated from 1896-1915. A 40 stamp mill crushed 500,000 tons of ore from vein which widened to 120’. Ore stopped at . . . — Map (db m10633) HM
California (Calaveras County), Angels Camp — The Hogarth Family
Near South Main Street/Golden Chain Highway (State Highway 49), on the right when traveling north.
The Hogarth Family has had a long involvement with the mining industry in Angels Camp. Patriarch Henry ("Harry") Hogarth, Sr. was born in Scotland in 1831. He immigrated to the United States at an early age and soon settled on a career as a . . . — Map (db m56558) HM
California (Calaveras County), Angels Camp — The Hogarth Stamp Mill
Near South Main Street/Golden Chain Highway (State Highway 49), on the right when traveling north.
Common in California after 1853, the stamp mill consisted from one to five heavy pillar-like stamps whose bottom, (or shoes), were cylindrical hammers made of iron, each weighing as much as one thousand pounds. Power to operate the stamps was . . . — Map (db m56556) HM
California (Calaveras County), Angels Camp — The MonitorCalifornia Hydraulic Mining
Near South Main Street/Golden Chain Highway (State Highway 49), on the right when traveling north.
Hydraulic Mining was the largest and most destructive form of mining. Water, brought through flumes and ditches from high up in the mountains, was redirected into an ever-narrowing channel and out through a giant iron nozzle, called a . . . — Map (db m56649) HM
California (Calaveras County), Angels Camp — The Story Under the LakeNew Melones Lake
Near State Highway 49.
The body of water you see before you, known as New Melones Lake, is formed by the building of the New Melones Dam. The 625-foot high earth-fill dam was completed in 1979 by the Army Corp of Engineers. A man-made reservoir, the lake hosts a variety . . . — Map (db m32433) HM
California (Calaveras County), Angels Camp — Utica Mine North Shaft
On Utica Lane north of Sam's Way, on the right when traveling north.
Utica Mine, the most important mine in the Angels District, set national records in the 1890's producing more than 4 million dollars in gold in 30 months. The Utica was also the site of Angels Camp's worst mine disaster when 17 men were buried when . . . — Map (db m25646) HM
California (Calaveras County), Angels Camp — Water Wheel
Near South Main Street/Golden Chain Highway (State Highway 49), on the right when traveling north.
Water wheels were commonplace to the gold mining regions, providing power for mining and milling operations. Powered by water the wheel was attached to a series of belts and gears which turned the machinery to crush the ores. This water wheel . . . — Map (db m56559) HM
California (Calaveras County), Burson — 254 — Camanche
Near Camanche Parkway South.
[Upper Marker:] Named Camanche in 1849 after Camanche, Iowa. Once called Limerick. Peak population 1500. Rich mining at nearby Cat Camp, Poverty Bar, and Sand Hill. Mokelumne River water brought in by Lancha Plana and Poverty Bar ditch. . . . — Map (db m19752) HM
California (Calaveras County), Calaveritas — 255 — Calaveritas
On Calaveritas Road at Costa Road, on the right when traveling east on Calaveritas Road.
Calaveritas, settled in 1849 by Mexicans, was a flourishing mining town complete with stores, saloons, gambling houses, and fandango halls. Joaquin Murieta is reported to have frequently visited its Fandango Halls and gambling houses. Destroyed by . . . — Map (db m12992) HM
California (Calaveras County), Calaveritas — The Costa StoreConstructed by Mr. Luigi Costa in 1852
Near Costa Road at Calaveritas Road.
He conducted a butcher shop, a distillery and various other enterprises in these buildings, for a total of 50 years. Descendants of Luigi and Charlotte Costa have preserved this handsome example of the heritage of Calaveritas. — Map (db m12994) HM
California (Calaveras County), Copperopolis — 296 — CopperopolisState Registered Landmark No.296
On Main Street, on the left when traveling south.
Copper here discovered by W. K. Reed and Thomas McCarty in 1860. Mines utilized during the Civil War and the First and Second World Wars. During Civil War period was the principal copper producing section of the United States. — Map (db m13002) HM
California (Calaveras County), Copperopolis — Copperopolis Armory
On Main Street, on the left when traveling south.
Copperopolis Armory, built by public subscription in 1866 for 8,000 dollars, was used by the Union Guard for enlisting and training troops. In 1866 it was sold to the Copperopolis Armory Hall Association for 800 dollars in gold and was used for . . . — Map (db m13003) HM
California (Calaveras County), Copperopolis — Copperopolis Park
Near Main Street near Baker Street, on the left when traveling south.
Although Copperopolis is known for copper mining, gold was discovered here in 1858, copper in 1860. The gold belt was a mile west of the copper belt. The Madame Felix Mining District produced 200,000 ounces of gold between 1864 and 1974. . . . — Map (db m58927) HM
California (Calaveras County), Copperopolis — 281 — O'Bryne Ferry
On O'Byrne Ferry Road (State Highway 49), on the right when traveling south.
In 1852 a chain cable bridge replaced the ferries that once crossed here, to be supplanted in its turn by a covered truss structure in 1862. Some writers claimed this was the locale of Bret Harte's Poker Flat. In late “49” there was a . . . — Map (db m13013) HM
California (Calaveras County), Douglas Flat — The Italian Store
On Main Street, on the left when traveling east.
Built is 1861 by Antonio and Caterina Gagliardo. Served as a Post Office and social center for the community of Douglas Flat. A hand dug well located next to the store supplied Douglas Flat with good fresh water and remains in good shape today. . . . — Map (db m58852) HM
California (Calaveras County), Jenny Lind — 266 — Jenny Lind
On Milton Road, on the right when traveling east.
Settled in the 1840’s as a flourishing gold mining, cattle ranching and farming community. — Map (db m13040) HM
California (Calaveras County), Mokelumne Hill — 265 — Chili Gulch
On State Highway 49, on the right when traveling north.
Richest placer mining section, extending five miles, in Calaveras County. Received name from Chileans who worked gulch in 1848 and 1849, and scene of the so-called Chilean War. Largest known quartz crystals recovered from mine on south side of gulch. — Map (db m11515) HM
California (Calaveras County), Mokelumne Hill — 269 — Mokelumne Hill
On Main Street at Center Street, on the left when traveling south on Main Street.
Mokelumne is an Indian word, first applied to the nearby river. Earliest settlement was at Happy Valley by French trappers. Gold was discovered by discharged members of Stevenson's Regiment in 1848. Center of the richest placer mining section of . . . — Map (db m12996) HM
California (Calaveras County), Murphys — 465 — Site of Brownsville
On Pennsyvania Gulch Road, on the right when traveling south.
A thriving mining camp on rich Pennsylvania Gulch in the 1850’s and 1860’s. Named for Alfred Brown, former owner of Table Mountain Ranch. Laws of Brownsville Mining District provided that each miner could own one wet and one dry claim, not to exceed . . . — Map (db m11501) HM
California (Calaveras County), Murphys — Thompson Building
On Main Street, on the right when traveling west.
Built soon after 1856 by John Thompson operator of Lime Kiln on Posky Hill and stone mason, who built adjoining Traver Building, and many other stone buildings. Occupied, circa 58, by Meyer & Friedlander, General Merchandise. Later Fred Sackett . . . — Map (db m13027) HM
California (Calaveras County), San Andreas — 258 — Fourth Crossing
On State Highway 49, on the right when traveling south.
Located on the Stockton-Murphy Road at the fourth crossing of the Calaveras River, this early mining settlement, once called Foremans, was famous in the 1850's for its rich placer ores. Later, it became an important stage and freighting depot and . . . — Map (db m11969) HM
California (Calaveras County), San Andreas — 252 — San AndreasHeart of the Southern Mines
On St. Charles Street (State Highway 49) at Main Street, on the right when traveling north on St. Charles Street.
Settled by Mexicans in 1848. Named after Catholic Parish of St. Andrew. First newspaper published here Sept. 24, 1856. Destroyed by fire June 4, 1858 and in 1863. County seat of Calaveras County since 1866. Rendezvous of Joaquin Murietta. Black . . . — Map (db m11503) HM
California (Calaveras County), Valley Springs — 295 — Paloma (Fosteria)
On Paloma Road at Edster Street, on the right when traveling south on Paloma Road.
Gwin Mine, Paloma, and Lower Rich Gulch were mined for placer in 1849. Quartz was discovered by J. Alexander in 1851. Property acquired by Wm. M. Gwin, California's first U.S. Senator, in 1851. The Gwin Mine closed, in 1908, yielded millions. — Map (db m14449) HM
California (Calaveras County), West Point — 253 — Sandy Gulch
On State Highway 26, on the left when traveling east.
This site, in 1849, was a trading center for pioneer miners of Northwestern Calaveras County. It was named after the gulch where William and Dan Carsner found large nuggets imbedded in the course sand. Water for mining was brought from the Middle . . . — Map (db m11975) HM
California (Contra Costa County), Antioch — 932 — Mount Diablo Coal Field
On Somersville Road, in the median.
From 1860 to 1906, this area was the largest coal mining district in California. Five towns (Nortonville, Somersville, Stewartville, Judsonville and West Hartley) grew up around twelve major mines. Today the towns are gone. The buildings having been . . . — Map (db m139449) HM
California (Contra Costa County), Clayton — Clayton
On Main Street at Diablo Street, on the right when traveling east on Main Street.
Miwok Indians inhabited this valley at the base of Mt. Diablo when Spanish explorers came in the 1770’s. Scouts, trappers, prospectors and settlers followed. In 1857 Clayton was founded by Joel Clayton, a miner, farmer, and wagonmaster from . . . — Map (db m59954) HM
California (Del Norte County), Crescent City — The Metcalf Grove
On Howland Hill Road, on the left when traveling east.
This grove is given to the State of California for the preservation of these ancient trees by Mr. and Mrs. Jesse H. Metcalf of Rhode Island. — Map (db m1510) HM
California (El Dorado County), Coloma — “Gold Boys Gold”
Near Highway 49.
On January 24, 1848, James Marshall set off early and alone to inspect progress in deepening the ditch that channeled water from the sawmill back to the river. Suddenly, he bent over and picked up a few particles gleaming in the icy water. . . . — Map (db m17241) HM
California (El Dorado County), Coloma — Cabin of James Marshall
On Marshall Park Way, on the left when traveling north.
This cabin was erected by Marshall and occupied by him from 1856 : 1870. Born in New Jersey October 8, 1810. Came to California in 1845 – Died at Kelsey, this state, August 10, 1885. The discovery of gold by Marshall in the tailrace of John A. . . . — Map (db m12215) HM
California (El Dorado County), Coloma — Chinese Miners of the Mother Lode
Near State Highway 49.
Following the California Gold Rush of ’49, swarms of Chinese miners came to make their mark on the diggings in the Mother Lode, including this Coloma Valley. They were industrious and self-contained and mostly content to thoroughly comb the old . . . — Map (db m12225) HM
California (El Dorado County), Coloma — Chinese Stores
Near State Highway 49.
These two stone buildings known as the Wah Hop and Man Lee Stores were built by Jonas Wilder before 1860and leased to Chinese merchants. Located at the edge of a large Chinese community, they sold traditional foods, clothing and other items. Such . . . — Map (db m12227) HM
California (El Dorado County), Coloma — Coloma Breweries
On State Highway 49 at Brewery Street, on the right when traveling south on State Highway 49.
In the 1850’s and 1860’s Coloma had two breweries – the El Dorado and the Coloma – between Brewery Street and the river. An 1853 advertisement in Coloma’s newspaper stated: “Mr. Joseph Wellman would respectfully inform traders, . . . — Map (db m12324) HM
California (El Dorado County), Coloma — Coloma’s Largest Brick Store(Site of)
On State Highway 49, on the right when traveling south.
A large brick building measuring 50 feet by 65 feet, was built here in 1856. Two older frame structures were demolished and were sorely missed by the “old-timers” of that day. The brick for this store probably came from a brickyard 2 . . . — Map (db m12273) HM
California (El Dorado County), Coloma — Coloma’s Pioneer Cemetery
On Cold Springs Road, on the right when traveling north.
Thousands of people emigrated to California with the dream of riches for themselves and have found their final rest in these hallowed grounds. The exact date that the cemetery was founded is unknown. The earliest known graves date from 1849. In . . . — Map (db m12282) HM
California (El Dorado County), Coloma — James W. MarshallDiscoverer of Gold
Near State Highway 49.
“Boys I believe I have found a gold mine” so said James W. Marshall to his millworkers on January 24, 1848, after he discovered gold in the tail race of Captain John A. Sutter’s sawmill at Coloma. This discovery started the great Gold . . . — Map (db m12224) HM
California (El Dorado County), Coloma — Miner’s Cabin
Near State Highway 49.
This cabin is an example of he quarters used by miners during the gold rush. The earliest structures were canvas tents, made from recycled sailcloth taken from abandoned ships in San Francisco Bay. In 1849 Coloma had hundreds of “tent” . . . — Map (db m12270) HM
California (El Dorado County), Coloma — Mining Ditches
On Marshall Parkway, on the left when traveling north.
Mining ditches were dug by ditch companies to carry vast amounts of water needed for placer mining. Thousands of miles of ditches and flumes were built in the gold country; some brought immense profits to their owners. As mining declined in the . . . — Map (db m17484) HM
California (El Dorado County), Coloma — Partners In History
Near Highway 49.
Friday, Aug. 27, 1847…made a contract and entered in partnership with Marshall for a sawmill to be built on the Amer. Fork. So wrote John Augustus Sutter, methodically recording the agreement that led to California’s astonishing gold . . . — Map (db m17226) HM
California (El Dorado County), Coloma — Sierra Nevada House(Site of)
On State Highway 49, on the left when traveling south.
The Sierra Nevada House was a handsome two-story building with many windows and a broad balcony. Here guests could always expect fine hospitality, suburb food, excellent ballroom music, fine carriages and comfortable beds. It was opened by Robert . . . — Map (db m12237) HM
California (El Dorado County), Coloma — Sutter Mill Replica
Near State Highway 49.
This replica of Sutter’s Mill was based on research from many sources – a drawing by James Marshall, an old photograph of the mill, and the results of several excavations made on the original mill site. The building is 60 feet long, 20 feet . . . — Map (db m12206) HM
California (El Dorado County), Coloma — Sutter Mill Timbers
Near State Highway 49.
John Sutter’s mill was not used after 1850 and it deteriorated rapidly. The flood of 1862 destroyed the above ground remains of the structure. In 1924 the original mill site was located and the mill monument was built. Major excavations in 1947 . . . — Map (db m12222) HM
California (El Dorado County), Coloma — 748 — The Coloma Road
Near State Highway 49.
Here in the Valley of the Cul-lum-mah Indians, James W. Marshall discovered gold on January 24, 1848, in the tailrace of Sutter’s sawmill. The Old Coloma Road, opened in 1847 from Sutter’s Fort to Coloma, was used by Marshall to carry the news of . . . — Map (db m12272) HM
California (El Dorado County), Coloma — The Tailrace
Near Highway 49.
Here on a chilly morning in January, 1848, carpenter James Marshall picked up the small pieces gold that touched off one of the largest, most frenzied mass migrations in history. Within a year of Marshall’s discovery, six thousand gold seekers . . . — Map (db m17608) HM
California (El Dorado County), El Dorado — 486 — El Dorado
On Main Street (Pleasant Valley Road) at Church Street, on the right when traveling west on Main Street (Pleasant Valley Road).
El Dorado, meaning “The Gilded One”, was first known as Mud Springs from the boggy quagmire the cattle and horses made of a nearby watering place. Originally a important camp along the old Carson Emigrant Trail. By 1849 – 50 it . . . — Map (db m13148) HM
California (El Dorado County), El Dorado — 700 — El Dorado (Mud Springs)
On Pleasant Valley Road, on the right when traveling east.
Trading post, emigrant stop, and mining camp of the 1850’s. This became one of the remount stations of the Central Overland Pony Express. Here at the Nevada House on April 13, 1860, pony rider William (Sam) Hamilton changed horses while carrying the . . . — Map (db m11571) HM
California (El Dorado County), Georgetown — Georgia Slide
On Wentworth Springs Road at School Street, on the right when traveling south on Wentworth Springs Road.
One and a half miles north of Georgetown sailors from Georgia established claims in 1849. General store and mining camp in 1850 which later produced by seam diggins hydraulic and flood sluicing methods. The famous Blue Rock, Pacific Beattie and . . . — Map (db m54943) HM
California (El Dorado County), Placerville — Gold Bug, A Neighborhood Mine
Near Gold Bug Lane east of Bedford Avenue.
The Gold Bug is like the thousands of small mines that once dotted the Sierra foothills. Surprisingly enough, most of the digging in this mine occurred in the 1920’s and 30’s, and not during the Gold Rush. Mines like this were worked by small . . . — Map (db m69863) HM
California (El Dorado County), Placerville — Hangtown’s Gold Bug Park
Near Gold Bug Lane east of Bedford Avenue.
Did you know that Gold Bug Park has nearly 100 years of gold mining history? The 61 acres of the park include six mining claims that were once a part of the Poverty Ridge Mining District. Some of the richest deposits of the Mother Lode were . . . — Map (db m69861) HM
California (El Dorado County), Placerville — 475 — PlacervilleOriginally Known as “Hangtown” — Incorporated May 13, 1854 —
On Main Street at Bradford Street, on the right when traveling west on Main Street.
Established on banks of “Hangtown” Creek as rich mining camp in spring of 1848. Millions in gold were taken from its ravines and hills. Supply center for surrounding mining camps and transportation terminus for famous Comstock Lode. John . . . — Map (db m12732) HM
California (El Dorado County), Placerville — Placerville Hardware
Oldest continuously operating hardware store west of the Mississippi River One hundred forty years in business — Map (db m13154) HM
California (El Dorado County), Placerville — The Stamp Mill
Near Josua Hendy Lane north of Gold Bug Lane.
Local residents remember that the thunderous crashing staccato of the ore stamp mill could be heard for miles in the narrow canyon. The song of the stamps had been a familiar sound in this area for since George Cozens erected the first mill here in . . . — Map (db m69864) HM
California (El Dorado County), Shingle Springs — 456 — Camp Site of Boston-Newton Party
On this site the Boston-Newton Joint Stock Association encamped on September 26, 1849. The company left Boston April 16 and arrived at Sutter’s Fort September 27. After a remarkable journey across the continent a rich store of written records . . . — Map (db m11568) HM
California (Fresno County), Coalinga — “Wooden Walking Beam”
On Elm Avenue (California Route 33/198) at Pearl Street, on the right when traveling north on Elm Avenue.
This pumping unit, known as a wooden walking beam, was one of the oldest and last remaining in actual use within the Coalinga oil fields. Put into service in July of 1918, it was in continuous use until November 1979. Initial production was 170 . . . — Map (db m64108) HM
California (Fresno County), Coalinga — Coaling Station A
On West Elm Street just east of 7th Street, on the right when traveling west.
Station A was one of three mines (A. B. & C.) in the Coalinga Hills where coal was mined. The coal was transfered (sic) from mule driven ore wagons. Then by coal cars pulled by old Betsy to the transfer dock at Alcalde in Warthan Canyon, from there . . . — Map (db m63891) HM
California (Fresno County), Fresno — 6 — Green Bush Spring
Near Mariposa Street just south of Fulton Street. Reported missing.
On this spot in the early days was a flowing spring beside which stood a large green bush. Wild horses, deer, elk and antelope watered here and it served as a watering place for sheep and cattle. The presence of this water caused the railroad in . . . — Map (db m101867) HM
California (Fresno County), Selma — 30 — Groundwater Irrigation Beginnings
Near Art Gonzales Parkway 0.2 miles from Highland Avenue.
[Marker Front:] Groundwater Irrigation Beginnings The San Joaquin Valley's groundwater reservoir was first tapped with a practical pumping plant 4 miles northeast of here on Dec. 12, 1894. William De La Grange of Selma, tired of . . . — Map (db m28594) HM
California (Humboldt County), Petrolia — 543 — California's First Drilled Oil Wells
On Front Street east of Sherman Avenue, on the right when traveling west.
California's first drilled oil wells producing crude to be refined and sold commercially were located on the north fork of the Mattole River approximately three miles east of here. The old Union Mattole Oil Company made its first shipment of oil . . . — Map (db m51955) HM
California (Imperial County), Imperial — Imperial Irrigation District
On East Barioni Boulevard, on the right when traveling west.
The largest gravity fed irrigation district in the western hemisphere, established in 1911. They later assumed control of several water companies and were instrumental in getting the Hoover Dam and the All American Canal built. They commenced . . . — Map (db m62035) HM
California (Imperial County), Winterhaven — 193 — Picacho Mines
On Picacho Road, on the right when traveling north.
Opened by placer miners after 1852, the gold mines expanded into hard rock quarrying by 1872. Picacho employed 700 miners at its peak from 1895 to 1900. Mill accidents, low ore quality, and the loss of cheap river transport with the building of . . . — Map (db m50584) HM
California (Inyo County), Cartago — 537 — Cottonwood Charcoal Kilns
Reported missing.
In June 1873 Colonel Sherman Stevens built a sawmill and flume on Cottonwood Creek high in the Sierras directly west of this spot. The flume connected with the Los Angeles Bullion Road. The lumber from the flume was used for timbering in the mine . . . — Map (db m33877) HM
California (Inyo County), Furnace Creek — 773 — Old Harmony Borax Works
On California Route 190 near Borax Mill Road, on the left when traveling north.
On the marsh near this point borax was discovered in 1881 by Aaron Winters who later sold his holdings to W. T. Coleman of San Francisco. In 1882 Coleman built the Harmony Borax Works and commissioned his superintendent J. W. S. Perry, to design . . . — Map (db m123896) HM
California (Inyo County), Furnace Creek — White Gold
Near Borax Mill Road near California Route 190, on the left when traveling west.
Though steeped in legend, the frenzied search for gold and other materials in Death Valley produced few fortunes. Borax, the "White Gold of the Desert," ranks as the valley's most profitable mineral. Harmony Borax works, in front of you, . . . — Map (db m32661) HM
California (Inyo County), Keeler — Dolomite Mine
On Dolomite Loop, on the right when traveling south.
In 1862 this high quality deposit of dolomitic limestone was discovered. Its remorte location delayed development until 1883, when the Carson & Colorado Railroad was constructed. In 1885, Drew Haven Dunn filed a mining claim and the Inyo Marble . . . — Map (db m72577) HM
California (Inyo County), Panamint Springs — Charcoal Kilns
On Charcoal Kiln Road, on the right when traveling south.
Editor's Note: The original marker has been replaced. Replacement Marker: Built in 1877, these kilns produced charcoal for the Modock Mine smelter about 20 miles to the west. Workers filled the stone kilns with piñon pine . . . — Map (db m89561) HM
California (Inyo County), Shoshone — Ashford Mill Ruins
Near Badwater Road, on the left when traveling north.
In 1914, gold ore from the Golden Treasure Mine, 5 miles to the east, was processed here for shipment to a smelter. Legend has it that the Ashford Brothers sold the mine for $50,000 to a Hungarian Count, who later sold it to B.W. McCausland for . . . — Map (db m89558) HM
California (Kern County), Bakersfield — Assay Office
Near Chester Avenue.
Kern County experienced a mining boom just like other parts of California. Prospectors arriving from near and far found gold, silver and other valuable ore in Kern County’s mountains beginning in the 1850s. An assayer tests the purity . . . — Map (db m26080) HM
California (Kern County), Bakersfield — Cable Tool Drilling Rig
Near Chesterfield Drive.
Kern County is one of the top oil producing areas in the United States. Four oil fields in Kern County have each produced over one billion barrels of oil. In 1899, the discovery of oil on land near the Kern River started an oil boom. . . . — Map (db m25692) HM
California (Kern County), Bakersfield — 290 — Discovery WellKern River Field — California Historical Landmark —
On Round Mountain Road 0.8 miles east of China Grade Loop, on the right when traveling east.
Oil was discovered at 70 feet in 1899, when Tom Means persuaded Roe Elwood and Frank Wiseman, aided by Jonathan, Bert, Jed, and Ken Elwood, George Wiseman, and John Marlowe, to dig here for oil. On June 1, 1899, 400 feet to the north, Horace and . . . — Map (db m25294) HM
California (Kern County), Bakersfield — Fairhaven Pump House
Near Chester Avenue.
Access to adequate water supplies was crucial to the settlement of Kern County. Water from the Kern River was diverted to irrigate farmlands, but most towns relied on wells for drinking water. The Fairhaven Water Company built this . . . — Map (db m25493) HM
California (Kern County), Bakersfield — Standard End Pumping Unit
Near Chester Avenue.
This standard end pumping unit was salvaged and erected by the Production Department, Chevron U.S.A., Inc., La Habra to commemorate the 100th anniversary of Standard Oil Company of California The unit is composed of original parts from the San . . . — Map (db m26118) HM
California (Kern County), Boron — Twenty Mule Team
Near Suckow Road 2.5 miles north of California Route 58.
This is one of the original twenty mule team wagons, built to carry borax out of Death Valley – through 165 miles of desolated mountains and blistering deserts – to the nearest railroad junction in Mojave. It took 20 days to make the . . . — Map (db m123897) HM
California (Kern County), Maricopa — 485 — Lakeview Gusher No.1California Historical Landmark
On Petroleum Club Road, on the left when traveling north.
America's most spectacular gusher blew in here on March 14, 1910. Initially 18,000 barrels per day, the flow later reached an uncontrolled peak of 100,000 barrels per day, completely destroying the derrick. This Union Oil Company well produced nine . . . — Map (db m54267) HM
California (Kern County), McKittrick — 504 — Buena Vista RefineryCalifornia Historical Landmark
On Lokern Road at Westside Highway (County Route 33), on the right when traveling west on Lokern Road.
Eight miles due west of this marker stood one of California's first commercial oil refineries. Between August 1864 and April 1867, approximately 4,000 gallons of illuminating oil produced there was shipped to San Francisco by the Buena Vista . . . — Map (db m78295) HM
California (Kern County), Mojave — Golden Queen Mine Cart
On Flightline Street, on the left when traveling west.
This display commemorates the Mojave area's rich mining history, which began with the discovery of gold on the Little Buttes north of the present day Silver Queen Road. That discovery by W.W.Bowers was followed by many others in the region, . . . — Map (db m53129) HM
California (Kern County), Mojave — 652 — Mojave 20-Mule Team Borax Terminus
On California Route 14 north of Nadeau Street, on the right when traveling north.
Just west of this point was the Southern Pacific terminus for the Twenty-Mule-Team Borax wagons that operated between Death Valley and Mojave from 1884 to 1889. The route ran from the Harmony Borax Mining Company works, later acquired by the Pacific . . . — Map (db m123891) HM
California (Kern County), Oildale — Oildale Waits Drilling Company
On China Grade Loop Road, on the right when traveling west.
In May 1899, Thomas A. Means owned the land where James and Jonathan Elwood discovered oil on the North Bank of the Kern River. They used a hand auger under the edge of the cliff checking for oil, and later moved to the top to drill. Oil surfaced . . . — Map (db m64665) HM

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