“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”

Hampton Virginia Historical Markers

Aberdeen Rd (facing north) image, Touch for more information
By Bernard Fisher, July 31, 2010
Aberdeen Rd (facing north)
Virginia (Hampton), Briarfield — W-95 — Aberdeen Gardens
Built "by Negroes for Negroes," Aberdeen Gardens began in 1934 as the model resettlement community for Negro families. It was the only such community in the United States designed by a Negro architect (Hilyard R. Robinson) and built by Negro . . . — Map (db m41237) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Buckroe Beach — WY-92 — Buckroe
In 1620, Frenchmen sent over to plant mulberry trees and grape vines settled here. The name was taken from a place in England. — Map (db m33821) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Coliseum Central — 018 — A-2 PolarisNavy • SLBM — Air Power Park Tour
Polaris was a deterrent and retaliatory missile specifically designed for launch from a ballistic missile submarine while submerged (or surfaced) to strike a target some 1,500 miles away. A typical submarine carried 16 of these missiles which . . . — Map (db m103955) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Coliseum Central — 004 — A-7E Corsair IIBuNo.157606 • Navy • Attack — Air Power Park Tour
The A-7E Corsair II was first flown by on November 25, 1969, after the Navy decided that the A7-A & B needed more power and improved avionics. The A-7E was powered by a naval version of the 15,000 lbs Allison/Rolls-Royce TF41-A-2 turbofan . . . — Map (db m103948) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Coliseum Central — AjaxUpper Stage • Army • SAM — Air Power Park Tour
Beginning from the early 1950’s into the 1960’s, during the Cold War era, concerns created the need for basing surface-to-air missiles near U.S. military installations. Built for the U.S. Army by Western Electric and initially deployed in . . . — Map (db m103957) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Coliseum Central — 011 — F-105D ThunderchiefNo.61-0073 • USAF • Fighter — Air Power Park Tour
The F-105 Thunderchief was the last airplane produced by Republic Aviation before it became part of Fairchild Hiller. The Thunder chief was originally a private-venture study as a follow-on to the F-84F. Intended as a fighter bomber, . . . — Map (db m103952) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Coliseum Central — 008 — F-89J ScorpionNo.52-2129 • USAF • Fighter — Air Power Park Tour
First proposed in December of 1945, the F-89 Scorpion was designed as a replacement for the P-61 Black Widow. The first flight was on August 16, 1948. A novel design of the aircraft was the use of “decelerons,” split . . . — Map (db m103950) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Coliseum Central — Langley FieldBuilt for Air Power
Hampton is home to one of the earliest military bases in America specifically built for air power. Langley Flying Field, as it was then called, witnessed and nurtured the growth of the United States Air Force. The story of the land embraced by . . . — Map (db m103906) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Coliseum Central — 019 — M-2 CorporalArmy • IRBM — Air Power Park Tour
The Army's Corporal was the first U.S. ballistic missile originally developed by the Jet Propulsion Lab in Pasadena, California. It was powered by a liquid-fuel rocket engine and carried either a high explosive or nuclear warhead. A . . . — Map (db m103956) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Coliseum Central — 003 — Mercury Test CapsuleNASA • Testing — Air Power Park Tour
This is a test capsule of America's first manned spacecraft for Project Mercury. Engineer's had to devise a vehicle that would protect the human being from the temperature extremes, vacuum, the newly discovered radiation of space and . . . — Map (db m103947) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Coliseum Central — NACAMany Historic Firsts
In the early decades of the twentieth century, it took visionaries to imagine that airplanes might be useful in war and peace. Congress established the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) in 1915 “to supervise and direct the . . . — Map (db m103905) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Coliseum Central — NASA Space HistorySpacecraft, Procedures, and Communication Systems
America’s space program got off the ground near here at NASA Langley Research Center. In 1958, spacecraft, procedures, and communication systems were designed and tested at the center, and the follow year the first astronauts reported to NASA . . . — Map (db m103904) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Coliseum Central — 015 — Nike-AjaxLower/Upper Stage • Army • SAM — Air Power Park Tour
Nike-Ajax is the first U.S. surface-to-air missile. The original Nike program was begun in 1945 and over 10,000 Nike-Ajax missiles serviced over 100 sites in 15 defense areas within the U.S. including the Hampton Roads area. . . . — Map (db m103954) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Coliseum Central — 010 — RF-4C Phantom IINo.69-0372 • USAF • Fighter — Air Power Park Tour
The Phantom II is one of the most successful modern aircraft designs, with over 5,000 built. Developed for the U.S. Navy, it was also flown by the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Marine Corps, and was also sold too many foreign countries. Capable of . . . — Map (db m103951) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Coliseum Central — 012 — T-33A T-BirdNo.51-9086 • USAF • Trainer — Air Power Park Tour
Beginning in June 1943, after development of the Lockheed F-80 Shooting Star, the need for a high-performance trainer aircraft with seen. The resulting T-33 T-Bird was basically an F-80 as shown here with an extended fuselage to allow . . . — Map (db m103953) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — Lantaka
Captured by U.S. forces during the Philippine Insurrection,   c. 1900. — Map (db m85984) WM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — 12-Pounder Gun-HowitzerModel 1857
. . . — Map (db m42458) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — 12-Pounder HowitzerModel 1841
Bronze field piece Made for Confederates in 1862 by Tredegar Foundry, Richmond Smoothbore Diameter of bore     4.62 inches Overall length     58.6 inches Range     1072 yards (0.5 miles) — Map (db m42457) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — 12-Pounder Howitzer
Fired a 12-pound cannonball. Probably captured during the Philippine Insurection,   c. 1900. — Map (db m42472) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — 14 – Pounder James Rifle
Bronze field gun Made in 1862 for Union Forces by Ames Mfg. Company Chicopee, Massachusetts Diameter of Bore     4.125 inches Overall Length         73 inches Weight                   912 pounds — Map (db m42463) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — 3 – Inch Ordnance RifleModel 1861
. . . — Map (db m42470) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — Austrian 6-Pounder Gun
Bronze field piece Diameter of bore       3.74 inches Overall length       63 inches Made in Vienna in 1812 — Map (db m42461) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — Austrian 6-Pounder Gun
Bronze field piece purchased by Confederates abroad Originally rifled; Converted to smoothbore Diameter of bore     3.74 inches Overall length   62 inches Made in Vienna in 1857 — Map (db m42464) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — W-92 — Confinement of Jefferson Davis
In this casemate Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States, was confined, May 22-October 2, 1865. As his health suffered in the casemate, he was removed to Carroll Hall in the fortress, where he remained from October, 1865, until May, . . . — Map (db m10144) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — Eprouvette Mortar
Not a weapon; Used for testing powder Iron smoothbore Diameter of bore       5.655 inches Cast with bed-piece to give an elevation of 45 degrees Made in 1858 Initials of inspector on muzzle Peter V. Hagner — Map (db m42468) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — W-96 — First Africans in Virginia
The first documented Africans in Virginia arrived in August 1619 when a Dutch man-of-war landed here at Point Comfort. The Dutch captured the “twenty and odd” Africans from the Spanish, who had enslaved them, and traded them to the . . . — Map (db m73826) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — W-89 — Fort Algernourne
Near here Captain John Ratcliffe built Fort Algernourne, 1609. In 1614, it was a stockade containing fifty people and seven cannon. In 1632, the fort was rebuilt. It was discontinued after 1667. In 1727, a new fort, Fort George, was ordered built . . . — Map (db m73818) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — W-90 — Fort Monroe
The fort was begun in 1819 and named for President James Monroe. It remained in possession of the Union forces, 1861-65, and from it as a base McClellan began the Peninsular Campaign, 1862. Jefferson Davis was imprisoned here, 1865-67. — Map (db m10319) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — Fort MonroeFreedom’s Fortress — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
Fort Monroe is the largest stone fortification ever built in the United States. Construction began in 1819 and continued for 15 years. Second Lt. Robert E. Lee served as an engineer at Fort Monroe from 1831 to 1834. During the Civil War, Fort . . . — Map (db m10357) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — Fort Monroe Concrete Seawall Eastern Terminus
Fort Monroe Concrete Seawall Eastern Terminus The place where you are standing marks the terminus of a seawall constructed along the southern shores of Old Point Comfort at various periods between 1895 to the mid-twentieth century. This seawall . . . — Map (db m102144) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — W-94 — Freedom’s Fortress
Fort Monroe was the site of Major General Benjamin F. Butler’s decision in 1861 to accept escaping slaves as “contraband of war.” Thousands of former slaves who cast off their bondage and sought sanctuary here called this “The . . . — Map (db m10366) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — Honoring Dr. John J. Craven
Honoring Dr. John J. Craven of the United States Army Whose Humanity, Intelligent Companionship and Professional Skill Lightened The Monotony, The Loneliness and the Physical Suffering of Jefferson Davis President of The Former . . . — Map (db m102138) WM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — John Mitchel
In memory of John Mitchel Nov. 30, 1815 – Mar. 20, 1875 Fearless and courageous southern journalist Staunch supporter of the Confederacy Editor-in-Chief, Richmond (VA) Enquirer Associate Editor, Richmond (VA) Examiner 1862 – 1865 who . . . — Map (db m16343) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — Lantaka
Probably used by Moros during the Philippine Insurrection,   c. 1900. — Map (db m42467) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — Lee's Quarters
Robert E. Lee, future Confederate General, was stationed at Fort Monroe 1831-1834 as a lieutenant of engineers. He had almost complete charge of construction and put the finishing touches on the fort. Lee's first child was born here in 1832. — Map (db m8614) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — Lieutenant John Trout Greble
In memory of first U.S. regular army officer killed in action during the Civil War Lieutenant John Trout Greble 2d U.S. Artillery USMA class of 1854 A member of this garrison killed in action at Big Bethel 10 June 1861 USMA graduates Fort . . . — Map (db m16346) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — W-93 — Old Point Comfort Light
The lighthouse, built in 1802, is the oldest standing structure at Fort Monroe. It remains an active navigational aid, the property of the U.S. Coast Guard. During the War of 1812, the tower was used as a lookout by a British invasion force while . . . — Map (db m73848) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — Omaha Beach Memorial Tree
This tree, planted with authentic soil from Omaha Beach of Normandy, France, commemorates the 40th anniversary of Allied forces’ landings on 6 June 1944. It stands as a memorial to sacrifices in battle and a tangible symbol of our heritage. Planted . . . — Map (db m12038) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — Rodman GunSeacoast 8-inch Converted Rodman — US Model 1861 Serial Number 5
This piece was originally a 10-inch, smooth bore gun. It was converted in 1876 at the West Point foundry, New York, to an 8-inch rifle by inserting a rifled steel tube in the barrel. This particular conversion process was a failure as the system . . . — Map (db m42451) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — Rodman GunSeacoast 8-inch Converted Rodman — US Model 1861 Serial Number 68
Originally cast as a 10-inch, smooth bore gun, this weapon was converted to an 8-inch rifle in 1884 at the South Boston Iron Works. The gun weighs 15,800 pounds, has a length of 144 inches and a diameter and a diameter of 35 inches. The ordnance . . . — Map (db m42452) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — Spanish 1-½ Pounder
Fired a 1-½-pound cannonball. Probably captured during the Philippine Insurection,   c. 1900. — Map (db m42473) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — The Lincoln Gun
Cast in 1860, this was the first 15-inch Rodman Gun. Its range was more than four miles. Weight of the projectile was over 300 lbs. During Civil War it was used to bombard Confederate batteries on Sewells Point. The gun was named for President . . . — Map (db m10320) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — The Old Cistern
One of several large cisterns shown on a map of 1834. No potable water was ever found on Old Point Comfort, although one well was sunk to more than 900 feet. The garrison had to depend on cistern water and water brought in from wells on the mainland. — Map (db m10334) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — W-91 — The Zero Mile Post
This zero mile post is a replica of the original post that stood here at the end of the track on the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway, from which point all main line distances have been measured for the 664.9 miles to Cincinnati, Ohio, since 1889. The . . . — Map (db m73819) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — Veterans of the Battle of the BulgeArdennes
In the largest land battle ever fought by the United States Army six hundred thousand valiant Americans rallied to defeat three powerful German armies in the snows of the Ardennes Forest of Belgium and Luxembourg. Almost 20 thousand soldiers made . . . — Map (db m11478) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — Water Battery
Water Battery Built in 1832, this casemated battery protected the seaward approach to Fort Monroe. It was obsolete by the 1890’s and demolished soon thereafter. All that remains is this powder room. The high ground beyond it s all that remains of a . . . — Map (db m102143) HM
Virginia, Hampton — WY-104 — British Approach to Hampton / The War of 1812
British Approach to Hampton Following the British defeat at Craney Island on 22 June 1813, Adm. Sir John B. Warren sought revenge and ordered Adm. Sir George Cockburn and Gen. Sir Sidney Beckwith to attack Hampton. This port town was . . . — Map (db m76815) HM
Virginia, Hampton — WY-1 — Bunch of Grapes Tavern
The Bunch of Grapes Tavern stood here during Hampton's heyday as a busy colonial seaport in the 1700s. The tavern, one of three then, served as an inn and meeting place for sea captains, planter and agents from the nearby customhouse where . . . — Map (db m33827) HM
Virginia, Hampton — Camp HamiltonOn Sacred Soil
Here stood the U.S. Army’s first camp on Virginia soil after secession, built in May 1861. Only the Veteran’s Cemetery on County Street remains of this entrenched camp. The influx of soldiers at Fort Monroe prompted the commander, Lt. Col. Justin . . . — Map (db m10479) HM
Virginia, Hampton — Edward Braddock
(front) Near this monument disembarked on February 19, 1755 Edward Braddock Major General and Commander-in-Chief of all the British forces in America. His coming marked the beginning of an important stage in the war which . . . — Map (db m33892) HM
Virginia, Hampton — Eighteenth-Century HamptonVirginia’s Most Important Town
Hampton entered its second century as Virginia’s most important town. With merchant ships calling at its docks, paying customs duties and taking on hogsheads of tobacco, the growing village bustled with activity. Crews and ship captains, dockworkers . . . — Map (db m76810) HM
Virginia, Hampton — Elizabeth City Parish
First visited by Englishmen May 10, 1607. Fortified at Old Point by Captain George Percy, October, 1609. Settled by Lord De La Warr, July, 1610; Reinforced by Sir Thomas Dale, May, 1611; The Rev. William Mease being the first minister. . . . — Map (db m33862) HM
Virginia, Hampton — 007 — F-101F VoodooNo.56-0246 • USAF • Fighter — Air Power Park Tour
Designed as a penetrator and long-range escort fighter, the F-101 Voodoo first appeared in 1954. The design was based on the earlier prototype XF-88, and no actual prototype F-101 was built. Later versions were used as long-range interceptors . . . — Map (db m103949) HM
Virginia, Hampton — HamptonA Sacrifice to the Grim God of War — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
The control of Hampton had been disputed during the war’s first months. Brig. Gen. Benjamin F. Butler sought to expand Union control over the lower Peninsula. Despite his defeat during the June 10, 1861, Battle of Big Bethel, his troops occupied . . . — Map (db m33838) HM
Virginia, Hampton — Hampton Baptist Church
In 1791 Grafton Baptist Church, in York County, founded a mission in Hampton, Hampton Baptist Church, which called its first pastor, Richard Hurst, in 1806. After the War of 1812, the church began to grow so that it had 185 members by 1837. During . . . — Map (db m33925) HM
Virginia, Hampton — Hampton Confederate Monument
(front) 1861-1865 Our Confderate Dead (rear) Erected by Hampton Chapter, No.19 Daughters of the Confederacy Unveiled Oct. 29, 1901 — Map (db m33872) HM
Virginia, Hampton — Hampton Courthouse“Roofless and Thoroughly Gutted”
“The courthouse, roofless and thoroughly gutted. … [Its] chimney served oar cooks well in getting supper. The Telegraph tent was soon up and the operator at work on the newly strung wire to Fort Monroe.” – Pvt. Robert Knox . . . — Map (db m33853) HM
Virginia, Hampton — Hampton Is Burned"… a bright light over by the bay."
When Capt. Jefferson C. Phillips’s Confederate troops set the town of Hampton on fire on the evening of August 7, 1861, a house that stood on this King Street site was one of the many structures destroyed. Archaeology tells the story of its demise. . . . — Map (db m33845) HM
Virginia, Hampton — W-87 — Historic Hampton
The Native American village of Kecoughtan stood across the Hampton River in 1607. Soon after the English forcibly removed the inhabitants in 1610, the colonists settled there and the village grew. By the early eighteenth century, the royal . . . — Map (db m33890) HM
Virginia, Hampton — WY-96 — Langley Field: Creating an Air Force
In Dec. 1916, the U.S. Army purchased land four miles north of here to build an airfield to use jointly with the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. During World War I, the Army trained aircrews and tested aircraft there. In 1921, Brig. . . . — Map (db m33842) HM
Virginia, Hampton — WY-97 — Langley Field: Discovering Aerospace
The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), created in 1915 to revitalize American aviation, was a pivotal force behind opening Langley Field in 1917 nearby to the north. It was named for the late Smithsonian Secretary Samuel P. Langley. . . . — Map (db m33844) HM
Virginia, Hampton — W-88 — Little England
In 1634, Capps Point, later known as Little England, was patented by William Capps, a prominent planter who maintained a lucrative saltworks. He served as a burgess in the 1619 General Assembly, the first representative legislative body in the New . . . — Map (db m33900) HM
Virginia, Hampton — WY-95 — Little England Chapel
Little England Chapel, originally known as the Ocean Cottage Sunday School, was built about 1879 on property provided by Daniel F. Cock. Hampton Institute students regularly offered Sunday school lessons here to the African American Newtown . . . — Map (db m33901) HM
Virginia, Hampton — W-97 — Mary Smith Kelsey Peake
Born free in Norfolk in 1823, Mary Peake devoted herself to the education of African Americans. About 1850, she founded the Daughters of Zion to aid the poor and the sick. A seamstress by day, Peake violated state law to teach her fellow blacks at . . . — Map (db m109903) HM
Virginia, Hampton — McDowell's Inn
On this site in 1726 John McDowell, who appraised estates and witnessed wills in Elizabeth City County, owned and operated an inn. It was bought by Dr. John Brodie in 1765. British Marine Captain Brown was treated here and died from wounds received . . . — Map (db m33924) HM
Virginia, Hampton — Ninteenth-Century Hampton“Historic and Rather Pretty Village”
An event that set the stage for Hampton’s new century took place on the night of June 24, 1813 when a large force of British infantry and marines landed on the western edge of town and overwhelmed a much smaller group of defenders. The invaders then . . . — Map (db m76811) HM
Virginia, Hampton — Seventeenth-Century HamptonRough Beginning
It began as a brief encounter. The Jamestown-bound English settlers landed at Strawberry Banks on April 30, 1607 and, after a wary first reception by native villagers, ended up breaking bread and smoking tobacco with them. During a stormy Christmas . . . — Map (db m76809) HM
Virginia, Hampton — St. John’s ChurchThe Venerable Survivor
When Confederate Gen. John B. Magruder learned that the Federals intended to house troops and escaped slaves in Hampton, he burned down the town. Local soldiers, led by Capt. Jefferson C. Phillips, completed this “loathsome yet patriotic . . . — Map (db m33847) HM
Virginia, Hampton — St. John's ChurchHampton, Virginia
The oldest Anglican parish in continuous existence in America. Established in 1610, this is the fourth church built in the parish. It was erected in 1728 in the shape of a Latin cross. Its walls are two feet thick. The bricks are laid in Flemish . . . — Map (db m33858) HM
Virginia, Hampton — The Courthouse
The first Courthouse served Elizabeth City County (one of eight counties established in 1634) and Hampton, the county set. It was probably near the second church site of Elizabeth City Parish now the property of Hampton University. Court buildings . . . — Map (db m33857) HM
Virginia, Hampton — The Hampton CarouselPTC No50 — A Virginia Historic Landmark
Built by the Philadelphia Tobaggan Co. in 1920 Located at the Buckroe Beach Amusement Park from 1921-1985 Purchased by the City of Hampton in 1985 and completely restored in 1991 Grand Opening June 30, 1991 One of less than . . . — Map (db m33835) HM
Virginia, Hampton — The Magnolia Tree Inn
On this site prior to 1884 James Sands Darling built his Victorian home which survived the destructive fire of that year. The home was occupied by his daughter, Grace Darling Cumming, and her family until 1923. It later became the Magnolia Tree Inn . . . — Map (db m33922) HM
Virginia, Hampton — The Northeast Corner
On this corner in the 1750's was a large brick house owned by Captain Alexander Hamilton. John Paul, who owned and ran an ordinary during the Revolutionary War, sold the fifteen corner feet of the one-half acre lot to Thomas Latimer, Jr. It was . . . — Map (db m33919) HM
Virginia, Hampton — The Sclater Building
The oldest surviving commercial structure in Old Hampton was built by William S. Sclater following the War Between the States. The lot is part of an original one-half acre on which, by the 1750's, was a large brick house belonging to a Captain . . . — Map (db m33920) HM
Virginia, Hampton — Third Church at KecoughtanNotable Burials in the Churchyard
You are standing within the foundations of the third church at Kecoughtan (present-day Hampton). The first church (1616–1624) was located 1.5 miles south of here and the second one was constructed across the Hampton River about two miles east. . . . — Map (db m33899) HM
Virginia, Hampton — WY-88 — Third Elizabeth City Parish Church
Here is the site of "The New Church of Kecoughtan", built before 1667 on Pembroke Farm as the third church of Elizabeth City Parish, established in 1610. It was a frame building and its brick foundation and some early colonial tombstones remain. . . . — Map (db m33895) HM
Virginia, Hampton — Twentieth-Century Hampton“From the Sea to the Stars”
The recovery that began with the seafood and hotel industries after the Civil War continued well into Hampton’s fourth century. Oysters and d crabs were packed and shipped around the world. Tourism got a boost when the Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad ran . . . — Map (db m76814) HM
Virginia, Hampton — Virginia LaydonThe First Surviving Child Born in Virginia to English Parents
We Remember Virginia Laydon The First Surviving Child Born in Virginia to English Parents Member of this Parish Virginia Laydon was born about 1609, the first child of Anne Burras Laydon and John Layton. Anne Burras, age . . . — Map (db m33871) HM
Virginia, Hampton — W-99 — William Claiborne
Nearby, William Claiborne (1600-1677) built a warehouse about 1631 to support his trading post on Kent Island in Chesapeake Bay. When Maryland seized the island in 1632, Claiborne fought an unsuccessful "naval war." Born in Kent County, England, he . . . — Map (db m33832) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Hampton Roads — W-66 — Battle of Big Bethel
On 10 June 1861, the first land battle of the Civil War in present-day Virginia took place here at Big Bethel Church. Maj. Gen. Benjamin F. Butler, commanding at Fort Monroe, sent converging columns at night from Hampton and Newport News for a dawn . . . — Map (db m29142) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Hampton Roads — 1 — Battle of Big BethelProtecting the Peninsula
This is the site of the first land battle of the Civil War in present-day Virginia. During the spring of 1861, Federal officials took steps to secure Fort Monroe, which occupied a strategically vital position at the mouths of the Chesapeake Bay and . . . — Map (db m66886) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Hampton Roads — 2 — Battle of Big BethelHampton Roads in 1861
Unlike at Fort Sumter in South Carolina, the U.S. Army held Fort Monroe and its environs too strongly for Confederate forces to overcome. Instead, the Confederates concentrated on attempting to control Hampton Roads and protect Norfolk, the major . . . — Map (db m103829) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Hampton Roads — 3 — Battle of Big BethelCommanding Officers
Confederate Col. John Bankhead Magruder (1807-1871) graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1830. He served in e Second Sem inole War 1835-1842) and the Mexican-American War (1846-1848), and commanded an artillery battery in . . . — Map (db m103830) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Hampton Roads — 4 — Battle of Big BethelFirst Steps to Freedom
“As a political question and a question of humanity can I receive the services of father and mother and not take the children? Of the humanitarian aspect I have no doubt; of the political one I have no right to judge.”—Gen. . . . — Map (db m103831) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Hampton Roads — 5 — Battle of Big BethelChanging Landscape
In the spring of 1862, Union Gen. George B. McClellan led his 100,000-man Army of the Potomac west from Hampton past Big Bethel in a campaign to capture Richmond. The battlefield of June 9, 1861, soon faded into obscurity. Little remains of the . . . — Map (db m103832) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Hampton Roads — 6 — Battle of Big BethelThe Federal Attack
During the Federal attack, the first Confederate enlisted man who died in combat during the Civil War was killed here. Union Gen. Ebenezer W. Pierce began his assault at about 9 A.M. on June 10, 1861. Capt. H. Judson Kilpatrick led the 5th New . . . — Map (db m103833) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Hampton Roads — 7 — Battle of Big BethelCombatants’ Stories
The Battle of Big Bethel was, for most of the participants, their first experience with warfare. Officers and enlisted men on both sides often wrote of details that in fights to come would not merit a mention. Union Gen. Ebenezer W. Pierce, the . . . — Map (db m103834) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Hampton Roads — 8 — Battle of Big BethelConfederate Victory
As the Confederates here tried to burn the Zouaves out of the buildings that stood in front of you, the last act of the battle unfolded to your left across the creek. The "New England Battalion” (1st Vermont, 4th Massachusetts, and 7th New . . . — Map (db m103835) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Hampton Roads — 9 — Battle of Big BethelAftermath
For the Federals, the Big Bethel expedition ended in complete failure. Casualties totaled 76: 18 killed, 53 wounded, and 5 missing. The Northern press blamed Gen. Benjamin F Butler for ordering his troops into battle with poor preparation and for . . . — Map (db m103836) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Hampton Roads — 10 — Battle of Big BethelLong-Term Consequences
Although Confederate Col. John B. Magruder and his forces won the Battle of Big Bethel, they could not stem the Federal tide for long. On June 15, 1861, within a week of the battle, a huge Sawyer rifled cannon mounted at Fort Calhoun (Fort Wool) on . . . — Map (db m103837) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Hampton Roads — Battle of Big Bethel
On June 10, 1861, Confederate forces under Colonel john Bankhead Magruder engaged numerically superior Federal forces under Brigadier General Ebenzer W. Pierce in what is recognized as the first planned land engagement of the Civil War. After a . . . — Map (db m103838) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Hampton Roads — Battle of Big Bethel Union Monument
Dedicated on the 150th anniversary Battle of Big Bethel Union regiments engaged: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th (Duryee Zouaves) & 7th New York 4th Mass. & 1st Vermont 2nd U.S. Artillery Union losses: 18 killed, 53 wounded, 5 MIA To . . . — Map (db m66887) WM
Virginia (Hampton), Hampton Roads — WY-100 — Chesterville Plantation
One mile north is Chesterville, birthplace of George Wythe (1726-1806), a prominent Virginia attorney, judge, legislator, and signer of the Declaration of Independence. Wythe inherited the family plantation in the 1750s and operated it until the . . . — Map (db m73768) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Hampton Roads Center — Henry Lawson Wyatt
On this spot June 10, 1861 fell Henry Lawson Wyatt Private Company A. 1st North Carolina Regiment This stone placed here by the courtesy of Virginia, is erected by authority of the State of North Carolina. June 10, 1905 . . . — Map (db m29144) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Hampton Roads Center — WY-101 — National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) was established by Congress in 1915 to “supervise and direct the scientific study of the problems of flight.” The NACA created the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory at nearby . . . — Map (db m73771) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Phoebus — WY-91 — Camp Hamilton
In this vicinity was situated Camp Hamilton. A large camp of Union troops first occupied in May, 1861. A great military hospital, Hampton Hospital was here. — Map (db m59625) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Phoebus — Emancipation Oak“Thirst for Knowledge”
Here, under an oak tree, newly freed African American students listened in January 1863 as the Emancipation Proclamation was read aloud. Union Gen. Benjamin F. Butler’s “contraband of war” decision at Fort Monroe in 1861 anticipated that . . . — Map (db m33817) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Phoebus — W-98 — Emancipation Oak
To the west, on the grounds of Hampton University, stands the Emancipation Oak. Under its sheltering limbs, protected and encouraged by the occupying Union army and prominent local church leaders, Mary Smith Kelsey Peake (1823- 22 Feb. 1862) taught . . . — Map (db m73795) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Phoebus — Hampton InstituteHas Been Designated — A National Historic Landmark
This site possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the the United States of America — Map (db m84264) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Phoebus — Hampton Monument
Marker front: Near here the English landed April 30, 1607 before going to Jamestown. They were welcomed by the Kecoughton Indians with native religious ceremonies, dancing and feasting. Marker back: In 1610, following the . . . — Map (db m92321) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Phoebus — S-28 — John Baptist Pierce(1875-1942)
Cooperative Extension Service pioneer, innovator, and educator, John Baptist Pierce was appointed in 1906 by Seaman Knapp and H. B. Frissell of Hampton Institute as the first Negro farm demonstration agent for Virginia. Pierce served for 35 years as . . . — Map (db m33819) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Phoebus — WY-93 — Phoebus
Settled as Mill Creek and Strawberry Banks by English Colonists, the Town of Phoebus was “Roseland Farm” until 1871 when it was divided into lots and became known as Chesapeake City. When the town was incorporated in 1900, it was named . . . — Map (db m33627) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Phoebus — WY-94 — Phoebus
Settled as Mill Creek and Strawberry Banks by English Colonists, the Town of Phoebus was "Roseland Farm" until 1871 when it was divided into lots and became known as Chesapeake City. When the town was incorporated in 1900, it was named Phoebus in . . . — Map (db m33630) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Phoebus — Phoebus - The Gateway To The New World
This quaint waterfront community traces its origin back to April 30th 1607. It was here that the first English-speaking Colonists set foot in the New World and called this "safe harbor" Cape Comfort. It began as a settlement for defenders and . . . — Map (db m33633) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Phoebus — Saint Mary Star Of The Sea And Its SchoolCatholic Education in Phoebus and Fort Monroe
The story of Saint Mary Star of the Sea School goes back to 1858 when Chapel of the Centurion was built at Fort Monroe primarily for Protestant services. A group of officers—some of Irish extraction—requested that a Catholic church also . . . — Map (db m103893) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Phoebus — WY-89 — Second Church at Kecoughtan
Nearby a monument marks the site of the second church at Kecoughtan (later Hampton), built in 1624 for Elizabeth City Parish, established 1610 and now the oldest Protestant parish in continuous existence in America. This building was replaced before . . . — Map (db m73777) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Phoebus — WY-99 — The Hampton Indian Program
Hampton Institute began the Hampton Indian Program to “christianize and civilize” American Indians. The first students arrived at the Institute near midnight on 13 April 1878. They had been incarcerated at Fort Marion in St. Augustine, . . . — Map (db m73794) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Wythe — WY-102 — Admiral Sir George Cockburn on the Chesapeake / The War of 1812
Admiral Sir George Cockburn on the Chesapeake During the War of 1812, a British naval squadron arrived in Hampton Roads on 4 February 1813 to establish a naval blockade of the Chesapeake Bay. Later commanded by Adm. Sir George Cockburn, . . . — Map (db m76819) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Wythe — Fertile Hunting Grounds For The IndiansOlde Wythe’s History Begins
Long before citizens of Hampton ever called Olde Wythe home, this area was used by the Kecoughtan Indians for hunting, fishing, and growing crops. The Kecoughtans were part of a loose confederation of the Algonquin whose chieftain was Powhatan. The . . . — Map (db m33932) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Wythe — W-84 — First Battle of Ironclads
In Hampton Roads, southward and a mile or two offshore, the Virginia (Merrimac) and the Monitor fought their engagement, March 9, 1862. The day before the Virginia destroyed the Cumberland and Congress, wooden ships of Union Navy. — Map (db m10139) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Wythe — WY-90 — First Church at Kecoughtan
Near here on the church creek stood the first church at Kecoughtan (later Hampton). Built on the Parish Glebe Farm about 1616, as the first church of the oldest continuous settlement of English origin in America, William Mease was the first known . . . — Map (db m33903) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Wythe — Hampton Roads – World’s Greatest HarborHistorical Events Passing the Shores of Olde Wythe
The body of water before you, named Hampton Roads, is one of the world’s biggest, deepest, natural harbors. It is formed at the mouths of the James, Nansemond and Elizabeth Rivers and empties into the Chesapeake Bay. The name Hampton Roads honors . . . — Map (db m33941) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Wythe — Indian River Park – In The Heart Of Olde Wythe“A Forward Movement in Suburban Development”
On this site in 1916 local businessman and developer Charles Hopkins and his partners launched the Boulevard Development Company, to build “attractive, high class home places” half way between Hampton and Newport News. With the local . . . — Map (db m33949) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Wythe — Olde Wythe During Colonial TimesBuilding Blocks for the Future
The Olde Wythe neighborhood was once part of Elizabeth City County, one of the four original Corporations of the London Company’s Virginia colony. The county is now classified as “extinct,” because its citizens voted to consolidate with . . . — Map (db m33937) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Wythe — WY-103 — Sack of Hampton / The War of 1812
Sack of Hampton As British Gen. Sidney Beckwith dispersed the local militia on 25 June 1813, Adm. Sir George Cockburn feigned an attack with barges at the mouth of the Hampton River. Hampton’s water battery was abandoned and the British . . . — Map (db m76817) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Wythe — Stalemate in Hampton RoadsIn a “big glass case” — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
After the March 8-9, 1862, Battle of Hampton Roads, CSS Virginia went into drydock for refitting. USS Monitor guarded Union Gen. George B. McClellan’s transport vessels in the York River near Fort Monroe, and the Federals reinforced . . . — Map (db m10351) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Wythe — The Development Of Olde WytheLaying the Foundation of the Neighborhood
In the years prior to the Civil War, the area known today as Olde Wythe was simply country farm land, with no special designation. After the war it remained the same for quite a while as there were no roads in the area, just country lanes. Although . . . — Map (db m33935) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Wythe — The Hampton Roads Golf And Country ClubFirst in Virginia & One of the First 100 in the Country
The Hampton Roads Golf and Country Club was established in 1893 on undeveloped land purchased for speculation by Mary Frances Armstrong in 1888. This site today would extend from Hampton Roads Avenue to East Avenue, from Kecoughtan Road to Hampton . . . — Map (db m33945) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Wythe — W-85 — Wythe’s Birthplace
Eight miles north George Wythe, Revolutionary Leader and signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born, 1726. — Map (db m10634) HM

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