Through his love of baseball and through his love for St. Augustine and its people, Frederick G. (Fred) Francis took baseball out of the sandlots and lifted the St. Augustine Saints to four pennants while he was at the helm.
Fred Francis made it . . . — — Map (db m173972) HM
General Bailey was born and once played in/shared the culture of the neighborhood of West Augustine, directed by his parents and the elementary school personnel. Born during the civil rights era which was spearheaded locally by Florida . . . — — Map (db m156555) HM
Fullerwood School was built in 1927 and is the only example in St. Augustine of the work of noted architect A. Ten Eyck Brown (1878-1940), famed for his courthouses, banks, and city halls in New Orleans, Miami and Atlanta. His name is on the . . . — — Map (db m40725) HM
This area in the heart of Lincolnville was associated with black education for nearly a century. This lot was the site of the Presbyterian Parochial and Industrial School, headed by Rev. James H. Cooper. It was demolished in 1940 and the grounds . . . — — Map (db m40701) HM
This was the home of Mrs. Georgie Mae Reed (1926-1995), who took part in one of the most famous events in the civil rights movement that changed America and inspired the world.
On March 31, 1964, Mrs. Reed was one of five St. Augustine women who . . . — — Map (db m65420) HM
Constructed before 1885, this is one of the oldest surviving buildings in Lincolnville, an historic neighborhood founded by freed slaves after the Civil War.
It was home to two generations of the Moran family. Horace Moran was the chef at the . . . — — Map (db m21194) HM
This house was built between 1904 and 1910 on what was then called Central Avenue. The name was changed in 1986. There are many streets in America named to honor Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., but this one is special because he actually walked on it . . . — — Map (db m17915) HM
This was the home of Oscar Turner (1898-1987) and his wife Mabel (1903-1978). Their daughter, Mattie, married educator and coach A. Malcolm Jones, the principal of Richard J. Murray High School, for whom the recreational field at the nearby Willie . . . — — Map (db m40698) HM
This house was built in the 1920s and purchased a decade later by Jutson Ayers, who worked as an alligator wrestler for a quarter of a century at the St. Augustine Alligator Farm before his death in 1958. His widow, Mrs. Rena Ayers, gave important . . . — — Map (db m17914) HM
The house at 156 Central Avenue was built in the 1950's for Mrs. Janie Price, a nurse at Flagler Hospital. She had taken her nurse's training at Grady Hospital in Atlanta in the 1940s and while there had attended dances with students from Morehouse . . . — — Map (db m7627) HM
The southern half of Lincolnville was, in colonial times, a plantation called "Buena Esperanza" (Spanish for "Good Hope"). During the Flagler Era of the 1880s, it was bought by Standard Oil millionaire William Warden and developed as a residential . . . — — Map (db m40699) HM
In 1740, General James Oglethorpe of Georgia, vowed to "take St. Augustine or leave my bones before its walls." The Spanish Governor Manuel de Montiano vowed in turn to "shed his last drop of blood" in defense of the town. Neither had to keep their . . . — — Map (db m46349) HM
The event that brought the civil rights movement in St. Augustine to international attention was the arrest of Mary Parkman Peabody (1891-1981), the 72-year old mother of the Governor of Massachusetts, for trying to be served in a racially . . . — — Map (db m7610) HM
This small brick structure was originally a privy (outhouse), likely built before the house sometime between 1872 and 1875 (there was also one in the south corner).
It was turned into a shed after indoor plumbing and bathrooms were added to the . . . — — Map (db m126898) HM
These bricks are the remains of the south privy (outhouse), built for use primarily by tourists rather than the keepers’ families. At some point during its history this outhouse was converted into a toilet.
The smaller brick square just to the . . . — — Map (db m126954) HM
Just to the east of this well stood the original wooden kitchens, used prior to adding the brick kitchens on either side of the keepers’ house.
The well had a pump handle, like the one you see between the two old kitchens in the picture to . . . — — Map (db m126897) HM
This is one of two brick kitchens added in 1888, replacing former wooden kitchens that were located closer to the lighthouse tower. Before indoor air conditioning and safer cooking techniques, kitchens were detached from houses to protect them from . . . — — Map (db m126957) HM
Gaar Scott & Company, established in 1895 in Richmond, Indiana, manufactured a long line of tractors, threshing machines, and steam engines from 1842 through 1911, including this 1902 model.
This enormous cast-iron and steel tractor, weighing some . . . — — Map (db m126113) HM
Bethel Baptist Church was founded in 1939 by Rev. William Banks, the former pastor of St. Mary's Missionary Baptist Church on Washington Street, and other members from that congregation. Land was acquired on Riberia Street, and the church building . . . — — Map (db m21207) HM
Leo C. Chase, Sr., who had previously managed the Huff Funeral Home in Lincolnville, opened one of the oldest businesses in St. Augustine, this funeral home in 1955. His son, Arnett Chase, took over after his father's death in 1977. Another son, . . . — — Map (db m40723) HM
The Ponce de Leon Shopping Center opened in 1955 as the first downtown shopping center in St. Augustine. It was designed by Morris Lapidus (1902-2001), Florida's most famous mid-twentieth century architect, and is the only example of his work in the . . . — — Map (db m7696) HM
Bernard Street is one of three historically black residential streets in the North City area, dating back to the Flagler Era. At the west end of the street were a lumber yard, steam laundry, and ice plant that provided employment. Other residents . . . — — Map (db m17913) HM
This beach cottage attracted international attention in 1964, and a photograph taken here of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. pointing to a bullet hole in the window has become one of the iconic images of the civil rights movement. It was the winter . . . — — Map (db m40697) HM
This house, overlooking Maria Sanchez Lake, was built in the 1950's for a distinguished family of educators. James G. Reddick was a longtime principal of Excelsior School and his wife Maude was the supervisor of black schools in St. Augustine in the . . . — — Map (db m21187) HM
57 Chapin Street was once the home of Willie Galimore (1935-1964), the most famous athlete to come from St. Augustine. A three-time Pittsburgh Courier All-American football player at Florida A & M University under the legendary coach Jake Gaither, . . . — — Map (db m7732) HM
This was the home of Rev. Roscoe Halyard and his wife Flora, both active participants in the civil rights movement of the 1960s. Rev. Halyard, who was associated with Zion Baptist Church and worked as a carpenter, made trips to both Tallahassee and . . . — — Map (db m21208) HM
64 Washington Street was the Florida State Headquarters of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) during and after the civil rights demonstrations of 1964. SCLC was founded in 1957 by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. after the successful . . . — — Map (db m7607) HM
This house was built in 2008 by Habitat for Humanity for one of the Ancient City's civil rights heroes, Audrey Nell Edwards. Along with JoeAnn Anderson Ulmer, Samuel White, and Willie Carl Singleton, she was one of the "St. Augustine Four." As . . . — — Map (db m40724) HM
The St. Augustine office of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was located in this building from the 1970's until the early 1990's. The organization's roots in the Ancient City began much earlier. William English . . . — — Map (db m21181) HM
The Rudcarlie Building at 79 Bridge Street was built in the 1950's by Dr. Rudolph N. Gordon (1901-1959) and named for the members of his family. Rudolph, Carlotta, and Rosalie. It was the first medical/dental office constructed in St. Augustine . . . — — Map (db m7640) HM
The house at 8 Scott Street was built in the 1950s as part of Rollins Subdivision, a new residential area where many prominent black St. Augustinians made their homes. In the early 1960s it was the residence of Dr. Robert B. Hayling and family. A . . . — — Map (db m7628) HM
A part of the armament of historic Fort Marion (Castillo de San Marcos) before, during and after the Civil War Presented to the City of St. Augustine by the U.S. War Department June 12, 1900 — — Map (db m46800) HM
This Victorian house in the historic Lincolnville neighborhood (founded by freed slaves after the Civil War) became a civil rights landmark in 1964. It was a gathering place for people in the movement, where they could meet, rest, seek solace, and . . . — — Map (db m40729) HM
Trinity United Methodist Church is the oldest congregation in historic Lincolnville and one of the oldest Protestant congregations in Florida. Its origins date to the early American period, in the 1820s, when a Methodist missionary came to St. . . . — — Map (db m21206) HM
The narrow streets and small building lots of this area mark it as the earliest part of Lincolnville, founded by freed slaves after the Civil War and now listed on the National Register of Historic Places. An earlier house that stood on this site . . . — — Map (db m102339) HM
This has been the home to the Whites, one of the outstanding families active in the 1963-1964 civil rights movement in St. Augustine. Parents James (a decorated Buffalo Soldier from World War II) and Hattie Lee White both took part in . . . — — Map (db m40700) HM
Zion Baptist Church, with its distinctive double towers, was built in 1921 to house a congregation originally organized in 1886. It is the last house of worship passed by many funerals on their way to several nearby cemeteries, including the one . . . — — Map (db m7803) HM
97 Martin Luther King Avenue was built in the 1920s by Frederick E. Martin, a prominent Lincolnville businessman whose name is set in the tile inside the front door. It was a popular confectionery and sundries store under many owners, drawing some . . . — — Map (db m7727) HM
St. Augustine's colonial downtown district exists as the most enduring location of European origin in the United States, having been settled since 1572. A diverse array of archaeological resources, the result of 400+ years of . . . — — Map (db m102336) HM
Civil War Dead
An estimated 700,000 Union and Confederate soldiers died in the Civil War between April 1861 and April 1865. As the death toll rose, the U.S. government struggled with the urgent but unplanned need to bury fallen Union . . . — — Map (db m127668) HM
Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that . . . — — Map (db m144126) HM WM
Fort Mose (Moh-Say) was a multicultural community of people originally from West and Central Africa, along with some Native Americans.
Some of the residents of Mose, like Francisco Menéndez, fought in the 1715 Yamasee War against the . . . — — Map (db m126973) HM
Built by Henry Flagler, the Alcázar Hotel opened as a companion to the Ponce de León in 1888. The building, one of the first multi-storied structures in the country constructed with poured concrete, was designed by John M. Carrere and Thomas . . . — — Map (db m115580) HM
In 2011, archaeologists from the University of Florida made an unexpected discovery at this spot. Coquina and oyster shell foundations, outlining a building of at least 90 by 40 feet, were uncovered just inches under the sod. Artifacts associated . . . — — Map (db m146511) HM
By the year 1870, a widowed Clarissa Fairbanks Anderson had built on her property, known as “Markland,” a gable-roofed, frame “winter cottage” for guests.
In 1885, her son, Dr. Andrew Anderson, Jr., sold part of the . . . — — Map (db m100592) HM
At this location on June 9th, 1964, Civil Rights Movement Leader Andrew Young led a march from Lincolnville to the Plaza de la Constitución where they met violent opposition. Young had been sent to St. Augustine by the Reverend Martin Luther King, . . . — — Map (db m107336) HM
Archaeologists from Flagler College and the University of Florida, in collaboration with the Diocese of St. Augustine, are excavating the remains of the Shrine built here in 1687 by the Governor of Florida in honor of Nuestra Señora de la Leche y . . . — — Map (db m146512) HM
Archaeological excavations at the Nombre de Dios Mission/Nuestra Señora de La Leche Shrine site have been undertaken by University of Florida archaeologists since 1985. The digs have been carried out in search of the earliest sixteenth century . . . — — Map (db m146513) HM
If you visited St. Augustine at the turn of the century, you would have traveled to Florida aboard a steamboat on the St. Johns River to Tocoi, 18 miles west of St. Augustine.
At Tocoi, you boarded the St. Johns Railroad for a four hour ride in . . . — — Map (db m134497) HM
The body of water in front of you is the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (AICW). The Intracoastal Waterway is also known as the Marine I-95. The AICW is a marked continuous navigation channel that begins in Virginia and ends in Key West. The AICW . . . — — Map (db m143619) HM
The Avero family lived on this property from 1712 until 1804 even before the existing building was constructed, with the exception of the British occupation period during 1763-1783. The restoration was undertaken to approximate the character of the . . . — — Map (db m111092) HM
This block of property owned by the Catholic Church contains three historic buildings that embody an important part of African American heritage of St. Augustine. It was part of Yallaha orange grove plantation before the Civil War and was . . . — — Map (db m102735) HM
In 1740, the English attacked St. Augustine, but departed after a bloody battle at Fort Mose.
Georgia Governor James Oglethorpe invaded Florida with a sizable force, including Lower Creeks and Uchise Indian allies. Fort Mose inhabitants . . . — — Map (db m126968) HM
Once in English Carolina, the enslaved Africans were forced into labor and had no legal standing and few rights.
Africans labored on indigo plantations, and as lumbermen and cattlemen. They produced materials for shipbuilding and cleared . . . — — Map (db m126965) HM
During the American Revolution, St. Augustine was a base for British military activity in the South. The English added second floors in this and other rooms to make more space for storage and quarters. — — Map (db m46536) HM
Although the Castillo's high walls and moat were a substantial obstacle to anyone trying to capture the fort, the cannon here on the gundeck (or terreplein) were the were the real strength of the fort. With a range of over a mile, the cannon could . . . — — Map (db m46346) HM
These two buildings, at 42 and 46 Bridge Street, are among the few Territorial Period buildings left in the city which represent the time period between 1821 and 1845. Antonio Canova purchased the property and built these structures for his sons. . . . — — Map (db m111551) HM
Building patterns were influenced by the royal decree of 1573 to situate buildings and walls along the street edge for defensive purposes. The Prince Murat house is one of the remaining Spanish Colonial buildings and is significant for its . . . — — Map (db m108318) HM
Built 1749 - Restored 1979This shrine is dedicated to the memory of the 400 Greeks who arrived in St. Augustine in 1768, took on fresh supplies, then journeyed south to help settle the colony of New Smyrna, Florida. After ten difficult years, the . . . — — Map (db m46789) HM
Built ca. 1740 Reconstructed 1967
A house representative of the first Spanish period with minor British modifications. The reconstruction of this residence was made possible from contributions of
A.D. Davis and J.E. Davis
Winn Dixie . . . — — Map (db m107554) HM
Pedro Horruytiner y Pueyo was the first documented owner of this house, a member of a prominent Spanish family. Don Pedro Benedit Horruytiner and Don Luis de Horruytiner were governors of Florida during the First Spanish Period (1565-1763). It . . . — — Map (db m111752) HM
Castillo de San Marcos (English)
Explore the oldest masonry fort in the continental United States. For hundreds of years Castillo de San Marcos has watched over St. Augustine. From the upper gun deck, see how this massive fort guarded . . . — — Map (db m127753) HM
This Spanish fort, begun in 1672, stood
firm against English attacks and helped
Spain to hold Florida for many years.
During the American Revolution it was a
British stronghold. Later it became a
U.S. Military Prison. — — Map (db m127652) HM
This Spanish fort, begun in 1672, stood firm against English attacks and helped Spain to hold Florida for many years. During the American Revolution, it was a British stronghold. Later it became a battery in the U.S. coastal defense system. — — Map (db m127654) HM
The Cathedral Basilica is a significant structure representing the oldest Roman Catholic parish in the United States, architectural designs by Mariano de la Rocque (1797) and James Renwick (following an 1887 fire), and the successes of historic . . . — — Map (db m112492) HM
Following the Civil War and the reconstruction period the state of Florida found itself in debt. As a way to offset some of the state’s expenditures, newly elected governor George Drew put into practice the convict leasing system in 1877. Prisoners . . . — — Map (db m79584) HM
In time of danger, the chapel was a spiritual haven for both soldiers and townspeople. Before the altar, the priest offered mass. The walls were white, with a red band at floor level. The holy water fonts are still in place. — — Map (db m46538) HM
Closing the Door (English)
The Spanish built Fort Matanzas to protect the southern approach to St. Augustine. Spanish ships from Cuba used this waterway to resupply the town during the 1740 British siege. After the siege, they built this . . . — — Map (db m127495) HM
The 1990 excavation of this coquina block well revealed furniture fragments from the 1600s, a rarity among St. Augustine's artifacts. Most likely, the well was built in the early 1600s and filled quickly about 1670 with household items from a . . . — — Map (db m93269) HM
On March 19, 1812, the Spanish Parliament in Cadiz wrote the first Spanish Constitution and issued a Royal Decree for all Spanish towns throughout the empire to build monuments and rename their main plazas La Plaza de la Constitucion in . . . — — Map (db m143638) HM
Wooden Buildings Offered Little Protection
Founded in 1565, St. Augustine suffered Indian attacks, pirate raids, and military invasions. Within the first hundred years, nine wooden forts were burned, destroyed by storms, or had simply rotted . . . — — Map (db m127408) HM
Coquina in these Walls (English)
Special to the architecture of Government House and St. Augustine's defenses, churches, and residences is coquina, a rare native shell stone formed over a long period of geological time and quarried since . . . — — Map (db m127486) HM
Designed and built by Franklin W. Smith, the Casa Monica Hotel opened in January 1888. The medieval Spanish style structure was one of the earliest multi-storied buildings in the United States constructed of poured concrete. In April 1888, Henry M. . . . — — Map (db m129656) HM
Fort Matanzas was built using coquina, a local limestone. This porous limestone is made from millions of seashells pressed together for thousands of years. The Spanish coated the fort walls with plaster made . . . — — Map (db m127498) HM
Crumbling Coquina (English)
Castillo de San Marcos was built using coquina, a local limestone. This porous limestone is made from millions of seashells pressed together for thousands of years. The Spanish coated the fort walls . . . — — Map (db m127745) HM
These three pyramids cover vaults containing the individually unidentified remains of 1468 soldiers of the Florida Indian Wars
The Florida Indian Wars began with the murder of an Indian agent at Fort King on December 25, 1835. . . . — — Map (db m77411) HM WM
Until the 1920s the northwest corner of Anastasia Island was a swampy lowland with occasional peaks of high ground. In 1925, wealthy Florida land developer D.P. Davis purchased the lowlands and raised them in a massive 1,500 acre dredge and fill . . . — — Map (db m47390) HM
Deadly Crossfire (English)
The Spanish built the star-shaped Castillo de San Marcos in the late-1600s. The star design responded to the advent of a deadly new weapon: the cannon. The fort's complex shape meant a battery of cannons on the . . . — — Map (db m127750) HM
Defense in Depth (English)
Enemy troops would have encountered an obstacle course of rising slopes, low walls, and ditches before reaching the Castillo's walls. The Spanish built this extensive defensive system to help protect the fort. . . . — — Map (db m127289) HM
Bronze statue of the illustrious son of Aviles, Spain, Governor, Captain General “Conquistador”, and Adelantado of Florida who founded St. Augustine on September 8, 1565. The Statue was a gift of the people of St. Augustine, dedicated . . . — — Map (db m132482) HM
(Front):Illustrious son of Aviles, Spain Governor and Captain General, Conquistador, Adelantado in Perpetuity of Florida. Founded St. Augustine September 8, 1565 * * * * * * * * * * Statue was a gift of the people of the city of Aviles, . . . — — Map (db m47053) HM
Following the typical model of Spanish Colonial site planning, this structure is situated on the street edge and features coquina stone construction with a protective stucco finish. The exposed fireplace is a reminder of another structure that was . . . — — Map (db m108056) HM
The stone walls of this building date from before 1750 and were part of a house owned by the Royal Treasurer late in the First Spanish Period. During the British Period it served for a time as the home of Governor John Moultrie. In 1837 Dr. Seth S. . . . — — Map (db m46797) HM
Great Seal of the State of Florida:"In God We Trust"
On the shore of Robinson Creek, ¼ mile east of this marker, was the site of a Spanish mission for Indians left homeless during Queen Anne's War. Since 1688, Negro slaves . . . — — Map (db m126969) HM WM
Fountain of Youth Lodge No. 649, Benevolent Protective Order of Elks of the World and Pride of Fountain of Youth Temple No. 413. Completed in November 1958.
This lodge, called Elks Rest, was at the early center of political and . . . — — Map (db m77259) HM
Engulfed in Flames (English)
Spanish soldiers watch in horror as English troops set fire to their homes. They are helpless. The drawbridges are up. The soldier-settlers and their families are sheltered within the crowded fortress. Except . . . — — Map (db m127748) HM
In 1693, Spain’s King Charles II proclaimed that any English slave who reached Spanish Florida would be granted freedom upon converting to Catholicism.
By sea and land, Africans fled to St. Augustine on a dangerous journey with a strong . . . — — Map (db m126966) HM
One of the few Spanish Colonial buildings remaining in St. Augustine and among a smaller group from the First Spanish Period, this structure suffered two fires and underwent many major alterations. The first documented property owner, and possible . . . — — Map (db m111252) HM
Spain ceded Florida to England in 1763, and Mose residents departed with other colonists for Cuba.
During Fort Mose's final years, life on the frontier grew more difficult. Constant attacks by English and Indian raiding parties drove Mose . . . — — Map (db m126971) HM
Established in 1886 outside the city limits when St. Augustine closed its small urban graveyards due to overcrowding. Evergreen became the region's largest Protestant cemetery of the late 1800s and early 1900s. The design was strongly influenced by . . . — — Map (db m73842) HM
A tabby interior wall provides evidence that a portion of this building remains from the First Spanish Period before coquina stone construction took its place. Tabby was a form of construction that produced a cement slurry with an aggregate of . . . — — Map (db m107452) HM
In Memory of
Father Pedro Camps
the spiritual leader of the
This Statue Presented To
Most Reverend Paul F. Tanner
Bishop of St. Augustine by
Fernando A. Rubio of Minorca
and . . . — — Map (db m153919) HM
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