“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
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Historical Markers and War Memorials in Tennessee

"The Coal Creek War" Marker image, Touch for more information
By Tom Bosse, March 4, 2017
"The Coal Creek War" Marker
1 Tennessee, Anderson County, Briceville — 1D 32 — "The Coal Creek War" — 1891-92
Coal Creek valley was the scene of an armed rebellion against the state by free miners seeking an end to the common practice of leasing convicts to coal companies. On Oct. 31, 1891 the convict laborers at Briceville were freed by armed miners. The . . . Map (db m102292) HM
2 Tennessee, Anderson County, Briceville — Briceville Church
Built in 1888 by Welsh coal miners, the church and its cemetery are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Miners who fought the Tennessee National Guard over the use of convict labor during the Coal Creek War and the church was a . . . Map (db m102331) HM
3 Tennessee, Anderson County, Briceville — Cross Mountain Disaster
The Cross Mountain Mine opened in 1888 approximately one mile up Slatestone Road to the west. By 1911, it had two power plants to generate electricity, providing incandescent light for the main entries. Coal was cut by electric chain machines and . . . Map (db m102329) HM
4 Tennessee, Anderson County, Briceville — Legacy of Condy Harmon
Powell Harmon wrote a farewell letter before suffocating in the Fraterville Mine in 1902 that said, "My boys, never work in the coal mines.: His eldest son, Briceville student Condy Harmon, knew that honoring such a request would subject his family . . . Map (db m102425) HM
5 Tennessee, Anderson County, Briceville — Miners' Circle Cemetery
Thirty-one of the 84 miners who perished in the December 9, 1911 explosion of the Cross Mountain Mine are buried in concentric circles around a monument beside Circle Cemetery Road. The arrangement of headstones may be rooted in the Welsh ancestry . . . Map (db m102427) HM
6 Tennessee, Anderson County, Briceville — Welsh in Coal Creek
In the last half of the 1800s, the Welsh in America published books in their native language at a time when it was illegal to do so in Great Britain. Coal Creek miners Rees R. Thomas and his son David R. Thomas donated a rare collection of those . . . Map (db m102333) HM
7 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton — Academy Hill — 1868
The second location of the state-sponsored Union Academy was built on this location in 1868 after the first structure on South Main Street was burned during the Civil War. The city of Clinton took over operations of the academy upon the . . . Map (db m215085) HM
8 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton — Anderson County Courthouse — 1803
Anderson County was created on November 6, 1801, from portions of Grainger and Knox counties. The county was named in honor of Senator Joseph Anderson, a former judge who oversaw the Southwestern Territory prior to the county's founding. There have . . . Map (db m214987) HM
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9 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton — Buford & Celdon Lewallen House — 1949
Featuring a unique cherry paneled study, this traditional cottage home was built in 1949 for Judge William Buford Lewallen (1920-2003) & Celdon Medaris Lewallen (1921-2012). Judge Lewallen, son of William Everett & Annette Stansberry Lewallen, was . . . Map (db m215088) HM
10 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton — Bull Run Steam Plant — And the TVA Power System — Built For The People Of The United States Of America —
Electric power in the Tennessee Valley is one product of the Multiple Resource Development Program of TVA. It is produced economically and sold at low rates so it can be widely used as a “tool” of economic growth. Vital defense . . . Map (db m165943) HM
11 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton — City of Clinton Field — 1923
The first Clinton High School football team was formed during the 1923-24 school year. They were originally known as the Orange and Black "Tornadoes” and then became the "Dragons” some time before the 1930s. The field was reached by crossing Town . . . Map (db m215001) HM
12 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton — City of Pearls
In 1895, Sam Hendrickson (pictured) started Clinton's pearling industry. Clinton's citizens used braille boats (pictured) with braille hooks (pictured) to drag the bottom of the Clinch River for mussel shells (pictured). Young's Island (pictured) . . . Map (db m112097) HM
13 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton — Clinton Church of Christ — 1943
The first meeting of the Clinton Church of Christ occurred during the uncertain times of World War II. Temporary dwellings dotted the landscape of Anderson County as families moved to the area to work on the secret Manhattan Project. The first . . . Map (db m215086) HM
14 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton — Clinton City Hall — 1949
The city of Clinton was incorporated on October 9, 1890, although it has been in existence since the establishment of Anderson County in 1801. The legislature appointed commissioners to locate a county seat "as near the river Clinch, on the north . . . Map (db m214988) HM
15 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton — 1D 41 — Clinton High School
Following a court order by Federal District Judge Robert L. Taylor, on August 27, 1956, 12 black students, now known as "The Clinton 12", enrolled in Clinton High School without incident, making it one of the first desegregated public high schools . . . Map (db m121331) HM
16 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton — Clinton Middle School — 1927
The structure currently home to Clinton Middle School was built in 1927 as the new Clinton High School. When Anderson County Schools took over operation of Clinton High School from Clinton City Schools in the mid 1920's, a new CHS was completed here . . . Map (db m215003) HM
17 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton — Cora Medaris House — 1938
Designed by Barber-McMurry architects, this center hall Colonial style home was built in 1938 for Mrs. Cora Medaris (1885-1970), widow of Glenn C. Medaris, owner of Clinton Drug Store and mayor of Clinton from 1924 until his death in 1929. The old . . . Map (db m215087) HM
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18 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton — 1D 40 — David Hall Cabin — Circa 1800
David Hall, a revolutionary War veteran, purchased a plantation near here in 1803. Seven years later he opened a tavern and inn on the property. Granville Arnold purchased the site in 1854, operating the inn for the remainder of the 19th century. . . . Map (db m165936) HM
19 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton — Eagle Bend — 1860
The 1,000 acre farm of Judge David King Young and Elizabeth Woodson Young was called "Eagle Bend". The mansion was constructed in the 1860s and was home to members of the Young family for over a century. Judge Young was a soldier in the Union Army, . . . Map (db m214978) HM
20 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton — Green McAdoo School — 1935
A segregated elementary school for African American children existed on this hill since at least 1895. A wooden structure originally built here was replaced in 1935 by the current brick building. The school was renamed to honor Green L. McAdoo . . . Map (db m214990) HM
21 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton — Grotelueschen-Moxley-Haley House — 1940
Although this home has had numerous owners throughout its history, its most famous owner was world-renowned writer Alex Haley (1921-1992), author of the 1976 book Roots: The Saga of an American Family and The Autobiography of Malcolm X. Haley and . . . Map (db m214983) HM
22 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton — Leinart Co. Building — 1909
In 1909, this property was purchased by The Leinart Company composed of T.H. Leinart, J.O. Leinart, and R.E. Leinart. A smaller wooden post office building existed here prior to the big 1908 Market Street fire, but was soon replaced with this iconic . . . Map (db m214975) HM
23 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton — Market Street — 1869
Formerly known as Depot Street, a business district developed near the depot after the first train passed through Clinton in 1869. Market Street boomed in the 1880's, welcoming travelers and citizens alike with its variety of stores, taverns, . . . Map (db m214920) HM
24 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton — Memorial United Methodist Church — 1831
First organized in 1831, the church was known as the Methodist Episcopal Church. At the General Conference of 1844, the Methodist Episcopal Church officially split into two groups over the issue of slavery. The first Methodist Episcopal church was . . . Map (db m215084) HM
25 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton — Prelude: The Green McAdoo School
Freedman's Hill, or Foley Hill as it came to be known, has long been an educational site for the African American community, whether in the schoolhouse built by the Freedman's Bureau after the Civil War, later destroyed by fire, or the churches of . . . Map (db m70646) HM
26 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton — Rutherford Building — 1908
In the weeks following Market Street's "big fire" of 1908, new brick buildings were built at a rapid pace. This building, built by R. Rutherford, and its "twin" on the corner, built by C.J. Sawyer, were completed and occupied before the end of 1908. . . . Map (db m214921) HM
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27 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton — Taylor & Son Building — 1890
Silas Taylor and his son George opened Taylor & Son general store in 1890, offering merchandise such as plows, barrels, harnesses, men's and women's clothing, and hats. The millinery department was on the second floor and all hats were designed and . . . Map (db m214919) HM
28 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton — Terrapin Hill — 1820
The area that is now South Main Street was home to several significant buildings in the early 1800s including the Cullom House, Union Academy, Clinton Grove Academy, and Clinton Seminary. Main Street stopped at Three Point - the Broad Street . . . Map (db m215083) HM
29 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton — 1D 20 — The Market Place of Pearls
From about 1895 to 1936 Tennessee was one of the nation's six leading states in marketing pearls. Clinton was listed as one of three Tennessee towns known as centers of the pearling industry. New York dealers came regularly to Clinton during the . . . Map (db m112098) HM
30 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton — ID 49 — The Rev. Paul W. Turner — 1923~1980
Upset by segregationists who intimidated 12 African American pupils at Clinton High School who refused to return to classes, the Reverend Paul Turner, pastor of Clinton's First Baptist Church, met with the pupils on December 4. 1956, when he and two . . . Map (db m220585) HM
31 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton — The TVA System of Multi-Purpose Dams
The Tennessee River has its headwaters in the mountains of Tennessee, Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia. The main stream forms at Knoxville, where the Holston and the French Broad Rivers join. The Valley, 41,000 square miles in area, . . . Map (db m166056) HM
32 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton — Thomas Brown House — 1940
Thomas Brown (1883-1946) purchased this lot in 1938 from Sam Hendrickson, Clinton's most prolific pearl hunter. Mr. Brown was a telegraph operator for Southern Railway and built this home in 1940 so that he could walk home for lunch from his work . . . Map (db m214986) HM
33 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton — Town Springs — 1801
One of the natural springs that provided water to the newly established county seat of Anderson County, Town Springs was a source of drinking water for the earliest settlers and for Native Americans, explorers, and scouts before that. Water was . . . Map (db m215002) HM
34 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton — Train Depot — 1915
Trains were first brought to Clinton in the late 1850s by the Knoxville & Kentucky Company, but they were destroyed during the Civil War. The first train passed through Clinton in 1869, operated by the Knoxville & Ohio Company, which would . . . Map (db m214982) HM
35 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton — Union Bank / Parker Building — 1901 / 1967
Union Bank - 1901 The Union Bank of Clinton was chartered in 1894. The bank building, constructed on this site in 1901, survived both the 1905 and 1908 Market Street fires, even acting as a block that prevented the fire from burning . . . Map (db m214969) HM
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36 Tennessee, Anderson County, Clinton, District 1 — 1D 50 — The Anderson County Poor Farm — 1895 - 1963
Established March 7, 1895, on a 390-acre farm purchased from Bradley Farm descendent, Sallie Kincaid, the farm provided housing, clothing, food, and healthcare to the county's poor for almost 7 decades. As a working farm, it generated revenue . . . Map (db m227436) HM
37 Tennessee, Anderson County, Fraterville — Fraterville Disaster
The Fraterville Mine exploded on May 19, 1902, killing all 216 miners. Poignant farewell messages were found on the bodies of Jacob Vowell, Powell Harmon, John Hendren, Harry Beach, Scott Chapman, James Brooks, R.S. Brooks, George Hutson, Frank . . . Map (db m102428) HM
38 Tennessee, Anderson County, Fraterville — Itinerant Miners' Cemetery
Itinerant miners worked in the Fraterville Mine alongside miners with long-term contracts and strong local ties. Bodies of the itinerant miners were not claimed after the 1902 explosion and were buried adjacent to the railroad spur that led to the . . . Map (db m102429) HM
39 Tennessee, Anderson County, Fraterville — Village of Brothers
Sergeant major Eldad Cicero Camp, a Civil War Union veteran, U.S. District Attorney, and businessman, never used convicts in his mines. Instead, he established contracts with experienced miners. Fraterville, the name of Major Camp's first mine and . . . Map (db m231050) HM
40 Tennessee, Anderson County, Norris — Civil War in Anderson County — "Skulking bushwhackers"
Divided loyalties in Anderson County, as elsewhere in East Tennessee, often erupted in violence. It was commonplace for guerillas on both sides to raid farms and capture opposing sympathizers. In the county seat of Clinton, Confederates . . . Map (db m119021) HM
41 Tennessee, Anderson County, Norris — Norris Dam
Named for George W. Norris United States Senator from Nebraska in recognition of his public services. Built for the people of The United States of America by the Tennessee Valley Authority under direction of the Congress and the President. . . . Map (db m102771) HM
42 Tennessee, Anderson County, Norris — The Tennessee Valley Authority
The American Institute of Certified Planners has designated The Tennessee Valley Authority as a National Planning Landmark Founded in 1933 and encompassing a multi-state region of more than 40,000 square miles, T.V.A. was the first large-scale . . . Map (db m101833) HM
43 Tennessee, Anderson County, Norris — The TVA System of Multi-Purpose Dams — Built for the People of the United States of America — Norris Dam —
The Tennessee River has its headwaters in the mountains of Tennessee, Virginia, North Carolina and Georgia. The main stream forms at Knoxville, where the Holston and the French Broad Rivers join. The valley, 41,000 square miles in area, receives . . . Map (db m101834) HM
44 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — 1942
The war years during the first part of the year was dreadful. German submarines were wreaking havoc with our shipping in the Atlantic; the Japanese were winning in the Pacific, and the Germans were driving across North Africa. In late May, a . . . Map (db m112276) HM
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45 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — 1943
The year opened with fierce fighting on battlefronts all over the world – Stalingrad, North Africa, the South Pacific. Here, February saw groundbreaking for Oak Ridge’s Y-12 Plant and the X-10 Graphite Reactor. Starting April 1, armed guards . . . Map (db m112277) HM
46 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — 1944
New arrivals to this fenced in area called the Clinton Engineer Works were amazed at the extensive construction at every turn – more Cemestos “alphabet” homes were going up on Black Oak Ridge, as were more “flattops” in . . . Map (db m112278) HM
47 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — 1945
The new city was crowded – all 90 dorms of singles, housing for families at a premium. In May the population peaked at 75,000. Y-12 had 22,400 workers; K-25, 11,000; X-10, 1,500. People at the plants were urged to work harder than ever at . . . Map (db m112548) HM
48 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — 1946
This was the world’s first fully peacetime year since 1938. Cities everywhere began struggling to change things back to normal; Oak Ridge was different – we had never been normal. Things here were also in a state of flux because the success of . . . Map (db m112280) HM
49 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — 1947
Although many residents still felt Oak Ridge was a wartime town, they were now encouraged to view their city as possibly becoming a permanent community. This transition was kicked off January 1 when the Manhattan Engineering District handed off . . . Map (db m112281) HM
50 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — 1948
Union Carbide agreed to manage X-10 as well as the Y-12 plant with their new defense mission, and the K-25 uranium enrichment plant. Carbide named Nelson Rucker as X-10 executive director who with Alvin Weinberg instilling a sense of stability as . . . Map (db m112282) HM
51 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — 1949
On January 20 “The Oak Ridger” published its first edition. It told the city’s stories for decades, like a favorite talk about colorful, hard-driving General Leslie Groves, Manhattan Engineering District commandant. When he had needed . . . Map (db m112283) HM
52 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — 1D 28 — Castle on the Hill
The Administration Building for the Clinton Engineering Works opened March 15, 1943. Dubbed "The Castle", it became headquarters for the Manhattan Engineering District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, from which all Manhattan Project construction was . . . Map (db m112099) HM
53 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — Construction Workers
Starting with farmland in November 1942, 110,000 construction workers in two-and-a-half years built two huge uranium-235 production plants, Y-12 and K-25, at a cost of $759 million; X-10 and S-50, at a cost of $23 million; and the town for those who . . . Map (db m112348) HM
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54 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — Dedicated to the Memory of Those from Oak Ridge Who Gave Their Lives That Freedom Might Live
1942 - 1992 Samuel Karl Asher • Michael Roger Baker • James Edward Barlow • Jeff Thomas Barnett, Jr. • Martin Owen Boone • Joseph Keith Bradley • Gerald Wayne Davidson • Luther E. Davis • Ronald Edward Hibbard • David William . . . Map (db m112461) WM
55 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — 1D 24 — Elza Gate — The Elza Gate
From April 1, 1943, until March 19, 1949, this was the site of Elza Gate. Elza Gate was the primary entrance to the secret community of Oak Ridge and along with six other entry points, it was manned by armed guards. Elza Gate took its name from a . . . Map (db m88625) HM
56 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — Erected in Memory of New Bethel Baptist Church
Opened 1851 - Closed 1942 Church building Stood 47 feet in front of this stone In Memory of our Dead And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes, and there shall be no more death, neither sorrow nor crying, neither shall there be . . . Map (db m70485) HM
57 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — Grove Center — A Place of Welcome Distraction and Escape — Manhattan Project National Historical Park —
Centrally located between Jackson Square and Jefferson Center, Grove Center was one of three large commercial areas built for residents of Clinton Engineer Works in need of a place to run everyday errands and escape from the stressful demands of . . . Map (db m215323) HM
58 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — 1E 133 — Historic Oak Ridge Playhouse — Ca. 1943 -
One of the oldest continuously operating community theatres in the Southeastern United States. Oak Ridge Playhouse began in 1943 as the Little Theatre of Oak Ridge when the city was being built for the World War II top-secret Manhattan Project. The . . . Map (db m176893) HM
59 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — International Friendship Bell — A Symbol of Peace to a Town Borne of War — Manhattan Project National Historical Park —
At nearly seven feet tall and five feet wide, the 8,300-pound bronze bell symbolizes peace and reconciliation between the United States and Japan. The concept of the bell came about when Oak Ridge residents Dr Ram Uppuluri and his wife, Shigeko . . . Map (db m215325) HM
60 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — K-25 – The Gaseous Diffusion Plant
In 1940 Columbia University scientists led by John Dunning began their research to beat Germany to the atomic bomb. But it took four years before they learned how to make the key to the gaseous diffusion process – a very porous, strong “barrier” . . . Map (db m112350) HM
61 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — Manhattan Engineer District – USAEC
In 1943, General Leslie R. Groves, commander of the Manhattan Project, delegated to Colonel Kenneth D. Nichols the responsibility for administering what was to become a $2.2 billion effort. The Colonel had his headquarters here in a rambling, . . . Map (db m112345) HM
62 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — Midtown Community Center — Wildcat Den — Manhattan Project National Historical Park —
The Midtown Community Center first opened on February 2, 1945, in support of the World War II Manhattan Project workers and residents. The building's first use was a meeting place and recreation hall for the Middletown area, which included . . . Map (db m215324) HM
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63 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — 1D 23 — Oak Ridge
In 1943, Oak Ridge was created as the residential center for the Clinton Engineering Works. Located on the northeast corner of a 59,000-acre reservation acquired by the government in 1942, the community was designed by Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill, . . . Map (db m81358) HM
64 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — Oak Ridge – Secret City
In November 1942, Army Engineers were ordered to build a town for 13,000 people. A year later their target grew to 42,000, and the actual population reached 75,000 in September 1945 – almost three times the city’s 2005 population. Shown on no . . . Map (db m112549) HM
65 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — Oak Ridge and the Manhattan Project
In August 1945, citizens of this Secret City learned, most of them for the first time, that their hard work had made possible a weapon that was instrumental in bringing peace to a world anguished by the brutal, six-year war in which 54 million . . . Map (db m112346) HM
66 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — Oak Ridge Hospital
The medical director responsible for the nationwide Manhattan Project, Colonel Stafford L. Warren, M.D., had his headquarters in Oak ridge. A professor of radiology at the University of Rochester School of Medicine, Warren was recruited specifically . . . Map (db m112352) HM
67 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — 1D 48 — Oak Ridge Municipal Outdoor Swimming Pool
This large spring-fed swimming pool was once a watering hole on Tollunteeskee's Trail, later Emery Road, first road cut and cleared through this area In 1787. In 1944, the Manhattan Project improved and opened the new swimming pool on July 29, . . . Map (db m215322) HM
68 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — Oak Ridge Schools
The need for good schools here posed special problems. The large transplanted population wanted schools at least as good as those they left behind, and the school population was destined to skyrocket from 830 in October 1943 to 8,223 in October 1945 . . . Map (db m112550) HM
69 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — Oak Ridge Schools — Build it and they will come (and stay) — Manhattan Project National Historical Park —
The rapidly increasing population of Oak Ridge during the early 1940s led to a high demand for housing. At one point, homes within the Secret City were being completed every 30 minutes. Oak Ridge needed a school system to meet the educational needs . . . Map (db m215320) HM
70 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — ORINS / ORAU — Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies / Oak Ridge Associated Universities
In 1946, 14 southern universities formed the Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies (ORINS) – the first peacetime institution of this Secret City – to help faculty and students benefit from the outstanding research staff and facilities . . . Map (db m112344) HM
71 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — The Birth of the City of Oak Ridge, Tennessee — Transformation of the Citizenry
In wartime 1943, realizing that unhappiness with living conditions would imperil the already fragile prognosis for producing uranium-235, the Army overseers of Oak Ridge strove to make life as pleasant as possible for the uprooted professionals sent . . . Map (db m112457) HM
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72 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — The Birth of the City of Oak Ridge, Tennessee — Transformation of the Housing
What most branded Oak Ridge as a temporary wartime community was its housing, almost half of which was added in a great rush during 1944-1945 as the town grew to five times the originally planned population of 13,000. Many thousands of the later . . . Map (db m112458) HM
73 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — The Birth of the City of Oak Ridge, Tennessee — Transformation of Education and Health
At the same time the Government was starting large construction programs in 1948 to build permanent housing, work started to replace the hurriedly built wartime schools. The first permanent school finished was Willowbrook Elementary in September . . . Map (db m112459) HM
74 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — The Birth of the City of Oak Ridge, Tennessee — Transformation of Municipal Services
In 1948, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) assigned the task of transforming the “Secret City” into an incorporated city to Frederick W. “Fred” Ford, the AEC’s new Community Affairs Director. In addition to managing the . . . Map (db m112460) HM
75 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — 1D 33 — The Chapel-on-the-Hill
Built in 1943 near the main business district (Jackson Square), this standard Army chapel was soon known with the Manhattan Project as "The Chapel-on-the-Hill". On 30 September 1943 it was dedicated for Jewish, Catholic, and Protestant worship. The . . . Map (db m112102) HM
76 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — 1D 34 — The Emery Road
On a route that was first authorized to be "cut and cleared" in 1787, the Rock Pillar Bridge 60 yards to the north-northeast was built in the early 1900's. This road became known as the Emery Road and was one of the earliest routes used in the . . . Map (db m89677) HM
77 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — 1D 25 — The Guest House
The Guest House provided accommodations for visitors to the Clinton Engineering Works (Oak Ridge) during the time of the Manhattan Project, which led to the development of the atomic bomb. The Guest House hosted such dignitaries as physicists J. . . . Map (db m114613) HM
78 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — 1D 27 — The Robertsville Community
The Robertsville Community was settled in 1804 by Collins Roberts, who had received a 4,000-acre land grant in this region. Robertsville was one of four communities in the area that predated Oak Ridge. The community was dispersed in 1942 when the . . . Map (db m176887) HM
79 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — 1D 29 — The Scarboro Community
The Scarboro Community was founded by three brothers in the early 1790s. Jonathan, David and James Scarborough traveled from Virginia and settled here. Scarboro was one of four area communities that predated Oak Ridge. The community remained largely . . . Map (db m32575) HM
80 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — The Swimming Hole — A Recreational Oasis inside the Secret City — Manhattan Project National Historical Park —
Before the Manhattan Project, a spring-fed lake known as the "Duck Pond once provided water for horses and cattle along Emory Road, an early route used in the settlement of Middle Tennessee. During World War II, a town sprung up seemingly . . . Map (db m215321) HM
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81 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — Violent Clashes — " the wildest disorder"
With the threat of war looming, Anderson County residents voted overwhelmingly against secession in 1861. When Confederate forces occupied East Tennessee and established a conscription center at nearby Clinton, Unionists slipped into Kentucky to . . . Map (db m112103) HM
82 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — X-10 – The Clinton Laboratories
In December 1942 University of Chicago physicists demonstrated that the newly discovered element plutonium could be made using a “pile” of uranium and graphite blocks. Aware that Germany was seeking to develop a weapon of unprecedented . . . Map (db m112351) HM
83 Tennessee, Anderson County, Oak Ridge — Y-12 – The Calutron Plant
The top priority of the secret wartime Oak Ridge project was the Y-12 plant. That was the code name given to the process considered the best bet for separating weapon-grade uranium-235 (U-235) from U-238. This isotope separation process was the . . . Map (db m112349) HM
84 Tennessee, Anderson County, Rocky Top — American Chestnuts
Convicts cut trees from Militia Hill and surrounding hillsides in 1892 so soldiers could spot attacking miners. Many of those trees were American chestnuts. Convicts and soldiers could not know that a fungus carried by Chinese chestnuts, brought to . . . Map (db m102280) HM
85 Tennessee, Anderson County, Rocky Top — Breastworks
Soldiers of the Tennessee National Guard became easy targets for miners positioned on higher ground after trees were cut from Fort Anderson. Convicts then dug these breastworks to provide cover from attacking miners. War correspondents from . . . Map (db m102279) HM
86 Tennessee, Anderson County, Rocky Top — Coal Creek War
Welsh miners from the Knoxville Iron and Coal Company began mining coal at the foot of this hill in 1867, but were replaced by convict laborers during a strike in 1877. After convicts were brought to a mine in Briceville in July 1891, miners and . . . Map (db m101896) HM
87 Tennessee, Anderson County, Rocky Top — Convict Lease System
After the Civil War, southern states leased convicts to private industry to cope with a growing number of convicts and dwindling state budgets. The system degenerated to where primarily young African-Americans were being arrested and forced to work . . . Map (db m101897) HM
88 Tennessee, Anderson County, Rocky Top — Fire on Coal Creek
Soldiers responded to attack by firing cannons from here into the Miners Nest encampment on Walden Ridge, located south of the Wye Gap. Soldiers also shot cans filled with mud through the Wye Gap into the town of Coal Creek to signal that the town . . . Map (db m102281) HM
89 Tennessee, Anderson County, Rocky Top — Fort Anderson
The Tennessee National Guard built Fort Anderson on Militia Hill in 1892 to restore order during the Coal Creek War. The fort is located off Vowell Mountain Road, and listed on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the Tennessee . . . Map (db m101893) HM
90 Tennessee, Anderson County, Rocky Top — Ghosts of Convict Miners
In 1877, convicts replaced striking Welsh miners in the Knoxville Iron and Coal Company Mine, located in the hollow to the south. Prison records show that 131 convict miners died there from 1877 to 1893, while others were caught igniting methane gas . . . Map (db m101892) HM
91 Tennessee, Anderson County, Rocky Top — Militia Hill
Fort Anderson was built here on Militia Hill in January 1892 as a base for the Tennessee National Guard to protect convict laborers and restore order. Hostilities escalated with as many as 2500 miners from Tennessee and Kentucky participating in the . . . Map (db m102277) HM
92 Tennessee, Anderson County, Rocky Top — Siege on Fort
The Tennessee Coal Mining Company in Briceville dismissed convict labor in February 1892 and sold stock in the company to miners. Subsequent attempts to convince Gov. Buchanan to remove troops from the watershed failed, so miners attacked at this . . . Map (db m102284) HM
93 Tennessee, Anderson County, Rocky Top — State Coal Mine
The arrival of General Carnes with the bulk of the state militia overwhelmed the miners by the late summer of 1892. Although they lost the final battle, Coal Creek miners won the war when newly-elected Gov. Peter Turney fulfilled a campaign promise . . . Map (db m102282) HM
94 Tennessee, Anderson County, Rocky Top — Why Miners Fought
Agricultural land in the region was owned and being farmed by 1880. Younger sons of farmers sought opportunities in mining, learning new job skills from experienced Welsh miners. Mining also offered opportunities for African-Americans who comprised . . . Map (db m101895) HM
95 Tennessee, Bedford County, Bell Buckle — 3G 27 — The Webb School
Founded 1870, at Culleoka, by William R. ("Sawney") Webb, whose brother John M. ("Old Jack") Webb joined him in 1874. It moved here in 1886. Its curriculum, embracing chiefly Latin, Greek and Mathematics, was designed to give a sound preparatory . . . Map (db m24169) HM
96 Tennessee, Bedford County, Shelbyville — 3G 16 — Andrews' Raiders
On this knoll, members of the Federal party which attempted to destroy the Western & Atlantic R.R. in 1862, assembled before starting their foray. It started with seizure of the engine "General" and ended with recapture of the engine at the Georgia . . . Map (db m80317) HM
97 Tennessee, Bedford County, Shelbyville — 3G 6 — Army of the Cumberland — June 27, 1863
The Reserve Corps (Granger) moved south along this road, screened by the Army's Cavalry (D.S. Stanley). Taking Guy's Gap, against minor resistance, they pushed rapidly into Shelbyville, evacuated the same morning by the Corps of Maj. Gen. Leonidas . . . Map (db m26075) HM
98 Tennessee, Bedford County, Shelbyville — Austin C. Shofner
Born on March 3, 1916 and raised in his father’s ancestral home of Bedford County, Tennessee, Austin C. Shofner forever changed World War II. When World War II commenced for the United States in 1941, Capt. Shofner fought as a company . . . Map (db m214902) HM
99 Tennessee, Bedford County, Shelbyville — Bedford County, Tennessee Veterans Memorial Plaza
The Veterans Memorial Plaza is conceived and designed to honor, commemorate and forever remember the veterans of Bedford County Tennessee who have served in the armed forces throughout the world. It is to recognize the sacrifices these brave men . . . Map (db m85709) WM
100 Tennessee, Bedford County, Shelbyville — 3G 23 — Church of the Redeemer
This was Lot 44 of the original town plan. A log church was built here in 1815. The Presbyterians used it, and built the present church in 1817. In 1856, a Catholic congregation bought the building, selling to the Northern Methodists in 1894. These . . . Map (db m25049) HM

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Oct. 3, 2023