“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
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Historically Black Colleges and Universities Historical Markers

This series collects markers describing historical events, persons, and buildings related to the 100+ Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs).
Southern Railway Station image, Touch for more information
By Mark Hilton, August 5, 2017
Southern Railway Station
1Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — 1 — Southern Railway Station Attack — January 2, 1961 — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
Local "Jim Crow" laws in the first half of the 20th century enforced racial segregation in public transportation facilities throughout the South. The U.S. Supreme Court decision in Boynton v. Virginia (1960) upheld that segregation in these . . . Map (db m106602) HM
2Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — Trailways Attack — Seeking Justice
1st Panel Two busloads of Freedom Riders arrived in Alabama on Sunday, May 14, 1961, bound for New Orleans. It was an organized effort by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) to challenge the South's continued defiance of U. S. . . . Map (db m106721) HM
3Alabama (Clarke County), Carlton — Mt. Nebo Death Masks
Listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the Mt. Nebo Cemetery is home to the unique folk art of African American inventor and artist, Issac "Ike" Nettles, who used concrete to make images of living people's faces for their . . . Map (db m101576) HM
4Alabama (Clarke County), Thomasville — Williams’ Temple CME Church
Founded by the CME (Christian Methodist Episcopal) Church as the only school for black students in the area in the early 1900’s, Williams’ Temple eventually consolidated with another school in Booker City to form Miles College near Birmingham. . . . Map (db m101596) HM
5Alabama (Conecuh County), Lime Hill — Reverend Hillary James Hawkins, D.D. — 1905-1995
Side 1 Doctor Reverend Hillary James Hawkins, who was affectionately known throughout the community as “Brown,” dedicated most of his adult life to providing spiritual guidance to blacks in Evergreen and surrounding . . . Map (db m81292) HM
6Alabama (Dale County), Ozark — D. A. Smith High School/ Professor D. A. Smith, Principal — Dale County
D. A. Smith High School Dale County The first school building on this site for African Americans was constructed in 1939 and was named Ozark Negro High School. It was replaced during the “separate but equal” period in 1952 and . . . Map (db m132087) HM
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7Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Tabernacle Baptist Church — Dallas County
Side 1 In January 1885, Dr. Edward M. Brawley, President, Alabama Baptist Normal and Theological School (now Selma University) formed Tabernacle Baptist Church to be an integral part of the students' Christian formation and education. . . . Map (db m82034) HM
8Alabama (Hale County), Gallion — Freetown
In 1867 a group of African American men and women laid the foundations for Freetown. William, John, Albert, George, Richard, and Peter Collins; Susan and Lawrence Moore; Thomas Jeffries; the children of John Jeffries; and Louisa Conway and her . . . Map (db m38192) HM
9Alabama (Jackson County), Stevenson — Averyville
During the Reconstruction Period following the Civil War, a freedmen’s community was established in this area called Averyville, named for the Pennsylvania minister and successful businessman Charles Avery, a longtime and faithful champion of Negro . . . Map (db m108803) HM
10Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Emory Overton Jackson — 1908 - 1975
Emory Overton Jackson was born on September 8, 1908 in Buena Vista, Georgia to Will Burt and Lovie Jones Jackson. E. O. Jackson and his seven siblings were raised in the middle-class Birmingham enclave of Enon Ridge, located on the west side of town . . . Map (db m64736) HM
11Alabama (Jefferson County), Fairfield — Miles College Leaders, Students Active During Civil Rights Era
Miles College Leaders. Students Active During Civil Rights Era The Colored Methodist Episcopal Church founded Miles College in Fairfield in 1898. During the 1960s, President Lucius Pitts encouraged students, faculty and staff to become . . . Map (db m153232) HM
12Alabama (Limestone County), Athens — Fort Henderson / Trinity School - 1865-1970
Fort Henderson Built on this site in 1863 by federal forces occupying Athens. It was a five-sided earthen fort with some frame buildings and underground bomb-proofs. Abatis lined the fifteen-foot deep perimeter ditch, a small portion of which . . . Map (db m41787) HM
13Alabama (Macon County), Franklin — Franklin's Educational Legacy
Franklin School, originally constructed on this lot, was in operation as early as the 1890s teaching grades 1-11. By the mid 1930s, it was downsized to grades 1-6. There were northern and southern classrooms adjoined by a common auditorium. The . . . Map (db m68028) HM
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14Alabama (Macon County), Notasulga — Birthplace of Zora Neale Hurston — Notasulga, Alabama — Zora Neale Hurston (1891-1960) —
Side 1 Celebrated author Zora Neale Hurston was born in Notasulga on January 7, 1891. Her parents, John Hurston and Lucy Potts met here, at the Macedonia Baptist Church. but moved to Eatonville, Florida where Zora grew up. Through . . . Map (db m95110) HM
15Alabama (Macon County), Shorter — Prairie Farms Resettlement Community
(obverse) Beginning in the mid-1930s during the Great Depression, the federal New Deal promoted Land Resettlement to move farmers across the nation off worn out soil to new farmland. The Resettlement Administration, and its successor the . . . Map (db m68000) HM
16Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee — 9 — "Trade With Your Friends" — The Tuskegee Boycott — The Tuskegee Civil Rights and Historic Trail —
In 1957, local government officials in Tuskegee, Alabama sought to gerrymander the city's limits in an attempt to diminish the number of black votes in upcoming elections. Alabama state senator Sam Engelhardt sponsored Act 140, which transformed . . . Map (db m139876) HM
17Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee — 7 — Area Churches That Hosted Important Civil Rights Meetings — The Tuskegee Civil Rights and Historic Trail —
Churches within the African American community played an important role during the civil rights movement. They were places beyond control of white power structure, as well as locations where people could express themselves without reprisal. They . . . Map (db m139884) HM
18Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee — Brief History of Tuskegee, Alabama
Tuskegee consists of 80 square miles and is the county seat of Macon County, Alabama. Tuskegee rests in the heart of the rural Alabama Black Belt and is 40 miles east of Montgomery. Tuskegee was founded by General Thomas S. Woodward in 1833 after he . . . Map (db m99679) HM
19Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee — 13 — Mount Olive Missionary Baptist Church — The Tuskegee Civil Rights and Historic Trail —
Mount Olive Missionary Baptist Church developed out of the Tuskegee Baptist Church, originally organized in 1842. Although both whites and blacks (slaves) initially worshipped at the same location, the white congregants built a new facility in 1858, . . . Map (db m139880) HM
20Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee — 10 — Rosa Parks — The Tuskegee Civil Rights and Historic Trail —
Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (1913 – 2005) was an iconic activist during the mid twentieth century civil rights movement. Born in Tuskegee, Parks later moved with her mother to Pine Level located near Montgomery, Alabama. She was encouraged by . . . Map (db m134670) HM
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21Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee — 12 — Samuel "Sammy" Leamon Younge, Jr. — The Tuskegee Civil Rights and Historic Trail —
Samuel "Sammy" Leamon Younge, Jr. (1944-1966), a civil rights and voting rights activist, was the first African American university student killed during the civil rights movement. A Tuskegee native, Younge was attending Tuskegee University when . . . Map (db m139875) HM
22Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee — The Tuskegee Veterans Administration Hospital
The Tuskegee Veterans Administration Hospital (VA), established in 1923, is significant as the first VA hospital in the nation to be administered by an all African American medical staff. After WWI, African American veterans found it difficult . . . Map (db m101900) HM
23Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee — 11 — Tuskegee High School — The Tuskegee Civil Rights and Historic Trail —
In August of 1963, the United States District Court M. D. Alabama sided with the plaintiff in Lee v. Macon County Board of Education. This pivotal civil rights case involved the integration of, the all-white Tuskegee High School (located on . . . Map (db m139878) HM
24Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee — 8 — William P. Mitchell — (1912-1986) — The Tuskegee Civil Rights and Historic Trail —
Following World War II, Tuskegee's black population began to grow, and many sought to register to vote. Perceiving a threat to their political power, white politicians tried to control the black vote through a variety of techniques. These actions . . . Map (db m139877) HM
25Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site — New Vistas
Moton Field was built by Tuskegee Institute, now Tuskegee University, in 1941 after the school contracted with the U.S. Army to provide primary flight training for the nation's first African American military pilots. By the end of World War II . . . Map (db m99940) HM
26Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site — The Control Tower — Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
From Moton Field’s Control Tower, controllers directed flight operations and signaled landing instructions to pilots through a system of flashing colored lights. Dispatchers called cadets for their flights. The tower overlooked the busy – . . . Map (db m64363) HM
27Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — 1 — Amelia Boynton Robinson — The Tuskegee Civil Rights and Historic Trail —
Amelia Boynton Robinson (1911 2015) was a voting rights activist and civil rights icon. Born on August 18, 1911, in Savannah, Georgia, she received her bachelor's degree in home economics from Tuskegee University in 1927. In 1934, Mrs. Boynton . . . Map (db m139890) HM
28Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — Birth of Trades Program — Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site —
We shall prosper . . . as we learn to dignify and glorify labor and put brains and skills into the common occupations of life. —Booker T. Washington Tuskegee Institute's vocational training program began in this . . . Map (db m101934) HM
29Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — Campus Architect — Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site —
. . . I should consider it a far-reaching calamity for us to lose Mr. Taylor at Tuskegee. —Booker T. Washington Look at the buildings around the main quadrangle. Much of what you see is the work of Robert R. Taylor, . . . Map (db m101929) HM
30Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — Carver's Laboratory — Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site —
The primary idea in all of my work was to help the farmer and fill the poor man's empty dinner pail . . . —George Washington Carver George Washington Carver taught classes and developed new products from peanuts, . . . Map (db m101938) HM
31Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — 2 — Charles Goode Gomillion — The Tuskegee Civil Rights and Historic Trail —
Charles Goode Gomillion (1900-1995) was born on April 1, 1900, in Johnston, South Carolina. He joined the faculty at Tuskegee University in 1928, where he served as dean of students and chair of the social sciences department. He was president of . . . Map (db m140006) HM
32Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — Dining and Social Center — Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
The young women all seated first, and then the young men march in. But no conversation is allowed until . . . a simple grace is chanted by the chorus of a thousand voices. —Booker T. Washington, The Working . . . Map (db m101926) HM
33Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — Enhancing Health Care — Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site —
Let our societies spend less money in taking care of the sick, and much more money in promoting the health of the race . . . . Let us make health contagious in every community rather than disease. —Booker T. Washington, Address . . . Map (db m101940) HM
34Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — Frederick Douglass Hall — 1904
Named for Frederick Douglass, famed runaway slave, abolitionist and statesman. Douglass came to Tuskegee in 1892 and delivered the 11th Annual Commencement address in which he "urged economy, thrift and common sense." Those words of Douglass . . . Map (db m101908) HM
35Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — Great Philanthropists — Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
I will be very glad to pay the bills for the library building . . . and I am glad of this opportunity to show the interest I have in your noble work. —Andrew Carnegie Carnegie Hall is named for Andrew Carnegie, . . . Map (db m101923) HM
36Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — Huntington Hall — 1900
Built as a girls dormitory with funds donated by the widow of Collis P. Huntington, philanthropist, and president of the C & O (Chesapeake & Ohio) Railroad. Huntington Hall was designed by architect, Robert R. Taylor, the first African American . . . Map (db m101907) HM
37Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — 6 — Jessie Parkhurst Guzman — The Tuskegee Civil Rights and Historic Trail —
Jessie Parkhurst Guzman (1898-1996) was born in Savannah, Georgia, educated at Howard University (BA, 1919) and Columbia University (MA, 1924), and worked at Tuskegee University for over forty years. During Guzman's time at Tuskegee University, she . . . Map (db m139885) HM
38Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — 4 — Julius Rosenwald — The Tuskegee Civil Rights and Historic Trail —
Julius Rosenwald (1862-1932) was a Jewish multimillionaire merchant and one of the founders (1906) of Sears, Roebuck, and Company, then the largest department store in the United States. Rosenwald was a member of the Tuskegee University Board of . . . Map (db m134671) HM
39Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — Managing the School — Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site —
. . . the school is not dependent upon the presence of any one individual. The whole executive force . . . is so organized . . . that the machinery of the school goes on day by day like clockwork. —Booker T. Washington, . . . Map (db m101922) HM
40Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — Porter Hall 1883 / Huntington Academic Building 1905
Porter Hall 1883 Porter Hall was the first building erected on the Tuskegee campus. The building housed administrative offices, library reading and recitation rooms, chapel, kitchen, dining room, living quarters and laundry. It . . . Map (db m101915) HM
41Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — Site of Olivia Davidson Hall — Men's Dormitory
Site of Olivia Davidson Hall Men's Dormitory 1886 – 1954 Originally Samuel Armstrong Hall 1886 - 1892Map (db m101914) HM
42Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — The Burnt Place — Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site —
At the time we occupied the place there were standing upon it a cabin, formerly used as the dining room, an old kitchen, a stable, and an old hen-house. Within a few weeks we had all of these structures in use.   —Booker T. . . . Map (db m101916) HM
43Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — The Tuskegee Airmen's Plaza
This plaza is dedicated to the memory of the Tuskegee Airmen, including General Daniel "Chappie" James, whose training at Tuskegee University and the Tuskegee Army Air Field enabled them to prove for all time the competence and bravery of Black . . . Map (db m20076) HM
44Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — 3 — The Tuskegee Institute Advancement League — The Tuskegee Civil Rights and Historic Trail —
The Tuskegee Institute Advancement League (TIAL) was a student-based organization started in 1963 and reorganized in 1965 during the school integration crises. It originally sought to gain a measure of academic freedom through input with the . . . Map (db m139886) HM
45Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — Thrasher Hall
Thrasher Hall, renovated in 1983. Was built in 1893 by teachers and students using brick they made. Only the exterior walls remain from the original building. The bell above rang for class changes. It was located in the building's bell tower until . . . Map (db m101905) HM
46Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — Tuskegee Chapel — Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
. . . I always make it a rule to read a chapter [in the Bible] or a portion of a chapter in the morning, before beginning the work of the day. —Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery The chapel, designed by Paul . . . Map (db m100162) HM
47Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — 5 — Tuskegee Civic Association — The Tuskegee Civil Rights and Historic Trail —
The Tuskegee Civic Association, whose offices were located here, started out of The Men’s Meeting of the 1920s and the Tuskegee Men’s Club of the 1930s. On April 13, 1941, in order to increase its effectiveness and to embrace all segments of the . . . Map (db m139923) HM
48Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — Tuskegee University — F-4C Phantom
This U.S. Air Force F-4C Phantom Jet Fighter was flown by General "Chappie" James, Tuskegee University graduate and first Black Four-Star General in the U.S. Armed Services, on his last combat mission--Operation Bold--over Southeast Asia. It flies . . . Map (db m101902) HM
49Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — Up From Slavery — Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site —
I determined when quite a small child . . . I would in some way get enough education to enable me to read common books and newspapers. —Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery Booker T. Washington changed the . . . Map (db m101932) HM
50Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — White Hall — 1910
Named in honor of Alexander Moss White of Brooklyn, New York, with funds donated by his children. This structure opened fall 1909. The building was officially dedicated in January 1910 was a dormitory for women. A bronze tower with clock was added . . . Map (db m101906) HM
51Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Oakwood College — Founded 1896
Oakwood College, which began as an industrial school, was founded by the Seventh-day Adventist Church in 1896 to educate African Americans in the South. The school was erected on 380 acres purchased during the previous year for $6,700. Additional . . . Map (db m34953) HM
52Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Oakwood College — Founded 1896
Oakwood College, which began as an industrial school, was founded by the Seventh-day Adventist Church in 1896 to educate African Americans in the South. The school was erected on 380 acres purchased during the previous year for $6,700. Additional . . . Map (db m34955) HM
53Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Original Site of Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University — (now located at Normal, Alabama)
Legislature approved 9 December 1873 "a normal school for the education of colored teachers" in Huntsville. Ex-slave William Hooper Councill founder and first president. Classes began May 1875 with sixty-one pupils and two teachers; held in rented . . . Map (db m85546) HM
54Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Rev. Dr. Joseph E. Lowery Boyhood Home Site — (Dean of Civil Rights Movement)
Side A Dr. Joseph Echols Lowery was born in Huntsville on Oct 6, 1921, to Dora and Leroy Lowery. He grew up in Lakeside (Methodist) church. He began his education in Huntsville, spent his middle school years in Chicago, and returned to . . . Map (db m85550) HM
55Alabama (Madison County), Normal — Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University / Alabama A&M University former names — Normal, Alabama
Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University Legislature approved 9 December 1873 "a normal school for the education of colored teachers" in Huntsville. Ex-slave William Hooper Councill founder and first president. Classes began May 1875 . . . Map (db m39760) HM
56Alabama (Madison County), Normal — Councill Training School — (1919 - 1970)
In 1919, the first building was erected nearby with funds provided locally and supplemented with a Julius Rosenwald Foundation grant. Named for William H. Councill, Alabama A&M University founder, the three-room structure was built for black . . . Map (db m39761) HM
57Alabama (Madison County), Normal — William Hooper Councill — Founder — Alabama A&M University —
"...A tower of knowledge, of strength, of power ...Let us build..." Dr. William Hooper Councill served as President of Alabama A&M University and was the catalyst for its early development from its founding in 1875 until his death in 1909. . . . Map (db m39763) HM
58Alabama (Mobile County), Mobile — 1 — Andrew N. Johnson
Andrew N. Johnson, born 1865 in Marion, Alabama, graduated from Talladega College in 1886, and taught in rural Alabama. On this site in 1894, he established the Mobile Weekly Press, a voice for African-Americans, "A.N.", a powerful member of the . . . Map (db m111347) HM
59Alabama (Mobile County), Mobile — 6 — Caldwell School
Opened in 1887 as Broad Street Academy, this was the site of Mobile's first public high school for African Americans. The building was razed in 1947, and a new elementary school was constructed and named in recognition of William Caldwell, the first . . . Map (db m111353) HM
60Alabama (Mobile County), Mobile — 15 — Dr. Thomas N. Harris
Dr. Harris, born April 6, 1868, in Montgomery, Alabama was one of the earliest black physicians to practice medicine in Mobile. He graduated in 1899 from Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee with dual degrees in dentistry and medicine. To . . . Map (db m86400) HM
61Alabama (Mobile County), Mobile — 17 — Dunbar/Central High School
Dunbar School was built on this site in 1924. Dr. W.A. Caldwell was its first principal. In 1947, the Old Medical College on St. Anthony Street was remodeled and became Central High School. Dr. Benjamin Baker was named principal. In 1955, the . . . Map (db m111386) HM
62Alabama (Mobile County), Mobile — 35 — St. Louis Street Missionary Baptist Church
The church was organized in 1853 by ten African-Americans who were former members of Stone Street Baptist Church. It is the second oldest Missionary Baptist Church in Alabama. The first three pastors were Caucasian; however, following passage of the . . . Map (db m86578) HM
63Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Alabama State University / Tatum Street
Side 1 Alabama State University The Early Years Founded in 1867, the Lincoln School in Marion, Alabama became the first state-assisted normal school for African Americans in 1874. The school prospered in that location for 13 . . . Map (db m71345) HM
64Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Alabama State University / Tullibody
Side A Founded 1866 as the Abraham Lincoln Normal School in Marion, Alabama by nine former slaves. Operated from 1868 until 1874 by the American Missionary Association. The school began to receive state funding in 1874, making it the first . . . Map (db m86061) HM
65Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Aurelia Eliscera Shines Browder — Civil Rights Pioneer
Side 1 Aurelia Eliscera Shines Browder was born January 29, 1919, in Montgomery, Alabama. She graduated with honors in 1956 from Alabama State Teachers College (now Alabama State University). In April 1955, Browder's refusal to give up . . . Map (db m71349) HM
66Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Bertha Pleasant Williams / Rosa Parks Branch Library
Bertha Pleasant Williams First black employee of Montgomery library system, Bertha Pleasant Williams received a high school degree in Fairfield, AL in 1939, a degree from Alabama State College (now ASU) in 1943, and, in 1949, a BLS degree . . . Map (db m71388) HM
67Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Beulah Baptist Church — Organized 1880
Beulah Baptist Church was organized in the home of Monday and Dora Duvall, on the corner of Hull and Winnie Streets. Rev. William (Billy) Jenkins served as the pastor when the first church building was erected on Norton Street. Beulah served as the . . . Map (db m71377) HM
68Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Birth of Montgomery Bus Boycott — Boycott planned & publicized here at ASU's Councill Hall
Side 1 On Dec. 1, 1955, at Alabama State College (now Alabama State University) in a basement room in Councill Hall, the Montgomery Bus Boycott was planned and publicized after the arrest that day of Rosa Parks, who refused to give up . . . Map (db m91279) HM
69Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Centennial Hill
This neighborhood evolved around historic First Congregational Church established through the American Missionary Association (AMA) October 6, 1872, by Pastor George Whitfield Andrews. In 1867 the AMA and the Freedmen's Bureau, headed by General . . . Map (db m86067) HM
70Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Charlie and Lucille Times — Civic Leaders and Civil Rights Activists
Lucille and Charlie (d. 2/7/78) Times were married on February 3, 1939. Shortly after, the Times' joined the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Mr. Times received several medals and a Commendation for his service in . . . Map (db m81804) HM
71Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Elijah Cook / City of Montgomery v. Rosa Parks
Elijah Cook Educator, Businessman, Lawmaker Born a slave in Wetumpka in 1833, Elijah Cook became a leader in Montgomery’s African American community. Credited with helping to establish the city’s first school for blacks in the basement . . . Map (db m69222) HM
72Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — First Baptist Church — (Brick-A-Day Church)
Organized in 1866, this pioneering congregation grew out of First Baptist Church, now on Perry Street, where early parishioners had worshipped as slaves. The first building, facing Columbus Street, was erected in 1867. Nathan Ashby served as first . . . Map (db m36499) HM
73Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Historic Sites Near Fairview Environmental Park
Role of MIA The Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) was founded on December 5, 1955, to implement the 382-day Montgomery Bus Boycott that jumpstarted the 20th-century Civil Rights Movement. The MIA, as its name suggests, remains dedicated . . . Map (db m129484) HM
74Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Home of Ralph David Abernathy — (March 11, 1926-April 30, 1990)
This was the home of Dr. Ralph David Abernathy, a central leader of the historic events of the Civil Rights Movement. Dr. Abernathy graduated from Alabama State University in 1950 and from Atlanta University in 1951. He and his family lived . . . Map (db m71232) HM
75Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Loveless School / Henry Allen Loveless
Loveless School Montgomery's first junior and senior high schools for African American students began in Loveless School. Built in 1923 and enlarged in 1930, this building first housed seven grades; the opening of Carver Elementary School and . . . Map (db m71082) HM
76Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Marshall J. Moore House
In 1900, Marshall Moore and his wife, Agnes V. McClain commissioned Joseph G. Nesbitt, Sr., an African-American contractor/builder, to construct this Victorian period cottage. The Moores, among the first graduates and early faculty members of . . . Map (db m86130) HM
77Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Old Ship A.M.E. Zion Church
This congregation was organized by the Court Street Methodist Church in the early 1850s. The latter group offered their 1835 wood frame building to the black members if they would relocate it. In 1852 the church was moved to this site under the . . . Map (db m168917) HM
78Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — South Jackson Street / Victor Hugo Tulane
Side 1 South Jackson Street Long a home to African-American professionals, politicians, and businessmen, South Jackson Street is in the heart of Centennial Hill, a neighborhood which developed in the 1870s. One block north at . . . Map (db m71354) HM
79Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — St. Paul A.M.E. Church
By the turn of the twentieth century, African Americans were gathering on Hardaway Street in a brush arbor to worship. In 1907, they incorporated what is now known as St. Paul African Methodist Episcopal Church, with Rev. Felix Strum serving as the . . . Map (db m127279) HM
80Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Frank M. Johnson, Jr. Federal Building and US Courthouse
Side 1 Named in honor of Judge Frank M. Johnson, Jr. (1918-1999), who served here as U.S. District Judge from 1955-1979, as U.S. Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit July 12, 1979 - October 1, 1981, and . . . Map (db m71266) HM
81Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Hon. Rufus A. Lewis — 1906 - 1999
Lewis began an earnest voting rights drive in the early 1940s. Credited with registering 4 generations of Montgomery voters. He established Citizenship Schools that tutored prospective black voters to fill out the literacy text, a barrier before the . . . Map (db m86429) HM
82Alabama (Montgomery County), Pike Road — Georgia Washington School
Miss Georgia Washington founded the Peoples Village School for black students on this site in 1893. Georgia Washington was born a slave November 23, 1851 in Virginia. As a student at Hampton Institute, Virginia, she met Dr. Booker T. Washington who . . . Map (db m72010) HM
83Alabama (Perry County), Marion — Lincoln Normal School
On July 17, 1867, nine ex-slaves (James Childs, Alexander H. Curtis, Nicholas Dale, John Freeman, David Harris, Thomas Lee, Nathan Levert, Ivey Pharish and Thomas Speed) formed and incorporated the “Lincoln School of Marion.” They soon . . . Map (db m70096) HM
84Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — First African Baptist Church — Tuscaloosa, Alabama
Organized November 1866, with 144 members. The Rev. Prince Murrell, first pastor, served until 1885. A church building located at corner of 4th Street and 24th Avenue was purchased and became place of worship during pastorate of the Rev. James . . . Map (db m40408) HM
85Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — First Presbyterian Church — Tuscaloosa
Organized 1820. Moved to this site 1830. Present structure erected 1921. Under the leadership of Dr. Charles A. Stillman, (Minister, 1869-1895) it sponsored the founding of Stillman College in 1876. Its bell was the subject of a poem by . . . Map (db m35364) HM
86Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — Stillman College
Founded as Tuscaloosa Institute 1876 by Presbyterian Church U.S. under leadership of Dr. Charles Allen Stillman, pastor of First Presbyterian Church, Tuscaloosa, to train Black ministers. Renamed Stillman Institute 1894 for Dr. Stillman, first . . . Map (db m35676) HM
87Alabama (Wilcox County), Snow Hill — Snow Hill Normal and Industrial Institute — 1893
(obverse) Snow Hill Institute was founded in 1893 by William James Edwards, a graduate of historic Tuskegee Institute established by Booker T. Washington in 1881. Snow Hill’s lineage extends back to Hampton Institute where Washington . . . Map (db m68185) HM
88Arkansas (Independence County), Batesville — Lafferty Memorial Church
Lafferty disbanded in 1969 and its members requested the church at 8th and Neeley be sold and funds divided between Philander Smith College and the First United Methodist Church of Batesville. The known history of Lafferty, organized in the . . . Map (db m70560) HM
89California (Los Angeles County), San Pedro — S.S. Lane Victory — Port of Los Angeles —
Panel 1: 1945: March: Lane Victory is named for the former slave, Isaac Lane, founder of Lane College, in Jackson, Tennessee. The Victory Ship was one of a class of cargo ships designed and built during World War II by the . . . Map (db m131429) HM
90Delaware (Kent County), Dover — …and His Accomplishments
In the 1960's and through the 1980's, life in slow-paced Dover grew busier. New payrolls arrived. Annexation added to both the population and taxable base. Cooperation with Kent County's government advanced. Relations between Dover . . . Map (db m198996) HM
91Delaware (Kent County), Dover — Delaware State College
Established May 15, 1891, by an act of the Delaware General Assembly as the State College for Colored Students, by virtue of the 1890 Morrill Land-Grant Act under the provisions of the 1862 Morrill Act of Congress. Incorporated July 1, 1891. . . . Map (db m39054) HM
92Delaware (Kent County), Dover — KC-45 — Delaware State College High School
On June 17, 1921, the Board of Trustees of the State College for Colored Students, later known as Delaware State College, approved a resolution recommending the establishment of a high school for Negro students on its campus. This was the second . . . Map (db m142491) HM
93Delaware (Kent County), Dover — Dupont School — Delaware State University — Making our mark on the world —
From 1921 until 1952 this simple brick structure, named for its benefactor, Pierre S. Dupont, served as a laboratory-classroom for students enrolled in the teaching course at the State College for Colored Students (now DSU). The educational . . . Map (db m142492) HM
94Delaware (Kent County), Dover — K-60 — Loockerman Hall
In 1723 Nicholas Loockerman purchased 600 acres of land known as “The Range.” Following his death in 1771, the property passed to his grandson Vincent Loockerman Jr. Evidence suggests that he built the Georgian-style mansion known today . . . Map (db m39053) HM
95District of Columbia (Washington), Adams Morgan — Archaeology in Adams Morgan — Surveying the Cemeteries in Walter Pierce Park, 2005-2013
In 2013, Howard University archaeologists, working with concerned citizens, completed a seven-year survey of Walter C. Pierce Community Park. Their goal: to identify and protect two 19th Century cemeteries--the Colored Union Benevolent . . . Map (db m112588) HM
96District of Columbia (Washington), Adams Morgan — 4 — Life on the Park — Roads to Diversity — Adams Morgan Heritage Trail —
During the Civil War (1861-1865), the Union Army Carver Hospital and barracks occupied Meridian Hill. The facilities attracted African American freedom seekers looking for protection and employment. By war’s end, a Black community had put down . . . Map (db m130705) HM
97District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — 18 — The Sage of Anacostia — An East-of-the River View — Anacostia Heritage Trail —
This imposing property once belonged to Anacostia’s most famous resident: Frederick Douglass. After escaping slavery as a young man, Douglass rose to become a distinguished abolitionist, writer, publisher, and orator. By the 1860s Douglass was . . . Map (db m88723) HM
98District of Columbia (Washington), Atlas District — 13 — Enterprising Families — Hub, Home, Heart — Greater H Street NE Heritage Trail —
The small scale and low rents of H Street's oldest buildings have lured waves of immigrant entrepreneurs since the buildings were new in the 1880s. By 1930, alongside Greek, Italian, Irish, and other immigrant-owned shops, at least 75 . . . Map (db m71690) HM
99District of Columbia (Washington), Bloomingdale — Barnett Aden Gallery — African American Heritage Trail, Washington, DC — 127 Randolph Place, NW —
The Barnett Aden Gallery, which operated on the first floor of this house between 1943 and 1968, was the first privately owned black art gallery in the United States. It was founded by James Vernon Herring (1897-1969), chair of Howard University's . . . Map (db m110518) HM
100District of Columbia (Washington), Bloomingdale — 9 — Court Nullifies Racial Covenants — Worthy Ambition — LeDroit Park/Bloomingdale Heritage Trail —
In the 1940s, homeowners in the 100 block of Bryant Street breached a contract when they sold their houses to African Americans. Covenants, or agreements, in their real estate deeds prohibited "the sale of the house to anyone of the Negro . . . Map (db m130828) HM

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Oct. 1, 2022