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Great Lakes Seaway Trail National Scenic Byway Historical MarkersGreat Lakes Seaway Trail, Inc. markers along 500 miles of the St. Lawrence River, Lake Ontario, and Lake Erie, from Massena NY to the PA-OH border.
By Anton Schwarzmueller, November 7, 2014
| A Commerce Center. Though camps, pleasure boats, and the sandy beaches of Fair Haven State Park dominate the bay and lake shore today, in 1910 Little Sodus Bay was the second busiest port on the southern shore of Lake Ontario. Trains . . . — — Map (db m79751) HM|
| A Safe Place to Rest The sheltered waters of Dunkirk Harbor provide a place where water birds and waterfowl can escape strong winds blowing across the open waters of Lake Erie. Gulls, terns, cormorants and other water birds shelter, loaf, and feed . . . — — Map (db m84382) HM|
| Dunkirk Lighthouse has been placed on the National Register of Historic Places
By The United States Department of The Interior
Built 1875 — — Map (db m51904) HM|
| Resting on the Lake Bottom. Beneath the waters before you lies a graveyard of shipwrecks from two centuries. Surprise storms, unchartered shallows, and lack of navigation aids are a few reasons for the wrecks. More and more people are learning to . . . — — Map (db m84415) HM|
|The serene scene of today is nothing like the frenzied activity that once took place here. Travelers switched from train to steamboat to trolley on trips to attractions along Chautauqua Lake. The present station was built on this site in 1924 . . . — — Map (db m105752) HM|
| Lily Dale Timeline 1955 Fox cottage burns. 1924 Marion H. Sidmore Library building constructed. 1915 Fox cottage moved to Lily Dale. 1900 Great Lily Dale fire burns many cottages. 1893 Lily Dale contains 215 cottages. 1888 Assembly Hall . . . — — Map (db m94898) HM|
| Harbor Activity Timeline
1982 First Harbor Day celebration. 1971 Last commercial fishing boat is sold. 1962 Lighthouse is re-lighted. 1960 Corps of Engineers builds Daniel Reed breakwall and pier. 1913 Trolley service ends. 1900 . . . — — Map (db m117525) HM|
|Waterways to the Interior
Rivers and lakes served as the superhighways of the 18th century. Many rivers and lakes in the Colony of New York either bordered New France (Canada), or connected the bordering water bodies to . . . — — Map (db m57233) HM|
| Timeline of Excursions 1814 November 5 American forces withdraw from Canadian territory. August-September American forces withstand British siege and repel British attempts to take back Fort Erie. July 25 American and British . . . — — Map (db m92804) HM|
| An Outdoor Lighthouse Museum. Buffalo's complex harbor system has showcased many unique lights. Scan the harbor for the existing lights shown in this artist's conception. The lights shown as transparent have been demolished or moved to another . . . — — Map (db m85226) HM|
|Menagerie to Habitat. The Buffalo Zoo, like other modern zoos, has become an educational facility that focuses on conservation and reproduction of endangered species. The Zoo has reintroduced some endangered animals to their native habitats. Today's . . . — — Map (db m75074) HM|
| Parks, Circles, and Parkways: These 'Greenspaces' were inspired by the 'City Beautiful' movement of the late 1800s, an attempt to correct the blighted condition of many industrial cities and make them more liveable through better design. Circles: . . . — — Map (db m80367) HM|
|Frederick Law Olmsted is best known for his work in New York City's Central Park, but his design for Buffalo's Park System was one of his proudest achievements. Buffalo's Olmsted-designed parks are listed on the National Register of Historic . . . — — Map (db m78375) HM|
1655: Seneca Indians win control of Niagara Region from Erie tribes. 1678-79: French explorer Rene-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle, claims the region for France. He builds a sailing ship, Griffon, on the bank of the Niagara River and . . . — — Map (db m80361) HM|
| Lifting Buffalo to World Renown. In 1924 Buffalo led the world in handling grain. 300,000,000 bushels passed throught Buffalo harbor, unloaded, lifted, stored, and reloaded by the grain elevators that still stand tall along the banks of the . . . — — Map (db m84694) HM|
| Nature to Industry to Nature 1998 Designated an Important Bird Area (IBA) by National Audubon Society. 1983 Preserve closed for hazardous waste removal. 1982 Preserve merged with Buffalo Museum of Science. 1978 Makowski Visitor Center . . . — — Map (db m93874) HM|
| Section Through Living Room. Glass walls make upper story float and lower story transparent. Terrace mimics cliff brink and makes sky part of the house. Stone extends through house. Stone sided esplanade connects house to cliff. 65' cliff . . . — — Map (db m105644) HM|
| 'The Greatest in the World' From 1907 to 1921 William Conners, propietor of the Buffalo Courier Express, built a poultry farm that ultimately covered 360 acres. Literature from the operation proclaimed;"...stretching away toward the lake . . . — — Map (db m105702) HM|
|Ships and Sunsets. If you could have stood on this spot for 300 years, you would have seen a parade of vessels carrying Native Americans, explorers, trappers, fishermen, traders, shippers, and sailors traveling and transporting people and goods on . . . — — Map (db m82603) HM|
|Cultural Heritage- Ancient cultures flourished on abundant natural resources along the Seaway Trail. First Inhabitants Native people have lived here for thousands of years, using the natural resources found on land and in water. . . . — — Map (db m79279) HM|
|Black Terns nest in New York State in just a few marshes along the south and east shores of Lake Ontario. This is the southern edge of their breeding range, They are more abundant in the upper midwest, but the special habitat we manage here suits . . . — — Map (db m75906) HM|
| Important Habitat Refuge This region provides an important breeding refuge for many declining species of birds because it contains a variety of habitats, few humans, and little development. Species such as the Golden-winged Warbler, . . . — — Map (db m84170) HM|
"...for use in perpetuity as a Community and Performing Arts Center"
Town of Clayton, April 9, 2000
Performing in Clayton
For over 100 years the Opera House has set the stage for performances of all kinds. Broadway . . . — — Map (db m126418) HM|
A Variety of Displays
Submerged 'riverscapes', unique rock formations with gumdrop-like pinnacles, rocky folds, and steep escarpments characterize this underwater geological display. Rocky shoals adjacent deep water . . . — — Map (db m126413) HM|
|Americans Set An Ambush
An American flotilla carrying critical shipbuilding supplies to Sackets Harbor was forced to land along South Sandy Creek. Near this spot Major Appling's 120 riflemen, 150 Oneida Indian warriors and naval . . . — — Map (db m75733) HM|
General Pike's Death
This fort was named after General Zebulon Pike, who launched his forces from here to attack York (Toronto). Though the Americans won the battle, General Pike was killed by debris from an exploding magazine. His . . . — — Map (db m86170) HM|
|A Strategic Place
The shelter offered by Sackets Harbor made this an attractive place to base the U.S. Navy fleet. The growth patterns set at the time the military facilities were built are responsible for the layout of the village . . . — — Map (db m75735) HM|
|Focus On Defense
Before the War of 1812 Sackets Harbor had no defenses. By the fall of 1814, the combined efforts of the Army, Navy, Marines, and militia had created one of the most heavily fortified sites in North America. . . . — — Map (db m75767) HM|
During the War of 1812 Sackets Harbor was the most active naval station in the United States. The U.S. and British navies were engaged in a shipbuilding competition for control of lake Ontario. Tremendous effort and . . . — — Map (db m75748) HM|
| Stopover Ecology This area provides critical food, cover from exposure to the elements and predators, suitable habitat for resting, and other resources migrant land birds need along their migration route. The area is protected and studied by . . . — — Map (db m90204) HM|
| Migrating Hawks Warming temperatures and southerly winds, preferably southwest here, produce flights of hundreds of thousands of raptors at Braddock Bay in a single day, making the shore along Braddock Bay one of the finest places in North . . . — — Map (db m90244) HM|
| Destination Montreal In 1759, the British plan for defeating the French in North America involved major expeditions that would cut off French supply routes up and down the St. Lawrence River, block French advances south through the Champlain . . . — — Map (db m90216) HM|
| Bivouac For two days, July 2nd and 3rd, 1759, a force of 3,000 soldiers under the command of Brigidier General John Prideaux camped here. The army was advancing along the lake on a campaign from Oswego to Four Mile Creek, near Fort Niagara. . . . — — Map (db m90266) HM|
| A Strategic Location Charlotte was once a bustling commercial shipping port, the destination of sidewheelers and sailing vessels unloading supplies for a growing city and loading products from the region. Today the harbor is still an . . . — — Map (db m90400) HM|
|Margaret Woodbury Strong loved to play and recognized the importance of play to learning. She founded The Strong in 1968, and it opened to the public in 1982. The Strong is the only collections-based museum in the world devoted soley to the study of . . . — — Map (db m154229) HM|
| Merchant Schooners In the spring of 1812 there were over 34 schooners in merchant service on Lake Ontario, transporting people and cargo. These small vessels carried 50-100 tons of cargo. Larger vessels were impractical since most lake port . . . — — Map (db m90802) HM|
|A Suffragist and much more
Susan B. Anthony lived in this house for the forty most active years of her life. This house was the site of her famous arrest for voting in 1872 and her death in 1906. It served as the headquarters for the National . . . — — Map (db m58202) HM|
| Where the Lake Turns Aside. This is the meaning of the Native American word from which the name Irondequoit was derived. Native people used the bay for access to the lake. Explorers hoped that it led to China. For early traders and merchants . . . — — Map (db m108625) HM|
| British and French Compete for Alliances
Both the French and the British negotiated with American Indian tribes, either to gain their support or to convince them to remain neutral. In Canada, Algonquian tribes; the Ottawa, Huron, Abenaki, and . . . — — Map (db m77202) HM|
|From this point on October 13, 1812, U.S. troops launched an invasion of Queenston Heights, Canada in an attempt to seize Fort George and control the river.
The Battle was a disaster for the Americans, as they suffered heavy losses and ultimately . . . — — Map (db m57088) HM|
| Path of Destruction. Early in the winter of 1813, British forces and their Native allies launched an all-out assault on the Niagara Frontier. About a dozen Lewiston residents were killed in the attack, and the British looted the buildings and . . . — — Map (db m80502) HM WM|
| Not Underground, Not a Railroad Freedom seekers used whatever means available to make their journey. Some stowed away on canal boats and lake steamers. Some were transported hidden in wagons. Usually, however, they simply traveled on foot, . . . — — Map (db m78802) HM|
| Where Families Came to Play Once a prime recreation destination, Olcott Beach drew thousands annually. Trains brought summer vacationers from inland cities. Steamers ferried them between other lake ports. They stayed at grand hotels, played at . . . — — Map (db m73863) HM|
|Great Lakes Seaway Trail. New York State French and Indian War Commemoration 250 years. Securing Military and Commercial Goods. Fort Schlosser was built to protect the upper portage landing and was used as a storehouse for military and . . . — — Map (db m72889) HM|
|Following the Footsteps of the Famous
Along this very road Native Americans, explorers, traders, and soldiers passed for centuries to get around the Niagara Falls and Gorge. Merchants cashed in on trade goods, troops fought for safe . . . — — Map (db m54365) HM|
| Early European Visitors The Niagara River, with its mighty falls and rapids, was well known by Native Americans. Word of its majesty reached European explorers and soldiers who came to North America. Despite their mission, explorers and . . . — — Map (db m72940) HM|
| Carousels and Rides Made Here
Over 3,000 hand-carved wooden carousels were made in this factory. Portable carousels were set up at carnivals around the country and stationary units were the main attraction at many early 1900s resorts. Many . . . — — Map (db m75522) HM|
|30-Mile Point Lighthouse was built in 1875 and was lit for the first time on April 27, 1876. The lighthouse was built to protect ships on Lake Ontario from a shallow sandbar the extended from 30-Mile Point. A number of historic shipwrecks occurred . . . — — Map (db m138194) HM|
| The Working Farm. By 1900 mechanization has come to the farm. Equipment was available that made plowing, planting, and harvesting more productive. But, in the days before the gas engine, it was the horse that supplied the power to run the . . . — — Map (db m79540) HM|
| Migrants and Irruptives. Migrating birds follow regular routes between breeding and non-breeding areas twice each year. The timing for each specie is about the same every year. Irruptive migrations do not happen every year. Irruptions occur in . . . — — Map (db m79557) HM|
|What's the attraction? The shelter and beauty of Tuscarara Bay has attracted settlers, merchants, and vacationers since the early 1800s. The focus of the attraction has changed over time, and so has the very shape of the bay, but Wilson Harbor . . . — — Map (db m71536) HM|
|First Light on the Great Lakes
You are standing near the site of the earliest lighthouse on the Great Lakes; a lantern room on the roof of the French Castle inside the fort. From that first whale oil fueled lantern, the Niagara . . . — — Map (db m67377) HM|
|July 24, 1759
At this location British troops set defenses against French reinforcements, intent on breaking the British siege of Fort Niagara. Though outnumbered, the British repelled the advance and assured the fall of the Fort. Their . . . — — Map (db m67347) HM|
|In July 1759, 2,300 British and New York troops, with about 900 Iroquois allies laid siege to French-held Fort Niagara. 19 days later, with its wall breached and a French relief force defeated only a mile away, Fort Niagara surrendered. . . . — — Map (db m67473) HM|
| Cobblestones Cobblestone construction was born in this area. The example here is a composite of several materials and styles that can be seen within a short distance of this park. The word 'cobblestone' comes from the English word 'cob', . . . — — Map (db m90184) HM|
| Fishing For Food, Not Fun! For more than 800 years the opposite bank was the scene of bustling spring and summer activity by Native Americans. Fish were netted from Oak Orchard River, and processed over firepits and drying racks. The fish prepared . . . — — Map (db m82703) HM|
| Land Manager Johnson arrived in the Colonies from Ireland to manage land in the Mohawk River valley near present-day Amsterdam, land granted to his uncle, Admiral Sir Peter Warren of the British Navy, in 1737. Superintendent of Indian Affairs . . . — — Map (db m90173) HM|
|Ingenious use of local materials gave rise to a home-grown Seaway Trail architectural style. Cobblestone construction was perfected by local masons between the opening of the Erie Canal and the Civil War. Local farmers had access to the . . . — — Map (db m78221) HM|
The railroad overtook the river and canal as the major mode of transport to and from the interior. The river banks and waterfront were dominated by tracks, bridges, and coal trestles. Coal, grain, lumber, and people now moved through the city by . . . — — Map (db m86356) HM|
| Site of British Attacks on Fort Ontario, May 5-7, 1814 After enduring a heavy bombardment by a British fleet under the command of Sir James Yeo, and repelling an amphibious assault on May 5, 1814, 290 men of the 3rd U.S. Artillery and 200 . . . — — Map (db m75816) HM|
The river access to the lake made Oswego a natural hub for commerce, as well as a place to transfer goods, travelers, and armies from river and land carriers to lake vessels. Many of the vessels were built here. Through the centuries the type of . . . — — Map (db m86370) HM|
|Food and Shelter
The mouth of the river and harbor provide waterfowl and waterbirds an environment sheltered from the winter gales of Lake Ontario. The breakwalls serve as resting places for the gulls where any approaching predator . . . — — Map (db m75427) HM|
|British Toehold on Lake Ontario
During the French and Indian War, the Oswego River was the only British controlled waterway into the Great Lakes. French commander-in-chief, the Marquis de Montcalm, recognizing its strategic . . . — — Map (db m75356) HM|
|The thriving port city of Oswego was founded by and attracted many ambitious and heroic people. Leaders of industry and social causes lived here and left their mark on the city. You can still visit some of their works by touring the city streets . . . — — Map (db m86292) HM|
|Camp, Row, Camp
Campaigns in the North American wilderness required extensive planning and massive manpower to reach the objective safely and successfully. For Prideaux's army, the distance from Fort Stanwix to Fort Niagara . . . — — Map (db m75670) HM|
Max Richardson lived in an era called the Victorian Period (when England's Queen Victoria ruled over the British Empire), when wealthy people were traveling to exotic places, collecting art and cultural artifacts, reading, and socializing. . . . — — Map (db m86574) HM|
Oswego offered close proximity to raw materials from the interior, a water route to markets of the world, and water power. These assets caused the river banks to become lined with factories, warehouses, and storage buildings. Materials were . . . — — Map (db m86315) HM|
Oswego Riverside Attractions
West Side Attractions
1. West Pierhead Lighthouse
2. H. Lee White Marine Museum
3. Port of Oswego Authority West Terminal
4. U.S. Coast Guard Station
5. Wright's Landing Marina
6. . . . — — Map (db m86289) HM|
Bountiful fur-bearing animals provided the foundation for a robust fur trading business between European explorers and the Native American inhabitants of the Oswego River corridor. The Native Americans camped and established seasonal trading . . . — — Map (db m86380) HM|
|Dewitt Clinton dreamed of "a Great Canal" to solve the problem of access to the natural resources of the mid-west. Of the two routes considered - a canal across the state to Buffalo and a canal to Lake Ontario at Oswego - the Buffalo proposal won at . . . — — Map (db m86367) HM|
Oswego was a strategic spot in many military campaigns. Control of the river, an important military route, changed many times. The loss of Oswego in August, 1756 was viewed as a triumph by the French and as a national misfortune by the English as . . . — — Map (db m86373) HM|
The David W. Mills, a cargo vessel that was part of a vast commercial shipping industry on the Great Lakes, played an important role in the industrial development of the north American interior. The Mills ran . . . — — Map (db m75416) HM|
|Pulaski Historic District
From Drill Field to Village Core
2000 Log Cabin Motel burned in area of first log cabin.
1983 Historic District formed.
1887 First Long Bridge erected.
1882-1901 Eighteen of the 23 . . . — — Map (db m109092) HM|
Heh-Hah-Walter-Gah (where swim the sweet fish – Iroquois)
A Histoy of Use and Misuse
2000 1998 First return of adult Atlantic Salmon.
1997 Natural reproduction of Chinook Salmon documented.
1996 Minimum flow . . . — — Map (db m109131) HM|
|A Diverse Group
The war effort was lead by distinguished men on both sides whose effectiveness at their jobs varied, but the impacts of their campaigns on border communities were dramatic. Their ranks and commands changed . . . — — Map (db m75723) HM|
A Hunting Lodge
In 1903, Frederick G. Bourne, Commodore and Singer Sewing Machine Company President, began building Singer Castle for a hunting lodge. American beaux-arts architect Ernest Flagg designed the 28 room granite castle on Sir . . . — — Map (db m147133) HM|
Rock features along the Seaway Trail offer clues to understanding the geologic forces that formed the region.
(Heat & Pressure)
The precambrian gneiss rocks are the roots of an ancient mountain system. They were formed by . . . — — Map (db m147129) HM|
|This Wildlife Management Area (WMA) is a 3,400 acre multi-use area where the habitat is managed to provide food and shelter for dabbling and diving ducks, Canada geese and other waterbirds, as well as upland game birds and mammals. While much of the . . . — — Map (db m79347) HM|
| How Does a Lock Work? 1) A) Filling valve opened. Emptying valve closed. B) Water enters by gravity. Gate closed. Ship waiting to enter. C) Chamber fills to upstream level. D) Attendant opens gate. Catch cable lowered. 2) A) Attendants tie off . . . — — Map (db m79307) HM|
In 1751, approximately 3,000 Iroquois lived in villages on both sides of the Oswegatchie River and the small islands in between, with the most influential families living in the three villages neighboring the fort. . . . — — Map (db m75900) HM|
A Mission/Supply Base
Fort de la Prιsentation, used as a fortified mission by Father Abbι Franηois Picquet, was built at the mouth of the Oswegatchie River in 1749 and 1750. Picquet intended to Christianize much of the native population, . . . — — Map (db m75750) HM|
Father Abbι Franηois Picquet and the American Indians moved to Isle Picquet after la Prιsentation was vacated. The English thought the settlement was a French village and burned it during the siege.
Fort Lιvis on Isle Royale
August 1759 . . . — — Map (db m75754) HM|
This fort served a strategic role in the conduct of military campaigns that shaped our country.
A British Foothold in the St. Lawrence Valley
Fort de la Prιsentation was renamed Fort Oswegatchie by the British when they occupied the . . . — — Map (db m75838) HM|
Did Remington Live Here?
No. But he loved the St. Lawrence River and his wife lived here for a time after his death. He painted in his studio on an island in Chippewa Bay he called "Ingleneuk." The North Country, where he grew up and is . . . — — Map (db m75725) HM|
February 22, 1813
British Lieutenant Colonel "Red" George Macdonnell led a force of about 650 soldiers and artillery across the ice to attack the American garrison at Ogdensburg commanded by Captain Benjamin Forsyth. Macdonnell moved to . . . — — Map (db m75895) HM|
|Early Seaway Trail communities flourished due to access to the St. Lawrence River. Raised on Waterpower Waddington was settled by early industrialists, here to harness the power of the St. Lawrence River. Many of the buildings in the . . . — — Map (db m79378) HM|
| Battle of Nerves
The Battle of Pultneyville was a skirmish between British forces under Commander Yeo and American Militia forces. The British periodically raided coastal communities for supplies, but the people of Pultneyville did not . . . — — Map (db m65348) HM|
|Many points of interest are located near Palmyra that take visitors back to a way of life from the past, introduce them to early American industries, present theatrical productions and the beginnings of the Mormon religion.
Joseph Smith, Sr. . . . — — Map (db m64928) HM|
| Lost in a Storm
The St. Peter left Oswego carrying a full load of coal, headed for the safety of the Welland Canal when a storm struck her with 70 mph winds. Unable to reach the canal, the ship was turned back east to run before the . . . — — Map (db m64903) HM|
|Why Build With Stone? Glaciers blessed this area with an abundance of stones. Farmers who picked them from their fields recognized their utility as a sturdy, fireproof, free building material that required no painting. An influx of masons . . . — — Map (db m79597) HM|
| Lakeside Camp. Prideaux's army encamped here at Sodus Bay on the evening of July 1st, 1759. They were formed on the lake the following morning by 6:00 to continue their expedition. Each boat was numbered and each man, whether officer or . . . — — Map (db m79631) HM|
| Under Fire. Troupville was one of several lakeshore communities to come under attack by the British navy during a campaign to disrupt the flow of military stores to American forces. Troupville (Sodus Point) c.1813. In 1813, the lakeshore . . . — — Map (db m79618) HM|
|Dobbins Landing Timeline
Bicentennial Tower built to commemorate the 200th anniversary of Erie.
Public Dock renamed Dobbins Landing in honor of pioneer mariner Daniel Dobbins.
Nicholson Ferry to Port Dover begins . . . — — Map (db m116411) HM|
|Rescued and Rebuilt
Time had taken its toll on the Land Lighthouse since the federal government decommissioned the beacon and ordered the lantern room removed and sent to a lighthouse in Ohio in 1899.
In 2003, the Erie-Western . . . — — Map (db m116430) HM|
|A French Frontier Fort
Fort de la Presqu'ile was the first in a proposed line of forts that would guard a route to the Mississippi. The lofty goal for 1753 was to build four ports, Presqu'ile, le Boeuf, Machault, and Duquesne. By the late . . . — — Map (db m116412) HM|
Blue Pike - 1931 - 3,600,000 lbs.
Lake Whitefish - 1946 - 8,300,000 lbs.
Lake Herring - 1949 - 6,700,000 lbs.
Pound netting (Drawing shows pound net from above) - Placing standing nets in shallow water that funnel . . . — — Map (db m116410) HM|