This park was developed by the National Park Service, Interior Department, through the Civilian Conservation Corps, in conjunction with the Virginia Conservation Commission. It covers 1300 acres and was opened, June 15, 1936. It was originally . . . — — Map (db m22314) HM
I should be destitute of feeling I was not deeply affected by the strong proof which my fellow citizens have given me of their confidence in calling me to the high office whose functions I am about to assume. (James Monroe, . . . — — Map (db m176523) HM
The Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail traces the War of 1812 in the Chesapeake. Along the trail you’ll encounter tangible evidence of the war and stories that bring the people and events to life. Discover the far-reaching impacts of . . . — — Map (db m97038) HM
The generous resources of the Chesapeake Bay invited Englsih exploration and settlement of Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware.
With Native American assistance, English settlers developed a cash crop industry. Tobacco cultivation and export was . . . — — Map (db m34136) HM
Most of what we know about George Washington's birthplace has come to us thanks to the archeologist's trowel.
After generations of uncertainty about the location of the main plantation house, archeologists excavated its foundations in 1936. . . . — — Map (db m158346) HM
Sailing ships and the rivers they travelled were vital to the tidewater plantations of Virginia and Maryland. They were the colonial counterpart to our vehicles, highways, and railroads.
In front of you is Popes Creek; beyond is the Potomac . . . — — Map (db m34201) HM
Fifth president of the United States, 1817- 1825. Governor of Virginia, 1799 and 1811. Proclaimed the Monroe Doctrine, December 2, 1823.
Declares the Americas no longer subject to European colonization. — — Map (db m11940) HM
In this vicinity stood the Monroe home where James Monroe, fifth president of the United States, was born, April 28, 1758. His father was Spence Monroe and his mother, Elizabeth Jones. He left home at the age of sixteen to enter William and Mary . . . — — Map (db m11585) HM
Born in Westmoreland County, Charles Bernard Smith (1917-1991) is one of more than 140,000 African Americans who served in the racially segregated U.S. Army Air Force during World War II. Trained at Chanute Field, Illinois, in aircraft ground . . . — — Map (db m22255) HM
In reverent tribute to the men and women of Colonial Beach, VA. who have served our country.
World War II
Stanley G. Adams •
James W. Allison •
William D. Bankett •
James R. Barnes •
William S. Barnes •
James B. . . . — — Map (db m20870) HM
Site of eighteenth-century dairy used by the Washingtons for storage of milk, cheese and other dairy products. The original brick floor is still in tact.
Please leave undisturbed. — — Map (db m34081) HM
Here at George Washington Birthplace National Monument, discover the land that began Washington’s journey from English citizen to the first President of the United States. Today, visitors can follow in Washington’s footsteps on the Potomac Heritage . . . — — Map (db m97039)
To weaken the American economy, the British took tobacco and lured the enslaved labor force from plantations along the Potomac River. Physically fit males also provided the British with a valuable source of new recruits.
The British offered . . . — — Map (db m97035) HM
On the ground before you once stood the Tidewater plantation home where, on February 22, 1732, George Washington was born, the son of Augustine Washington and his second wife, Mary Ball Washington. — — Map (db m100726) HM
At the distant end of the field in front of you stood the home of Henry Brooks, the first owner of much of what would become Popes Creek Plantation.
As you look toward the house site, perhaps you can sense the isolation Henry Brooks must have . . . — — Map (db m34080) HM
The James Monroe Building is a nationally-significant historic site attributed to our nation's 5th President, James Monroe. The property's significance dates to the inheritance and active agricultural employ of these lands by Monroe's father, . . . — — Map (db m176509) HM
This marks the birthplace of James Monroe, April 28, 1758
Westmoreland County, Virginia
Attended college of William & Mary; Officer, Continental Army, American Revolution; Married Elizabeth Kortright, 1786; US Senator; Minister . . . — — Map (db m11941) HM
President James Monroe was born here on April 28, 1758 to Spence and Eliza Jones Monroe. He lived on this farm until he left to attend the College of William and Mary. He sold the farm to 1783 following his father's death.
The 500 acre farm, . . . — — Map (db m176501) HM
He has in every instance, maintained the reputation of a brave, active, and sensible officer. (George Washington, 1779)
Turn his soul wrong out side outwards and there is not a speck on it. (Thomas Jefferson, 1787)
There . . . — — Map (db m176526) HM
James Monroe's public service career, the most extensive of any President of the United States, took him far from his Westmoreland County birthplace.
As a student at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Monroe was inspired to . . . — — Map (db m176506) HM
In 1664, John Washington, the great-grandfather of George Washington, built a small house on this site. From these modest beginnings, a powerful and prominent Virginia family would arise.
During his thirteen years here, John Washington . . . — — Map (db m34079) HM
Having commenced my service in early youth, and continued it since with few and short intervals. I have witnessed the great difficulties to which our union has been exposed, and admired by the virtue and intelligence with which they . . . — — Map (db m176529) HM
King George County. Area 180 Square Miles. Formed in 1720 from Richmond, and named for King George I. James Madison, "Father of the American Constitution" and President of the United States, was born in this county. . . . — — Map (db m22268) HM
While the essentials of life could be had from the waters, fields, gardens, and forests of Popes Creek Plantation, true economic prosperity depended on the plantation's link to the world; the Potomac River.
The boat landing for Popes Creek . . . — — Map (db m34067) HM
Monroe Creek is one of many tributaries of the Potomac River contributing to the form and character of Virginia's Northern Neck region.
The creek owes its name to descendants of Andrew Monroe, the first Monroe to settle here in . . . — — Map (db m176552) HM
As one of five children, James Monroe spent the better part of his youth on these lands.
The Home Site
His father, Spence Monroe, was a middling farmer of modest but respectable means and a trained joiner, or cabinet maker. The family . . . — — Map (db m176514) HM
The ...inhabitants of the Chesapeake Bay Region made ...its bountiful resources. The large pristine bay and its waterways including the Potomac River before ... sustained nearly 27,000 Native Americans.
...around...creeks... of the watershed. . . . — — Map (db m34070) HM
Look at the landscape around you. Augustine Washington's reasons for settling here in 1718 are apparent. The ground to your left is slightly elevated and well drained - perfect for farming. Before you, Popes Creek teems with life: fish, crabs, and . . . — — Map (db m34192) HM
This skiff was built by Clarence Stanford for James A. "Billy" Powell in the early 1950s. Billy, a well-known local waterman and owner of the Colonial Beach Oyster Packing Plant, used the skiff for fishing and haul seining for several decades. . . . — — Map (db m176553) HM
On the morning of December 26, 1776, a small detachment of American Light Infantry, led by Lieutenant James Monroe, aged 19, breached the Hessian defenses at Trenton. This gallant action, in which Monroe was severely wounded, enabled the . . . — — Map (db m11942) HM
The Chesapeake Bay continues to be a generous provider of food, industry, and income. Millions of people are now drawn to the Bay in pursuit of leisure and tranquility.
Recreational uses have increased since Washington's time, when the . . . — — Map (db m34138) HM
At Popes Creek Plantation, George Washington was born into the plantation culture he would know his entire life. Today, no visible vestiges of the plantation remain. Instead, exhibits, buildings, and interpreters on the site give a sense of the . . . — — Map (db m34139) HM
Generations of Americans have expressed their reverence for George Washington at his birth site. The park is the cumulative result of a century of memorial efforts.
In 1923, on the eve of the bicentennial of Washington's birth, interested . . . — — Map (db m34203) HM
The occasion has been judged proper for asserting as a principle in which the rights and interests of the United States are involved that the American continents by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are . . . — — Map (db m176524) HM
"The Birthplace of a Nation"
Lying between the Rappahannock and Potomac rivers, the Northern Neck provided fertile land that supported production of tobacco, the first great cash crop of the Virginia colony.
Six counties were formed . . . — — Map (db m176507) HM
During the War of 1812 the young United States was embroiled in conflict with Great Britain. From 1812 to 1815 Americans fought to protect their rights and economic independence. They faced superior enemy forces on the homefront and the high seas. . . . — — Map (db m97037) HM
On this site, a part of “Longwood,” stood Popes Creek Episcopal Church, built about 1744 on land given by the McCarty family. The Lees and the Washingtons worshipped here. About 1826 it fell into disuse and was burned as being unsafe. — — Map (db m22135) HM
Bennett and James McCoy, free men (probably
brothers) from Westmoreland County, were
among the many African Americans who
served in the Virginia militia and the United
States Army or Navy during the Revolutionary
War. Bennett McCoy served for . . . — — Map (db m22429) HM
At Sandy Point, seven and a half miles east, Mary Ball, Washington’s Mother, spent her youth in the home of her guardian, George Eskridge. There she was married to Augustine Washington, March, 1731. She is supposed to have named her eldest son for . . . — — Map (db m22407) HM
Two miles east. Built in 1655 of oak timbers sheathed with clapboards. Rebuilt of brick in 1706. In this vicinity Mary Ball lived under the tutelage of Colonel George Eskridge, of Sandy Point, from 1721 until her marriage to Augustine Washington in . . . — — Map (db m22400) HM
A quarter-mile to the northeast stood Lee Hall, built about 1723 by Henry Lee of Stratford and the great-grandfather of Robert Edward Lee. He left his estate to his son Richard Lee, who for 36 years represented Westmoreland County in the House of . . . — — Map (db m22393) HM
A mile and a half north, in the Lee burying ground, is the grave of Richard Henry Lee, who died, June 19, 1794. Lee was one of the first leaders of the American Revolution. On June 7, 1776, he introduced a resolution in the Continental Congress for . . . — — Map (db m22395) HM
A mile and a half to the north is the Burnt House Field, a Lee family graveyard in which were buried Richard Lee of “Machotick,” Thomas Lee of “Stratford,” Richard Henry Lee of “Chantilly,” their wives, and . . . — — Map (db m22397) HM
Zion Baptist Church is home to one of the oldest African American congregations in Westmoreland County. Before slavery ended,
according to local tradition, services were
first held under a dogwood bush arbor on
Gawen’s Farm, near Tucker Hill, . . . — — Map (db m22399) HM
The Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail traces the War of 1812 in the Chesapeake. Along the trail you’ll encounter tangible evidence of the war and stories that bring the people and events to life. Discover the far-reaching impacts of . . . — — Map (db m97087) HM
(Created by the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1706)
has been declared
A Virginia Landmark
Virginia Department of Historic Resources
and has been placed on
The National . . . — — Map (db m97088) HM
Two miles east, on the picturesque Yeocomico River, is Kinsale, the founding of which the Assembly ordered in 1784. Near by at the old home of the Bailey family, “The Great House,” is the tomb of Midshipman James B. Sigourney, who in . . . — — Map (db m22463) HM
Northumberland County. Area 205 square miles. Originally an Indian district called Chicacoan. In 1648 it became Northumberland County, named for an English county. The mouth of the Potomac River is here.
Westmoreland . . . — — Map (db m22471) HM
The British mounted a series of devastating raids across Virginia’s Northern Neck during 1813 and 1814. They plundered the area’s rich tobacco lands, lured new recruits from among its dense population of slaves, and destroyed property. The . . . — — Map (db m97081) HM
During the War of 1812 the young United States was embroiled in conflict with Great Britain. From 1812 to 1815 Americans fought to protect their rights and economic independence. They faced superior enemy forces on the homefront and the high . . . — — Map (db m97084) HM
John Pratt Hungerford, born nearby, was an
officer in the Revolutionary War and the War of
1812. He represented this area in the Virginia
General Assembly for many years and served in
the United States House of Representatives during
the 1810s. . . . — — Map (db m107376) HM
Here at the then thriving port of Leedstown on February 27, 1766, ten years before the Declaration of Independence, the Leedstown Resolutions (or Westmoreland Association) were drawn. This association, a protest against the Stamp Act and a pledge of . . . — — Map (db m22085) HM
The Pissaseck Indians lived along the Rappahannock River, here at Leedstown and in a few other villages in Westmoreland County. They spoke a language derived from the Virginia Algonquian family and were hunters and farmers. The Pissasecks were . . . — — Map (db m22106) HM
Two miles east is Stratford, built about 1725 by Thomas Lee (1690–1750), president of the Virginia Council and father of Richard Henry Lee and Francis Lightfoot Lee, both signers of the Declaration of Independence. Here also was born Robert . . . — — Map (db m22349) HM
The house was built about 1730 and burned in 1850. It was not rebuilt. Only some poplar trees remain. A fine colonial mansion, it was the home of the celebrated “councillor” Robert Carter. Philip Fithian, tutor at Nonimi Hall, . . . — — Map (db m22384) HM
The CCC used native materials and “NPS Rustic” designs to create iconic features like this fountain in Westmoreland State Parks.
When Westmoreland opened its gates in 1936 the fountain greeted guests to this park on the Potomac and . . . — — Map (db m97048) HM
The A.T. Johnson High School was built in 1937 in the Colonial Revival style as the first public high school constructed for African Americans in Westmoreland County. The new school was named for Armstead Tasker Johnson (1857–1944), a black . . . — — Map (db m22352) HM
“I propose to create a civilian conservation corps…confining itself to forestry, the prevention of soil erosion, flood control, and similar projects. I call your attention to the fact that this type of work is of definite, practical . . . — — Map (db m81215) HM
Nomini Baptist Church was established on 29 April 1786 with 17 members. By 1809 it was reputedly the largest Baptist church in Virginia with 875 members. The original meetinghouse, built nearby in 1790 on land donated by a charter member, Captain . . . — — Map (db m22359) HM
Nearby stood the original “Nomony” (early variant spelling) Meetinghouse. On 29 Apr. 1786, 17 members established Nomini Baptist Church. Until 1790, when the meetinghouse was built on land donated by charter member Joseph Peirce, the . . . — — Map (db m22361) HM
At a public meeting here, on June 22, 1774, resolutions of Richard Henry Lee offering aid to Boston, whose port had been closed by the British government, were adopted. Here, on May 23, 1775, the Westmoreland Committee on Safety passed resolutions . . . — — Map (db m6585) HM
Putting the Potomac on the Map
John Smith and his crews explored the Potomac in June 1608. The river, which Smith called the Patawomeck, is featured on his famous map of Virginia.
Smith returned to England in 1609 . . . — — Map (db m81214) HM
Robert Edward Lee was born at Stratford Hall on January 19, 1807, to Henry “Light Horse Harry” Lee — a Revolutionary War hero — and Ann Hill Carter. Robert E. Lee spent the first four years of his childhood here before moving . . . — — Map (db m128534) HM
Virginia’s Northern Neck was an attractive target for the British. Its many tobacco plantations—spread over more than a thousand miles of shoreline—were vulnerable to invasion from the water. Launching raids from the Potomac River and . . . — — Map (db m97046) HM
Dedicated to the memory of these brave men who gave their lives in service to their country:
LGPL Paul Elden Jones, Marine Corps
SP4 James Edward Kelly, Army
PFC Robert Eugene Lucas, Marine Corps
SP4 Stanley Victor Newman, Army
And . . . — — Map (db m76419) WM
During the War of 1812 the young United States was embroiled in conflict with Great Britain. From 1812 to 1815 Americans fought to protect their rights and economic independence. They faced superior enemy forces on the homefront and the high . . . — — Map (db m97047) HM
A mile and a half east, this was the home of John Augustine Washington, younger brother of George Washington, who visited here. Here was born, in 1762, Bushrod Washington, who became Justice of the United States Supreme Court in 1798, and died in . . . — — Map (db m22390) HM
The Morgan Jones Kiln, located 5.2 miles north of here, operated for a short time in 1677. According to Westmoreland County records, Morgan Jones and Dennis White entered into a partnership for the “making and selling of Earthen ware,” which . . . — — Map (db m22391) HM
Five miles north is the home of the rectors of Cople Parish, one of whom, Walter Jones, married Washington’s parents, March 6, 1781. Here lived Thomas Smith, rector of the parish, 1764–1799, and chairman of the County Committee of Safety, 1775. He . . . — — Map (db m22389) HM
The War of 1812. Impressment of Americans into British service and the violation of American ships were among the causes of America’s War of 1812 with the British, which lasted until 1815. Beginning in 1813, Virginians suffered from a British . . . — — Map (db m76407) HM
Here at Sandy Point, Mary Ball, George Washington’s mother, spent her youth in the home of her guardian, Colonel George Eskridge. Here she married Augustine Washington in March 1731. She is supposed to have named her eldest son, George, for Colonel . . . — — Map (db m22434) HM
One of the two churches of the Cople Parish. It was built in 1704 on land given by Youell Watkins, and was replaced in 1755 by a brick church at the same site. George Washington attended services here twice in 1768. The last colonial church burned . . . — — Map (db m22379) HM
On the ground before you once stood the plantation home of Augustine Washington and his second wife, Mary Ball Washington. Here, on February 22, 1732, George Washington—farmer, general of the Continental Army, and first president of the United . . . — — Map (db m189762) HM
George Washington’s birthplace is two miles north, on Pope’s Creek, just off the Potomac River. He was born on 22 Feb. 1732 and lived there only for three years. Washington’s father, Augustine, purchased the land in 1718 and built the house by 1726. . . . — — Map (db m22134) HM
Here George Washington, while living at Wakefield with a brother, went to school, 1744–1746. Here Union Cavalry came on a raid through the Northern Neck, May 1863. Several miles north of this place, James Monroe, fifth President of the United . . . — — Map (db m22108) HM
The land encompassing this marker has been in the continuous possession of the Muse family since September 16, 1668.
Possession has been handed down through the toils of the descendants of the founding father of the Muse family in America. — — Map (db m6670) HM
Three generations of George Washington’s forebears are buried here. The first burials were made in 1668, when John Washington’s wife Anne and two small children died. During the next thirty years, at least nine more Washingtons—including . . . — — Map (db m23077) HM
At Leedstown, seven miles south, an association was formed to resist the enforcement of the Stamp Act, February 27, 1766. The Resolutions, drafted by the revolutionary leader, Richard Henry Lee, were one of the first protests against the Stamp Act . . . — — Map (db m22110) HM
On the river a short distance south is the site of the Bristol Iron Works, which were projected by John King and Company, of Bristol, England, and established in 1721 by John Tayloe, John Lomax and associates. The works, which were on the Foxall’s . . . — — Map (db m22084) HM
Although American Indians have undoubtedly hunted and lived in this area for thousands of years, one period of occupation has been archaeologically verified. Findings of a team from the University of Mary Washington indicate that Indians lived . . . — — Map (db m176500) HM
In memory of Burell Eskridge and his son Vernon Eskridge who gave this parcel of ground to the Shiloh Baptist Church in 1881 and 1894 respectively; and his great grandson Norman Bryant in 1957. May the memory of these gentlemen and of their good . . . — — Map (db m22350) HM
The Clifts Plantation cemetery was located on the opposite side of the current road. Because of long distances to the nearest church in the 17th and early 18th centuries, plantation burial grounds were common in the Chesapeake region. . . . — — Map (db m34568) HM
Between 1976 and 1978, archaeological excavations on this spot revealed the remains of the "Clifts," a busy tobacco plantation. When first occupied in 1670, this land belonged to Thomas Pope, an English merchant and Westmoreland County planter, and . . . — — Map (db m34569) HM
When the head gates at the pond are opened, water runs under the dam into the wooden flume. Since the mill is started and stopped at frequent intervals, the flood gate at the side of the flume is left open to keep from overloading the flume when the . . . — — Map (db m34469) HM
University of Mary Washington-Stratford Hall Field School of archaeological excavations reveal a mid-eighteenth-century farm complex purposely demolished by the 1780s. At least two earthfast buildings (one with basement addition) and possibly other . . . — — Map (db m34446) HM
This monument was erected by the Board of Directors of Stratford Hall in 1953. The reference to "those negroes who served Stratford so faithfully" reflects the attitude of the time shown by upper and middle class whites to former slaves and their . . . — — Map (db m176502) HM
Has been designated a
Under the provisions of the Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935
This site possesses exceptional value in commemorating and illustrating the history of . . . — — Map (db m34444) HM
In 1744 the Lancaster Commission, headed by Thomas Lee and William Beverley, set forth from Stratford Landing to Lancaster, Pennsylvania to treat with the Chiefs of the Iroquois. Lee’s knowledge of the Indians and his arbitration skills contributed . . . — — Map (db m34467) HM
The narrow strip of beach between the cliffs was Stratford’s main gateway to the outside world. By 1743, Thomas Lee had built a wharf at “Lee’s Landing.” Over the next two decades the Lees owned or held interest in several large vessels . . . — — Map (db m34466) HM
Approximately 17 million years ago, during the Miocene Epoch, these 150-foot-high cliffs along the Potomac River formed the ancient seashore. Rich Miocene fossil deposits, which exist in the 1 1/2 -mile-long series of Horsehead, Stratford and Nomini . . . — — Map (db m34585) HM
When Thomas Lee Purchased this one-acre mill site in 1743, nothing remained but the “old mill dam.” By 1745, he had built a mill which operated-off and on-until the Lees sold Stratford in the 1820s. The names of Stratford’s millers . . . — — Map (db m34468) HM
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