“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
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Kansas Historical Society Historical Markers

Markers of the Kansas state historical markers program administered by the Kansas Historical Society and Kansas Department of Transportation.
Boyhood Home of General Funston and Marker image, Touch for more information
By William Fischer, Jr., August 20, 2011
Boyhood Home of General Funston and Marker
1 Kansas, Allen County, Iola — 53 — Boyhood Home of General Funston
Frederick Funston, five feet four and slightly built, went from this farm to a life of amazing adventure. Youthful exploring expeditions in this country were followed by two years in the Arctic from which he returned down the Yukon river 1,500 miles . . . Map (db m53285) HM
2 Kansas, Atchison County, Atchison — 11 — Atchison
On July 4, 1804, Lewis and Clark exploring the new Louisiana Purchase, camped near this site. Fifty years later the town was founded by Proslavery men and named for Sen. D. R. Atchison. The Squatter Sovereign, Atchison's first newspaper, was an . . . Map (db m77888) HM
3 Kansas, Atchison County, Atchison — 117 — Mormon GroveThe City that Disappeared
Near here, located in a grove of young hickory trees, was an important rallying point in 1855 and 1856 for members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (Mormon), then emigrating to the Rocky Mountains. The campground, really a . . . Map (db m55363) HM
4 Kansas, Atchison County, Potter — 4(B) — Historic Fort LeavenworthOldest Army Post in Continuous Existence West of the Missouri River — 13 Miles South —
Long before white men settled Kansas, traffic over the Santa Fe trail was so heavy that troops were detailed to protect it from the Indians. Fort Leavenworth, established in 1827 by Col. Henry Leavenworth, was for thirty years the chief base of . . . Map (db m52956) HM
5 Kansas, Barber County, Medicine Lodge — 69 — Medicine Lodge Peace Treaties
At Medicine Lodge Creek in 1867, as many as 15,000 Apaches, Kiowas, Comanches, Arapahos, and Cheyennes gathered with a seven-member peace commission escorted by U.S. soldiers to conduct one of the nation’s largest peace councils. The American . . . Map (db m65195) HM
6 Kansas, Barton County, Great Bend — 70 — Fort Zarah
In 1825 the Federal government surveyed the Santa Fe trail, great trade route from western Missouri to Santa Fe. Treaties with Kansas and Osage Indians safeguarded the eastern end of the road but Plains Tribes continued to make raids. Fort Zarah, at . . . Map (db m55315) HM
7 Kansas, Barton County, Pawnee Rock — 71 — Pawnee Rock
"We first rode nearly north about a mile to a remarkable Rocky Point . . .We rode upon the top which is probably 50 feet above the plain below, and from whence there is a charming view of the country in every direction." —George Sibley, . . . Map (db m64191) HM
8 Kansas, Bourbon County, Fort Scott — 48 — Fort Scott
This western outpost, named for General Winfield Scott, was established by U.S. Dragoons in 1842. The fort was located on the military road that marked the "permanent Indian frontier" stretching from Minnesota to Louisiana and stood midway between . . . Map (db m78770) HM
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9 Kansas, Brown County, Horton — 111 — First REA Project in Kansas
At this site the first power pole for the Brown-Atchison Electric Cooperative was dedicated in special ceremony on November 10, 1937. Brown-Atchison was the first rural electric project to energize in Kansas financed by loan funds from the Rural . . . Map (db m63774) HM
10 Kansas, Butler County, Towanda — 119 — TowandaLand of Many Waters
The town and township lie tucked in the pleasant valley of the Whitewater River, and take their name from the Osage Indian term "many waters." First settler was C.L. Chandler, a returning '49er from the California gold fields who built his cabin in . . . Map (db m104028) HM
11 Kansas, Chase County, Cottonwood Falls — 94 — A Landmark of Distinction
Cottonwood Falls has been the Chase county seat since both town and county were established in 1859. The first log cabin-courthouse was replaced in 1873 by this stately building of native limestone and walnut, which today is the oldest Kansas . . . Map (db m49505) HM
12 Kansas, Chase County, Strong City — 22 — Chase County & The Bluestem Pasture Region of Kansas
The vast prairie which surrounds this site is typical of the Bluestem pasture region more commonly known as the Flint Hills. Named for its predominant grasses, the area extends from Oklahoma almost to Nebraska in a narrow oval two counties wide . . . Map (db m43260) HM
13 Kansas, Cherokee County, Baxter Springs — 49 — Baxter Springs Massacre
On October 6, 1863, Gen. James Blunt and about 100 men were met near Baxter’s springs by William Quantrill and several hundred Confederates masquerading as Union troops. As Blunt’s band was preparing a musical salute the enemy fired. This surprise . . . Map (db m37840) HM
14 Kansas, Clark County, Ashland — 77 — Big Basin
This marker stands within a geologic feature known as the Big Basin, which is a sinkhole or "sink" about a mile in diameter and more than a hundred feet deep. Although it has the appearance of a valley, it is entirely surrounded by higher ground. . . . Map (db m11565) HM
15 Kansas, Crawford County, Greenbush — 3 — The Legend of Greenbush
According to legend, in 1869, Father Phillip Colleton was caught at this site by a furious hail and thunderstorm. The frightened priest took refuge under his saddle and vowed that if his life was spared, he would build a church on this spot. The . . . Map (db m46241) HM
16 Kansas, Decatur County, Oberlin — 425 — Flight of the Cheyennes
After the 1876 Battle of Little Big Horn in Montana, tensions mounted between the U.S. government and the Plains Indians. The U.S. army intensified efforts to remove the Northern Cheyennes to Indian Territory (Oklahoma) in 1877. There the tribe . . . Map (db m152717) HM
17 Kansas, Dickinson County, Abilene — 30 — Historic Abilene
At the end of the Civil War when millions of longhorns were left on the plains of Texas without a market, the Union Pacific was building west across Kansas. Joseph McCoy, an Illinois stockman, believed these cattle could be herded north for . . . Map (db m43945) HM
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18 Kansas, Doniphan County, Troy — 86 — Troy
Two miles west is Troy, named for the famous city of Greek antiquity. Following the organization of Doniphan county in 1855 Troy was named the county seat and business began there in 1856. Initially it played a secondary role to such Missouri river . . . Map (db m47397) HM
19 Kansas, Douglas County, Baldwin City — 8 — Baldwin
Here, and for the next 300 miles west, Highway 56 roughly follows the old Santa Fe Trail, and frequently crosses it. White settlement began in this area in 1854, the year Kansas became a territory, and in 1855 the town of Palmyra was founded. When . . . Map (db m20073) HM
20 Kansas, Douglas County, Baldwin City — 7 — Battle of Black Jack
This "battle" was part of the struggle to make Kansas a free state. In May, 1856, Proslavery men destroyed buildings and newspaper presses in Lawrence, Free-State headquarters. John Brown's company then killed five Proslavery men on Pottawatomie . . . Map (db m20059) HM
21 Kansas, Douglas County, Kanwaka — 40 — LecomptonCapital of Kansas Territory
In 1855 the new town of Lecompton was named the capital of Kansas Territory. President James Buchanan appointed a governor and officials to establish government offices in Lecompton, and construction began on an elegant capitol building. In the . . . Map (db m50755) HM
22 Kansas, Douglas County, Lawrence, Pinckney — 10 — Lawrence
Lawrence was established in 1854 by the Emigrant Aid Company, a New England organization formed to prevent the new Kansas territory from becoming a slave state. When the first legislature enacted the so-called Bogus Laws with severe penalties for . . . Map (db m20460) HM
23 Kansas, Edwards County, Kinsley — 73 — Battle of Coon Creek
A battle between U.S. troops and Plains Indians occurred near this area along the Santa Fe Trail in 1848 and inspired stories and legends for years to come. An army train of 60 wagons was traveling through Comanche and Apache hunting grounds on . . . Map (db m228350) HM
24 Kansas, Elk County, Elk Falls — 112 — Prudence Crandall
In 1831, Prudence Crandall, educator, emancipator, and human rights advocate, established a school which in 1833, became the first Black female academy in New England at Canterbury, Connecticut. This later action resulted in her arrest and . . . Map (db m57960) HM
25 Kansas, Ellis County, Hays — 41 — Fort Hays
This noted U.S. Army post was established in 1865 as a headquarters for troops given the task of protecting military roads, guarding the mails and defending construction crews on the Union Pacific Railway. Fort Hays also served as a major supply . . . Map (db m59207) HM
26 Kansas, Ellis County, Victoria — 40 — Victoria
Nowhere in America were two colonies more unlike than those that came here. Scarlet-coated Britishers who chased antelope on bob-tailed ponies were joined by frugal and hard-working German-Russian immigrants. A Scotsman, George Grant, with 69,000 . . . Map (db m80424) HM
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27 Kansas, Ellsworth County, Ellsworth — 89 — Ellsworth, the Cowtown and Fort
When the Union Pacific built through here in 1867 this was buffalo country. As the engines chugged on west, the Hays newspaper reported: "Passengers on the cars between here and Ellsworth have almost daily fine sport shooting at buffalo, immense . . . Map (db m53550) HM
28 Kansas, Ellsworth County, Ellsworth — 101 — Historic Kansas
The rolling land in this area was once sheep country, but now cattle roam here. These stone fence posts found are examples of the many still in use in this portion of Kansas. In an area where wood for posts was scarce, settlers used the materials at . . . Map (db m88765) HM
29 Kansas, Ellsworth County, Ellsworth — 102 — Smoky Hills Region
This region of Kansas contains the Smoky Hills, an area of rolling hills, occasional mesas, and buttes, with striking outcroppings. Pawnee Rock, Coronado Heights, and Rock City are notable Dakota sandstone formations in this region. The Smoky Hills . . . Map (db m55318) HM
30 Kansas, Finney County, Garden City — 80 — American Indians and the Buffalo
For thousands of years American Indians depended upon the buffalo for food, materials for shelter, and numerous other necessities. This relationship ended toward the end of the 19th century when commercial hide hunters nearly drove the buffalo to . . . Map (db m213864) HM
31 Kansas, Finney County, Ravanna — 12 — Beersheba
In 1882 the first Jewish agricultural colony in Kansas was established when some 60 recently arrived Jewish immigrants from Russia, sponsored by the Hebrew Union Agricultural Society, settled northeast of here along Pawnee Creek. Named for the . . . Map (db m160235) HM
32 Kansas, Ford County, Bloom — 96 — Fort Dodge - Camp Supply Military Road
The Fort Dodge - Camp Supply Military Road passed several hundred feet west of this marker. The route was established in 1868 during General Phillip H. Sheridan's winter campaign against Indians in Texas and the Indian Territory. This ungraded . . . Map (db m78809) HM
33 Kansas, Ford County, Dodge City — 363 — Dodge City: Cowboy Capital
"If you stood on the hill above Dodge City, there was traffic as far as you could see, 24-hours a day; seven days a week on the Santa Fe Trail." —Henry L. Sitler, early settler Fort Dodge was established on the Santa Fe Trail in 1859 to protect . . . Map (db m204346) HM
34 Kansas, Ford County, Fort Dodge — 75 — Fort Dodge
Fort Dodge, named for Maj. Gen. Grenville M. Dodge, was established here in 1865. It was a supply depot and base of operations against warring Plains Tribes. Custer, Sheridan, Miles, Hancock, "Wild Bill" Hickok and "Buffalo Bill" Cody are figures . . . Map (db m65406) HM
35 Kansas, Ford County, Wright — 74 — The Road to Santa Fe
The Santa Fe trail, extending 750 miles from the Kansas City area to the old Spanish settlement of Santa Fe, was the great overland trade route of the 1820's to 1870s. Its commercial use began in 1821, when William Becknell headed west with a pack . . . Map (db m55277) HM
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36 Kansas, Geary County, Fort Riley, Camp Whitside — First Capitol of Kansas
The first Kansas Territorial Legislature met in this building, July 2-6, 1855. Admittance FreeMap (db m32758) HM
37 Kansas, Geary County, Fort Riley, Camp Whitside — 24 — First Capitol of Kansas
This building was erected in 1855 in the now extinct town of Pawnee for the first legislature of the territory of Kansas. The members were mostly Missourians, fraudulently elected in an effort to make Kansas a slave state. They came in wagons and on . . . Map (db m33038) HM
38 Kansas, Geary County, Fort Riley, Main Post — 27 — Fort Riley
Here where the Republican and Smoky Hill rivers unite to form the Kansas, Fremont's expedition of 1843 camped and reported great numbers of elk, antelope and Indians. In 1852 the army selected the site for a Western outpost, temporarily called . . . Map (db m32755) HM
39 Kansas, Geary County, Junction City — 104 — Historical Kansas Reported missing
Five miles to the northeast the Republican and Smoky Hill rivers unite to form the Kansas or Kaw. At the junction, the city which bears the name, was founded in 1857. Before the arrival of the westward-building Union Pacific railroad in 1866, . . . Map (db m74013) HM
40 Kansas, Geary County, Junction City — 99 — Historical Kansas
Seven miles ahead you will drive through the southern edge of Fort Riley, established as Camp Center in 1852. The fort was visited by Horace Greeley, noted editor of the New York Tribune, when he traveled by stagecoach to the Pike's Peak region . . . Map (db m32714) HM
41 Kansas, Geary County, Manhattan — 98 — Fort Riley & Junction City
Approximately 7 miles ahead is the southern edge of Fort Riley, established as a military post in 1853. Horace Greeley, noted editor of the New York Tribune, visited the fort in 1859. Of Fort Riley he said, “I hear that two millions of Uncle . . . Map (db m78886) HM
42 Kansas, Geary County, Manhattan — 105 — Historical Kansas
North on scenic K-177 is Manhattan, home of Kansas State University, established as Bluemont College in 1858. Above Manhattan is the huge Tuttle Creek dam and reservoir, described in the 1950s by embattled valley residents as "Big Dam . . . Map (db m55357) HM
43 Kansas, Graham County, Nicodemus — 42 — Nicodemus Reported permanently removed
In July, 1877 Negro “exodusters” from Kentucky established a settlement here in the Promised Land of Kansas which they named Nicodemus. Although the colonists lacked sufficient tools, seed and money they managed to survive the first . . . Map (db m154733) HM
44 Kansas, Grant County, Hugoton — 83 — Wagon Bed Springs
About two miles west were the Lower Springs of the Cimarron River, known today as Wagon Bed Springs. For early-day travelers on the famous Santa Fe Trail, the springs were an “oasis” in dry weather. Several shortcuts of the trail converged here, . . . Map (db m213735) HM
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45 Kansas, Gray County, Cimarron — The Santa Fe Trail
Cimarron, settled in 1878, got its name as the starting point at one time of the shorter Cimarron or dry route to Santa Fe. Here the Santa Fe Trail divided, one branch heading directly southwest, the other (present US 50) following the Arkansas . . . Map (db m204576) HM
46 Kansas, Greenwood County, Neal — 58 — Greenwood County and the Bluestem Pasture Region of Kansas
This county lies almost wholly within one of the world's great beef cattle feeding grounds, the Bluestem pasture region of Kansas. The area, more popularly known as the Flint Hills, extends across the state from north to south in a narrow oval two . . . Map (db m55990) HM
47 Kansas, Harper County, Harper — 66 — Old Runnymede
Two miles northeast of here, in 1890, stood a typical English village. Curving driveways led to English-style houses set among rows of clipped hedges. Nearby were polo grounds, a steeplechase course, a race track, tennis courts, and a football . . . Map (db m62700) HM
48 Kansas, Harvey County, Walton — 61 — Turkey Red Wheat
Children in Russia hand-picked the first seeds of this famous winter wheat for Kansas. They belonged to Mennonite Colonies preparing to emigrate from the steppes to the America prairies. A peace-loving sect, originally from Holland, the . . . Map (db m53056) HM
49 Kansas, Jackson County, Netawaka — 17 — Battle of the Spurs
New Inscription One witness to this event later wrote that it was “no joke” to attack old John Brown. The abolitionist inspired such terror that in January 1859, about 1.5 miles north of here, a U.S. marshal fled at the mere sight of him. . . . Map (db m228347) HM
50 Kansas, Jefferson County, Valley Falls — 13 — Battle of Hickory Point
In September, 1856, a band of Proslavery men sacked Grasshopper Falls (Valley Falls) and terrorized the vicinity. On the 13th, the Free-State leader James H. Lane with a small company besieged a party of raiders in log buildings at Hickory Point, . . . Map (db m55362) HM
51 Kansas, Jefferson County, Williamstown — 95 — Kansa Indians
The Kansa Indians (Kaw) came to this region from the forested southeast. They lived in permanent longhouses covered with bark and cultivated corn, beans, and squash. In their western hunting grounds they captured buffalo and other large animals. . . . Map (db m63719) HM
52 Kansas, Johnson County, Gardner — 6 — Overland Trails
Here US-56 lies directly on the route of the Oregon-California and Santa Fe trails. Nearby, the trails branched. On a rough sign pointing northwest were the words, "Road to Oregon." Another marker directed travelers southwest along the road to Santa . . . Map (db m21669) HM
53 Kansas, Johnson County, Merriam — 1 — Shawnee Friends Mission
In 1825 the Federal government began moving Eastern Indians to new lands west of the Mississippi. This sign is on a 2,500 square mile tract assigned to the Shawnees. With this tribe came Methodist, Baptist and Quaker missionaries. One mile east . . . Map (db m20906) HM
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54 Kansas, Kearny County, Lakin — 82 — Chouteau's Island
In the spring of 1816 Auguste P. Chouteau's hunting party traveling east with a winter's catch of furs was attacked near the Arkansas river by 200 Pawnees. Retreating to what was once an island five miles southwest of this marker the hunters . . . Map (db m65747) HM
55 Kansas, Kearny County, Lakin — 72 — Santa Fe Trail Ruts1821 - 1872
Looking east, up and over the bank of the ditch, one can see the wagon ruts of the Santa Fe Trail. You will notice a difference in the color and texture of the grass in the ruts. This is characteristic of the ruts along the trail. Between Pawnee . . . Map (db m65755) HM
56 Kansas, Kiowa County, Greensburg — 16 — Cannonball Stage Line Highway
Flamboyant and colorful, Donald R. "Cannonball" Green (1839-1922) ran a stage line connecting the railroad to towns across southwestern Kansas. Green started his first stage service in Kingman in 1876. It ran through Pratt to Coldwater and later . . . Map (db m65268) HM
57 Kansas, Leavenworth County, Fort Leavenworth — 4(A) — Fort Leavenworth
Established in 1827, Fort Leavenworth is the oldest army post in continuous operation west of the Missouri River. Serving as the army's chief base of operations on the Central Plains, the fort furnished troops and supplies for military operations . . . Map (db m63183) HM
58 Kansas, Leavenworth County, Leavenworth — 90 — The City of Leavenworth
Two weeks after Kansas was officially opened for settlement, the state's oldest city was born. The date was June 12, 1854, and the town was named for nearby Fort Leavenworth. In September, type for the first regular weekly newspaper in Kansas . . . Map (db m19839) HM
59 Kansas, Linn County, Pleasanton — 47 — Battle of Mine Creek Reported missing
In October, 1864, a Confederate army under Gen. Stirling Price was defeated near Kansas City. He retreated south, crossed into Kansas, and camped at Trading Post. Early on the morning of October 25 Union troops under Generals Pleasonton, Blunt and . . . Map (db m6937) HM
60 Kansas, Linn County, Trading Post — 46 — Marais des Cygnes Massacre
Nothing in the struggle over slavery in Kansas did more to inflame the nation than the mass killing which took place May 19, 1858, about four miles northeast of this marker. Charles Hamelton who had been driven from the territory by Free-State men, . . . Map (db m4359) HM
61 Kansas, Marion County, Goessel — 31 — The Mennonites in Kansas
Beginning in 1874, hundreds of peace-loving Mennonite immigrants settled in central Kansas. They had left their former homes in Russia because a hundred-year-old immunity from established religious orthodoxy and military service was being . . . Map (db m61058) HM
62 Kansas, Marshall County, Blue Rapids — 26 — Alcove Springs & the Oregon Trail
Six miles northwest is Alcove Springs, named in 1846 by appreciative travelers on the Oregon trail who carved the name on the surrounding rocks and trees. One described the Springs as "a beautiful cascade of water... altogether one of the most . . . Map (db m79113) HM
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63 Kansas, Marshall County, Marysville — 28 — Hollenberg Ranch and the Pony Express
Begun in 1858, the Hollenberg Ranch, four miles north and one mile east of here, served as a stop on the Oregon-California Trail until the late 1860s. Gerat and Sophia Hollenberg, German emigrants, sold food and other supplies, lodging, and draft . . . Map (db m228348) HM
64 Kansas, Marshall County, Marysville — 25 — Marysville Reported permanently removed
A few miles below Marysville was the famous ford on the Oregon Trail known as the Independence, Mormon or California crossing. There thousands of covered wagons with settlers bound for Oregon, Mormons for Utah and gold seekers for California . . . Map (db m152715) HM
65 Kansas, Marshall County, Marysville — 25 — Marysville
In 1849, Frank Marshall obtained permission from the U.S. government to establish a trading post and ferry before Kansas opened for settlement. Thousands of wagons lined up to cross the Blue River on the Oregon-California Trail as settlers headed . . . Map (db m227616) HM
66 Kansas, McPherson County, Elyria — 33 — Kansas Indian Treaty
In 1825 President James Monroe approved a bill providing for the survey of the Santa Fe Trail from Missouri to New Mexico and the making of treaties to insure friendly relations with Indians along the route. A mile west of this sign, on Dry Turkey . . . Map (db m53059) HM
67 Kansas, Meade County, Meade — 78 — The Lone Tree Incident
During the first half of the 19th century the U.S. government, in response to public pressure for land and resources, began a program of concentrating Indian tribes on reservations. After the Civil War, an ever growing number of settlers made it . . . Map (db m55276) HM
68 Kansas, Miami County, Osawatomie — 50 — John Brown Country
Osawatomie - the name derives from a combination of Osage and Pottawatomie - was settled in 1854 by Free-State families from the Ohio Valley and New England. John Brown, soon to become famous for his militant abolitionism, joined five of his . . . Map (db m69325) HM
69 Kansas, Mitchell County, Cawker City — 36 — Waconda (Great Spirit Spring) Reported missing
Many moons ago, so runs an Indian legend, Waconda, a beautiful Princess, fell in love with a brave of another tribe. Prevented from marriage by a blood feud, this warrior embroiled the tribes in battle. During the fight an arrow struck him as he . . . Map (db m123009) HM
70 Kansas, Mitchell County, Cawker City — Waconda Springs
American Indians considered Waconda Springs a sacred site. Translated similarly by other tribes, the name comes from a Kaw word meaning "Great Spirit." The legend tells of the beautiful Waconda who fell in love with the warrior Takota from a . . . Map (db m123034) HM
71 Kansas, Montgomery County, Independence — 56 — Drum Creek and the Civil War
During the Civil War, militias from both the Union and Confederate sides were stealing the Osages' cattle, harassing their villages, and blaming the Indians for raids actually committed by Americans. Osage leader Charles Mongrain cautioned everyone . . . Map (db m60477) HM
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72 Kansas, Montgomery County, Morehead — 54 — The Bloody Benders
Near here are the Bender Mounds, named for the infamous Bender family ~~ John, his wife, son, and daughter Kate ~~ who settled here in 1871. Kate soon gained notoriety as a self proclaimed healer and spiritualist. Secretly, the four made a living . . . Map (db m52958) HM
73 Kansas, Morris County, Council Grove — 21 — Council Grove
In 1825 growing traffic over the Santa Fe trail brought a government survey and right-of-way treaties with certain Indians. Council Grove takes its name from an agreement made here that year with the Osage nation. Indians farther west continued . . . Map (db m44940) HM
74 Kansas, Morton County, Elkhart — 84 — La Jornada & Point of Rocks
The Cimarron Cutoff, or Dry Route, of the old Santa Fe Trail extended southwest from several Arkansas River crossings to the Cimarron River, a distance of 50 to 60 miles. This route was a perilous stretch of arid plains known as La Jornada. . . . Map (db m210687) HM
75 Kansas, Nemaha County, Sabetha — 32 — The Lane Trail
Near here the towns of Plymouth and Lexington once stood as outposts on the Lane Trail, approximated today by US-75. Named for abolitionist James H. Lane, the trail was established in 1856 to bypass proslavery strongholds in Missouri and provide . . . Map (db m52952) HM
76 Kansas, Neosho County, Erie — 52 — Mission Neosho
The first Indian mission and school in present Kansas was established in September, 1824, about five miles west of this marker. Benton Pixley, the missionary, followed Chief White Hair and his band of Great Osages who had migrated from Missouri . . . Map (db m46198) HM
77 Kansas, Neosho County, Erie — 52 — Osage Nation
Originally from the Ohio Valley, the Osages agreed in 1810 to a treaty to relinquish lands in Missouri and relocate along the Neosho River in Kansas. Under the leadership of Chief Pahuska, called White Hair, the Osages lived and hunted on their . . . Map (db m65813) HM
78 Kansas, Neosho County, St. Paul — 51 — Osage Catholic Mission
The mission was founded in 1847 for Osage Indians living along the Neosho and Verdigris rivers. A manual labor school for boys was established by the Jesuits and a department for girls by the Sisters of Loretto. Highest recorded enrollment was 239. . . . Map (db m46238) HM
79 Kansas, Ness County, Beeler — 79 — Homestead of a Genius
A mile and half south is a quarter section of land originally homesteaded by George Washington Carver. An African American and one of America's great scientists, Carver revolutionized agriculture in the South with his discoveries. From sweet . . . Map (db m61955) HM
80 Kansas, Osborne County, Osborne — 38 — Geodetic Center of North America
On a ranch 18 miles southeast of this marker a bronze plate marks the most important spot on this continent to surveyors and map makers. Engraved in the bronze is a cross-mark and on the tiny point where the lines cross depend the surveys of a . . . Map (db m53531) HM
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81 Kansas, Pawnee County, Garfield — 110 — Camp Criley 1872
Camp Criley was established in 1872 as a supply station for workmen building the Santa Fe Railroad, name changed to Garfield in 1873 by pioneers settling here. This park was planned in 1880 and the first trees planted in April 1882. The Band Shell . . . Map (db m55283) HM
82 Kansas, Pawnee County, Larned — 108 — Birthplace of Farm Credit
This 280 acres was collateral for the nation's first Federal Land Bank loan made on April 10, 1917 to farmer-stockman A. L. Stockwell. In those days, farmers and ranchers found credit hard to come by. If available, it was often very expensive . . . . . . Map (db m55285) HM
83 Kansas, Pottawatomie County, St. Marys — 18 — St. Marys
This city and college take their name from St. Mary's Catholic Mission founded here by the Jesuits in 1848 for the Pottawatomie Indians. These missionaries, who had lived with the tribe in eastern Kansas from 1838, accompanied the removal to this . . . Map (db m122966) HM
84 Kansas, Pottawatomie County, Wamego — 107 — Vieux Cemetery
Of Pottawatomie Indian and French ancestry, Louis Vieux was an early resident of this area. Probably born near Lake Michigan, Vieux, with a portion of the Pottawatomies, moved to Iowa and later Indianola, Kan., near Topeka. In 1847 or 1848, Vieux . . . Map (db m32608) HM
85 Kansas, Pottawatomie County, Westmoreland — 20 — The California - Oregon Trail
From the 1830's to the 1870's, the 2,000-mile road connecting Missouri river towns with California and Oregon was America's greatest transcontinental highway. Several routes led west from the river, converging into one trail by the time the Fort . . . Map (db m80927) HM
86 Kansas, Rawlins County, Atwood — 85 — Frontier in Rawlins County
The vast expanse of High Plains that today encompasses Rawlins County was once home and hunting ground to Cheyenne, Comanche, and Arapaho Indians. With continued railroad construction and the growth of permanent settlements, American westward . . . Map (db m176814) HM
87 Kansas, Republic County, Scandia — 34 — Country of the Pawnee
Long before white men settled Kansas this region was the home of Pawnee Indians. French traders in the late 1700's named those along this river the Republican Pawnee in the mistaken belief that their form of government was a republic. From them the . . . Map (db m53412) HM
88 Kansas, Rice County, Lyons — 68 — Coronado and Quivira
Eighty years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock, Spanish explorers visited Kansas. Francisco Vasquez de Coronado, seeking gold in New Mexico, was told of Quivira by an Indian called the Turk. Here were "trees hung with golden bells and . . . Map (db m53314) HM
89 Kansas, Rush County, Alexander — 113 — Fort Hays-Fort Dodge Trail
Established in 1867, the Fort Hays-Fort Dodge Trail, which passed near this spot, was first used by the military and some civilian traffic in 1868. The following year Alexander Harvey, a former member of the Sixth Cavalry, built a trading post on . . . Map (db m89567) HM
90 Kansas, Scott County, Scott City — 81(A) — El Quartelejo
In Scott County State Park three miles northwest is El Quartelejo, only known Indian pueblo in Kansas. About 1650, it is believed, Taos Indians migrated here to escape Spanish oppression. Later they were persuaded by the Spanish governor to return . . . Map (db m67917) HM
91 Kansas, Scott County, Scott State Park — 81(B) — El Cuartelejo
Reconstructed here are the remains of a seven-room pueblo believed to have been built by Pueblo Indians from New Mexico. According to Spanish records Indians from Taos and Picuris Pueblos, fleeing Spanish rule, joined their Apache allies at a . . . Map (db m65952) HM
92 Kansas, Sedgwick County, Park City — 64 — Indian Treaties of 1865
In October 1865 hundreds of Plains Indians camped on these prairies to negotiate peace with U.S. government officials. Among them were Chiefs Black Kettle and Seven Bulls (Cheyennes), Little Raven and Big Mouth (Arapahos), Rising Sun and Horse's . . . Map (db m61099) HM
93 Kansas, Sedgwick County, Wichita — 62 — The Chisholm Trail
At the close of the Civil War when millions of longhorns were left on the plains of Texas without a market, the Union Pacific was building west across Kansas. Joseph McCoy, an Illinois stockman, believed these cattle could be herded over the . . . Map (db m61125) HM
94 Kansas, Seward County, Kismet — 93 — Arkalon and the Samson of the Cimarron Reported missing
Many Kansas towns originated as potential railroad centers. Three miles west of this marker Arkalon was founded in 1888 at the Cimarron river crossing of the Chicago, Kansas and Nebraska railway, a part of the Rock Island. Town lots were cheap, and . . . Map (db m223938) HM
95 Kansas, Seward County, Kismet — 92 — Fargo Springs and Springfield
The importance of railroads to the early settlement and prosperity of the West is nowhere better illustrated than in the stories of two Seward county towns. Fargo Springs, founded in 1885 about three miles south of here, was the first town . . . Map (db m78811) HM
96 Kansas, Seward County, Liberal — 114 — When Coronado came to Kansas
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado, with 36 soldiers and Father Juan de Padilla, marched north from the Rio Grande valley in the spring of 1541. Coronado's objective was the land of Quivira, described to the Spaniards as a fabulously wealthy kingdom . . . Map (db m55274) HM
97 Kansas, Shawnee County, Tecumseh — LecomptonCapital of Kansas Territory
In 1855, the new town of Lecompton was named the capital of Kansas Territory. President James Buchanan appointed a governor and officials to establish government offices in Lecompton, and construction began on an elegant capitol building. In the . . . Map (db m88763) HM
98 Kansas, Shawnee County, Topeka — 15 — Capital of Kansas Reported permanently removed
Topeka was founded in 1854 at the site of Papan's Ferry where a branch of the Oregon Trail crossed the Kansas river as early as 1842. Anti-slavery leaders framed the Topeka Constitution, 1855, in the first attempt to organize a state government. The . . . Map (db m20479) HM
99 Kansas, Smith County, Lebanon — 37 — The Geographic Center
In a park three miles north and one mile west is the exact geographic center of the 48 contiguous states. The location has been officially established by the U.S. Geological Survey. It is the point where a plane map of the 48 states would balance . . . Map (db m46589) HM
100 Kansas, Smith County, Lebanon — 37 — The Geographic Center
In a park three miles north and one mile west is the exact geographic center of the 48 contiguous states. The location has been officially established by the U.S. Geological Survey. It is the point where a plane map of the 48 states would balance if . . . Map (db m71928) HM

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May. 27, 2024