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Virginia Civil War Trails Historical Markers

 
Closeup of Map and Photos of Artifacts on Marker image, Touch for more information
By J. J. Prats, May 11, 2008
Closeup of Map and Photos of Artifacts on Marker
GEOGRAPHIC SORT
1Virginia (Albemarle County), Charlottesville — Rio HillArtifacts Found at Rio Hill
Civil War relic collectors found Stuart’s winter camp and skirmish site (shaded area of map) long before the Rio Hill Shopping Center opened in 1989. Metal detectors were used to search the area and artifacts—bullets, buttons, belt and . . . — Map (db m7692) HM
2Virginia (Albemarle County), Charlottesville — Rio Hill 1864 SkirmishGeorge A. Custer Attacks a Confederate Winter Camp
In December 1863, Confederate troops established winter quarters here. The approximately 200 soldiers, under the command of Capt. Marcellus N. Moorman, were from Stuart’s Horse Artillery Battalion and were equipped with 16 cannons. The men built . . . — Map (db m7690) HM
3Virginia (Albemarle County), Scottsville — ScottsvilleWhen War Came
At 3 p.m. on Monday, March 6, 1865, the first of Union Gen. Philip H. Sheridan’s 10,000 cavalrymen under Gens. Wesley Merritt, Thomas Devin, and George A. Custer entered Scottsville unopposed. To accomplish their mission—destroy the James . . . — Map (db m17844) HM
4Virginia (Alexandria), Old Town — AlexandriaAlexandria in the Civil War
“Alexandria is ours,” declared Col. Orlando Wilcox of the 1st Michigan Vol. Inf. as his regiment captured the city on the morning of May 24, 1861. When Virginia's vote of secession became effective, Union forces immediately crossed the . . . — Map (db m159) HM
5Virginia (Alexandria), Old Town — Alexandria in the Civil War"Alexandria is ours!"
“Alexandria is ours,” declared Col. Orlando Wilcox of the 1st Michigan Infantry as his regiment captured the city on the morning of May 24, 1861, one day after Virginia officially left the Union. Due to its strategic location on the . . . — Map (db m152570) HM
6Virginia (Alexandria), Seminary Hill — Fort Ward1861-1865
This stairway leads up the west wall of Fort Ward between the Northwest Bastion (to the left) and the Southwest Bastion (to the right). Fort Ward had 14 cannon emplacements along this area of the wall that created overlapping fields of fire. . . . — Map (db m7709) HM
7Virginia (Alleghany County), Covington — Averell’s Salem RaidNarrow Escape at Island Ford Bridge
In December 1863, Union Gen. William W. Averell’s 2,500 cavalrymen raided Salem, Virginia, to disrupt the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad supply line to Confederate Gen. James Longstreet, who was besieging Knoxville, Tennessee. After the raid, . . . — Map (db m107979) HM
8Virginia (Alleghany County), Longdale Furnace — Australia FurnaceAlleghany Iron for the Confederacy
Australia Furnace, located just east of here, produced pig iron for the Tredegar Iron Works—“Ironmaker to the Confederacy”—during the Civil War. Ira and Edwin Jordan had begun constructing Australia Furnace in 1852; two years . . . — Map (db m107981) HM
9Virginia (Alleghany County), Longdale Furnace — Lucy Selina FurnaceAlleghany Iron for the Confederacy
You are standing near the site of the Lucy Selina Furnace, which supplied the Confederacy with pig iron for the production of cannons, munitions, and rails during the Civil War. In 1827, two Scots-Irishmen, Col. John Jordan and John Irvine, built . . . — Map (db m107982) HM
10Virginia (Alleghany County), Low Moor — Jackson River DepotCrook's Raid
During the Civil War, the Jackson River Depot was located here. It marked the western terminus of the Virginia Central Railroad, which extended 200 miles from Hanover Junction north of Richmond. Located just east of the Kanawha Pass of the Allegheny . . . — Map (db m107980) HM
11Virginia (Amelia County), Deatonville — Deatonville"Continuous shifting battle" — Lee's Retreat —
Through early morning showers on April 6, 1865. Gen. Robert E. Lee's weary men and creaking wagons slogged west toward Farmville and expected rations. They passed through Deatonville, “a cluster of half-a-dozen brick farmhouses,” and . . . — Map (db m117558) HM
12Virginia (Amelia County), Jetersville — Hillsman HouseLee’s Retreat — April 6, 1865 —
Union forces assembled along this ridge while Confederate troops prepared on the opposite slope. Federal forces crossed Little Sailor’s Creek for a fierce battle which compelled many Southerners to surrender. The house served as a hospital for both . . . — Map (db m11795) HM
13Virginia (Amelia County), Jetersville — Holt's CornerLee's Army Divides — Lee's Retreat —
Shortly before noon on April 6, 1865, elements of Union Gen. George Crook's cavalry division attacked Confederate Gen. Richard H. Anderson's infantry corps as it marched through this intersection. While most of the Army of Northern Virginia . . . — Map (db m116967) HM
14Virginia (Amelia County), Jetersville — Overton / Hillsman HouseWar's Horror Knocks at the Door
As night began to fall here on, April 6, 1865, the hard fought battles of Little Sailor's Creek and the crossroads near the Marshall Farm draw to a close. Federal surgeons work by the little natural light that's still available. They are inside the . . . — Map (db m10274) HM
15Virginia (Amelia County), Mannboro — Namozine ChurchPursuit Cathces Up — Lee’s Retreat —
When Gen. Robert E. Lee evacuated the Army of Northern Virginia from Petersburg and Richmond on April 2-3, 1865, he ordered the army’s wings to unite at Amelia Court House, where trains would meet them with food and other supplies. The army would . . . — Map (db m6049) HM
16Virginia (Appomattox County), Appomattox — Battle of Appomattox StationFinal Blow — Lee's Retreat —
You are standing near the site of Appomattox Station Depot on the South Side Railroad. Here, on the afternoon of April 8, 1865, Union cavalrymen under Gen. George A. Custer dealt the Army of Northern Virginia a final blow. First, they captured . . . — Map (db m156545) HM
17Virginia (Appomattox County), Appomattox — Confederate Artillery PositionBattle of Appomattox Station
Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Norther Virginia began the retreat west from Richmond and Petersburg on April 3, 1865, with about 250 cannon. Two days later, at Amelia Court House, about a hundred of the least effective pieces were culled . . . — Map (db m84749) HM
18Virginia (Appomattox County), Appomattox — Custer's Third BrigadeBattle of Appomattox Station
Union Col. Henry Capehart commanded Gen. George A. Custer’s Third Cavalry Brigade on Custer’s left flank. On April 8, 1865, Capehart had only the 1st New York (Lincoln) an 1st and 2nd West Virginia regiments on hand, the 3rd West Virginia had . . . — Map (db m84751) HM
19Virginia (Appomattox County), Appomattox — Walker's Last StandCuster's Charges
One of the last battles of the Civil War in Virginia took place here early in the evening of April 8, 1865. Confederate Gen. Reuben L. Walker, who commanded 100 guns of Gen. Robert E. Lee’s reserve artillery, made camp here late in the afternoon. . . . — Map (db m156547) HM
20Virginia (Appomattox County), Vera — Lee’s Rear GuardFinal Blow — Lee’s Retreat —
You are standing where Gen. James Longstreet’s corps entrenched early in the morning of April 9, 1865, to protect the rear of the Army of Northern Virginia. Gen. Robert E. Lee and most of the army bivouacked about four miles south, just short of . . . — Map (db m6051) HM
21Virginia (Arlington County), Arlington — Fort C.F. SmithDefending the Capital
Fort C.F. Smith was constructed in early 1863 as part of the expansion and strengthening of the capital’s defenses that continued throughout the Civil War. With Forts Strong, Morton and Woodbury, Fort C.F. Smith formed the outer perimeter of the . . . — Map (db m5099) HM
22Virginia (Arlington County), Arlington — Fort C.F. SmithMr. Lincoln’s Forts — Defenses of Washington, 1861-1865 —
Fort C.F. Smith was constructed in 1863 on farmland appropriated from William Jewell. The fort was named in honor of Gen. Charles Ferguson Smith, who was instrumental in the Union victory at Fort Donelson, Tennessee in 1862. The fortification was . . . — Map (db m5101) HM
23Virginia (Arlington County), Arlington — Fort C.F. SmithProtecting the Capital
The ramps in front of you, now covered with grass, led to wooden platforms on which the various cannons were placed. When built in 1863, Fort C.F. Smith had platforms for twenty-two artillery pieces and four siege mortars. However, only sixteen . . . — Map (db m5102) HM
24Virginia (Arlington County), Arlington — Fort Ethan AllenMr. Lincoln’s Forts — Defenses of Washington - 1861-1865 —
Fort Ethan Allen was constructed during the Civil War to provide one of the last lines of defense against possible Confederate attacks aimed at Washington. The fort commanded approaches to Chain Bridge (over the Potomac River) from the south of . . . — Map (db m2318) HM
25Virginia (Arlington County), Arlington — Freedman’s VillageA New Home for African Americans
During the Civil War, many escaped and freed slaves traveled north seeking refuge in Union camps. Thousands crowded into the Federal City. The number of refugees quickly overwhelmed the area’s resources. Overcrowding and disease became prevalent. In . . . — Map (db m5293) HM
26Virginia (Augusta County), New Hope — Battle of PiedmontFinal Action at New Hope
The Battle of Piedmont, fought on June 5, 1864 between Union Gen. David Hunter and Confederate Gen. William E. "Grumble" Jones, ended here. It began more than a mile northeast when the 12,000-man strong Federal army, whose mission was to scour the . . . — Map (db m155471) HM
27Virginia (Augusta County), Swoope — West ViewConfederate Camps — 1862 Valley Campaign —
In 1862, West View was a village of about 15 buildings including a flour mill, post office, store, wagon shop and saw mills. About 3,000 soldiers camped in the surrounding fields from April 20 to May 6. Confederates under Gen. Edward . . . — Map (db m15788) HM
28Virginia (Augusta County), West Augusta — Mountain HouseJackson's March — 1862 Valley Campaign —
The Battle of McDowell began three miles to the southeast (near the intersection of Routes 629 and 716) when Confederates were fired upon by Union cavalry on May 7, 1862. After skirmishing, Federals rushed to the base camp here, sounding the alarm . . . — Map (db m62920) HM
29Virginia (Bedford County), Bedford — AvenelIn the Eye of the Storm — Hunter’s Raid —
(preface) On May 26, 1864, Union Gen. David Hunter marched south from Cedar Creek near Winchester to drive out Confederate forces, lay waste to the Shenandoah Valley, and destroy transportation facilities at Lynchburg. His raid was part of . . . — Map (db m42844) HM
30Virginia (Bedford County), Bedford — BedfordHunter’s Raid — 1864 Valley Campaign —
On the evening of June 15, 1864, the lead element of Union Gen. David Hunter’s 18,000-man army arrived here and cam near Avenel. The main force arrived the following morning and started destroying the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad tracks, burning . . . — Map (db m41408) HM
31Virginia (Bedford County), Bedford — Peaks of Otter“A rougher road could not be imagined” — Hunter’s Raid —
(preface) On May 26, 1864, Union Gen. David Hunter marched south from Cedar Creek near Winchester to drive out Confederate forces, lay waste to the Shenandoah Valley, and destroy transportation facilities at Lynchburg. His raid was part of . . . — Map (db m55780) HM
32Virginia (Brunswick County), Alberta — DanieltownA Side Raid: 32 Troopers Captured — Wilson-Kautz Raid —
In June 1864, to deny Gen. Robert E. Lee the use of the South Side R.R. and the Richmond and Danville R.R., Gen. Ulysses S Grant sent Gen. James H. Wilson and Gen. August V. Kautz south of Petersburg on a cavalry raid to destroy track and rolling . . . — Map (db m20168) HM
33Virginia (Brunswick County), Dolphin — Smoky Ordinary“Rebel cavalry” — Wilson-Kautz Raid —
In June 1864, to deny Gen. Robert E. Lee the use of the South Side R.R. and the Richmond and Danville R.R., Gen. Ulysses S. Grant sent Gen. James H. Wilson and Gen. August V. Kautz south of Petersburg on a cavalry raid to destroy track and rolling . . . — Map (db m20171) HM
34Virginia (Brunswick County), Lawrenceville — Brunswick County Courthouse
Late in the afternoon of May 15, 1864, Union Gen. August V. Kautz and his cavalry division rode into Lawrenceville, the Brunswick County seat. They were on the second leg of a two-part, two-week-long expedition to destroy railroad bridges and depots . . . — Map (db m62400) HM
35Virginia (Caroline County), Bowling Green — Star HotelConspirator's Lair
Built approximately 1820, the Star Hotel was one of two taverns serving Bowling Green. During the Civil War, it was operated by the Henry Gouldman family, and became a notorious Confederate spy headquarters and safe haven to those who aided Lincoln . . . — Map (db m116127) HM
36Virginia (Caroline County), Carmel Church — Carmel ChurchGathering for North Anna — Lee vs. Grant - The 1864 Campaign —
The scattered corps of the Union army reunited here at Carmel Church (known during the war as Mount Carmel Church) on May 23 before attacking Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee across the North Anna River, approximately three miles ahead. Gen. Winfield . . . — Map (db m3693) HM
37Virginia (Caroline County), Guinea — Guinea StationGrant Maneuvers South — Lee vs. Grant – The 1864 Campaign —
General Winfield Hancock’s Union Second corps left Spotsylvania Court House after sunset on May 290, 1864. It trudged south along dark roads, headed toward Milford Station on the Richmond, Fredericksburg, and Potomac Railroad. Grant had ordered . . . — Map (db m3308) HM
38Virginia (Caroline County), Milford — Milford StationLee Avoids A Trap — Lee vs. Grant – The 1864 Campaign —
Unable to crack Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee’s strongly fortified lines at Spotsylvania Court House, Union Gen. Grant ordered Gen. Winfield Hancock’s Second Corps to cross the Mattaponi River here at Milford Station and threaten the Confederate . . . — Map (db m116534) HM
39Virginia (Caroline County), Port Royal — Port RoyalUnion Supply Depot
Port Royal possessed the finest harbor on the middle reaches of the Rappahannock River. Although the town's permanent wharf had been destroyed by Union gunboats before the Battle of Fredericksburg, the excellent harbor made Port Royal an obvious . . . — Map (db m57537) HM
40Virginia (Caroline County), Woodford — Bethel ChurchUnion Command Meets — Lee vs. Grant - The 1864 Campaign —
"At the church…the 9th Corps was marching past, and Burnside was sitting, like a comfortable abbot, in one of the pews, surrounded by his buckish staff whose appearance is the reverse of clerical.” – Theodore Lyman, aide-de-camp . . . — Map (db m116535) HM
41Virginia (Charles City County), Charles City — Piney GroveThe Front Line and the Home Front
In Virginia, the “Home Front” and the “Front Line” were often just miles apart during the Civil War. In places such as Charles City County families provided their men for troops and also lost the income from their . . . — Map (db m18589) HM
42Virginia (Charles City County), Charles City — Stuart's RideSafe among Friends and Family — 1862 Peninsula Campaign —
In May 1862, Union Gen. George B. McClellan led the Army of the Potomac up the Peninsula to the gates of Richmond. Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee assumed command of the Army of Northern Virginia in June and began planning a counterattack. On June . . . — Map (db m61881) HM
43Virginia (Charles City County), Charles City — Stuart's RideCoffee at Rowland’s — 1862 Peninsula Campaign —
In May 1862, Union Gen. George B. McClellan led the Army of the Potomac up the Peninsula to the gates of Richmond. Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee assumed command of the Army of Northern Virginia in June and began planning a counterattack. On June . . . — Map (db m61882) HM
44Virginia (Charles City County), Charles City — WestoverMcClellan’s New Base — 1862 Peninsula Campaign —
Following the last of the Seven Days' Battles on July 1, 1862, at Malvern Hill, Gen. George B. McClellan's Union Army of the Potomac continued its retreat to the James River. McClellan had earlier decided to "change his base" from the Pamunkey River . . . — Map (db m30227) HM
45Virginia (Charles City County), Charles City — Wilcox’s LandingCrossing the James — Lee vs. Grant – The 1864 Campaign —
With the Federal armies stalled at Cold Harbor, Gen. U.S. Grant made the fateful decision to move on Petersburg. The march began under cover of darkness on the evening of June 12, 1864, and covered some 20 miles before reaching the James River . . . — Map (db m17507) HM
46Virginia (Charlotte County), Charlotte Court House — Charlotte Court HouseForaging Parties: “People complimented us” — Wilson-Kautz Raid —
In June 1864, to deny Gen. Robert E. Lee the use of the South Side R.R. and the Richmond and Danville R.R., Gen. Ulysses S. Grant sent Gen. James H. Wilson and Gen. August V. Kautz south of Petersburg on a cavalry raid to destroy track and rolling . . . — Map (db m31011) HM
47Virginia (Charlotte County), Drakes Branch — Drakes Branch"Burnt all the depot buildings" — Wilson-Kautz Raid —
In June 1864, to deny Gen. Robert E. Lee the use of the South Side R.R. and the Richmond and Danville R.R., Gen. Ulysses S. Grant sent Gen. James H. Wilson and Gen. August V. Kautz south of Petersburg on a cavalry raid to destroy track and rolling . . . — Map (db m31006) HM
48Virginia (Charlotte County), Keysville — KeysvilleForaging and Destruction — Wilson-Kautz Raid —
In June 1864, to deny Gen. Robert E. Lee the use of the South Side R.R. and the Richmond and Danville R.R., Gen. Ulysses S. Grant sent Gen. James H. Wilson and Gen. August V. Kautz south of Petersburg on a cavalry raid to destroy track and rolling . . . — Map (db m66003) HM
49Virginia (Charlotte County), Randolph — Wilson-Kautz Raid“Destroy both those roads”
In late June 1864, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia were engaged in a desperate defense of the city of Petersburg. Victory for Lee depended on a steady flow of supplies, brought in by rail. To force Lee from . . . — Map (db m107472) HM
50Virginia (Charlotte County), Saxe — Carrington's Mill"The D_ _ _ Rebels" — Wilson-Kautz Raid —
In June 1864, to deny Gen. Robert E. Lee the use of the South Side R.R. and the Richmond and Danville R.R., Gen. Ulysses S. Grant sent Gen. James H. Wilson and Gen. August V. Kautz south of Petersburg on a cavalry raid to destroy track and rolling . . . — Map (db m31004) HM
51Virginia (Charlotte County), Wylliesburg — WylliesburghFirst Rest — Wilson-Kautz Raid —
In June 1864, to deny General Robert E. Lee the use of the South Side Railroad and the Richmond and Danville Railroad, General Ulysses S. Grant sent General James H. Wilson and General August V. Kautz south of Petersburg on a cavalry raid to destroy . . . — Map (db m40791) HM
52Virginia (Charlottesville), North Downtown — CharlottesvilleConfederate Heroes Remembered
Lee and Jackson Parks contain two of Charlottesville's fine examples of public sculpture, gifts of benefactor Paul Goodloe McIntire (1860-1952). The Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson statue was dedicated in 1921,the Robert E. Lee statue in 1924. . . . — Map (db m497) HM
53Virginia (Chesapeake), Deep Creek North — Village of Deep CreekThe Dismal Swamp Rangers
Before you is the Deep Creek Lock of the Great Dismal Swamp Canal. The canal was an important thoroughfare, connecting the North Carolina Sounds with Hampton Roads and the Chesapeake Bay. The Dismal Swamp Canal is the oldest operating artificial . . . — Map (db m4773) HM
54Virginia (Chesapeake), Greenbrier West — Village of Great BridgeA Vital Link
The village of Great Bridge was located at a strategic crossing of the Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal. This canal, along with the Dismal Swamp Canal, was recognized as being a strategically important corridor by both the Union and Confederate . . . — Map (db m48919) HM
55Virginia (Chesapeake), Pleasant Grove East — The Cuffeytown ThirteenPatriot Heroes
Thirteen African American veterans of the Civil War are interred nearby at the Cuffeytown Historic Cemetery. They served in the 5th, 10th, and 36th United States Colored Troops infantry regiments organized in 1863 and 1864, after the Emancipation . . . — Map (db m48917) HM
56Virginia (Chesapeake), Pleasant Grove West — Dismal Swamp CanalThe Battle of South Mills
Before you is the Dismal Swamp Canal, a much sought after prize of war during the Civil War. The Confederates made good use of the canal facilities during the initial stages of the conflict. A large volume of supplies passed through in both . . . — Map (db m114523) HM
57Virginia (Chesapeake), Pleasant Grove West — Glencoe"He was brave, gentle and polished"
“Glencoe,” the plantation home of Capt. William Wallace of the Jackson Grays, was located approximately one-half mile northeast of this site. William C. Wallace was born at Wallaceton, Norfolk County, Virginia, on March 23, 1842, and . . . — Map (db m22446) HM
58Virginia (Chesapeake), Pleasant Grove West — Pleasant Grove Baptist Church CemeteryHome of the Jackson Greys
This is the former site of the Pleasant Grove Baptist Church. The monument to the "Jackson Greys" honors the regiment that was formed on the grounds of Pleasant Grove Baptist Church by Capt. (later Lieutenant Colonel) William H. Stewart who lived . . . — Map (db m45788) HM
59Virginia (Chesapeake), Pleasant Grove West — Seven Patriot HeroesHomes and Last Resting Places
Nearby were the homes of three Afro-Virginians who served in the United States Colored Troops (USCT) during the Civil War. Sgt. March Corprew, Co. I, 2nd USCT Cavalry, and his brother Pvt. Daniel Corprew, Co. D, 1st USCT Cavalry, lived on a . . . — Map (db m48918) HM
60Virginia (Chesterfield County), Chester — Battery DantzlerDueled with Union Gunboats
In 1862, Confederate authorities considered locating the main defensive James River battery here to block the Union navy’s approach to Richmond. They chose Drewry’s Bluff instead because they feared that Union forces would bypass this position by . . . — Map (db m16058) HM
61Virginia (Chesterfield County), Chester — Dutch Gap CanalButler's Bypass — Bermuda Hundred Campaign —
With the opposing armies locked in a protracted struggle around Petersburg and Bermuda Hundred, the James and Appomattox Rivers assumed added importance. In August 1864, Union Gen. Benjamin Butler began excavations at Dutch Gap. When completed, . . . — Map (db m16150) HM
62Virginia (Chesterfield County), Chester — Half-Way HouseButler’s Headquarters — Bermuda Hundred Campaign —
As Grant grappled with Lee in the Wilderness and near Spotsylvania Court House in May 1864, Union Gen. Benjamin Butler landed with 30,000 troops at Bermuda Hundred, eight miles east of here. Butler’s objective was to open another front and to . . . — Map (db m16041) HM
63Virginia (Chesterfield County), Pickadat Corner — Battle of Swift Creek"Brave to Madness"
You are standing in the middle of the Union line that faced the Confederate route of attack up the Richmond Turnpike on May 9, 1864, during Union Gen. Benjamin F. Butler's Bermuda Hundred Campaign. Here, along Swift Creek, elements of Butler's Army . . . — Map (db m14626) HM
64Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — Fort StevensButler’s Campaign Ends — Bermuda Hundred Campaign —
“Neither army, however, manifested any disposition either to advance or retire. It was a case of stand and fire, each endeavoring to cripple the other the most, and gain, if it could, some advantage here or there. The enemy’s one battery . . . — Map (db m14895) HM
65Virginia (Clarke County), Arcadia Farm — Battle of Cool SpringSharp Action at the Shenandoah River — 1864 Valley Campaign —
To draw Union troops from Petersburg to Washington, Confederate Gen. Jubal A. Early attacked the capital’s defenses on July 11, 1864. He then withdrew to the Shenandoah Valley, where he had left Gen. John C. Breckinridge’s division to hold the . . . — Map (db m1201) HM
66Virginia (Clarke County), Longwood — Battle of Cool SpringSharp Action at the Shenandoah River — Early's 1864 Attack on Washington —
To draw Union troops from Petersburg to Washington, Confederate Gen. Jubal A. Early attacked the capital’s defenses on July 11, 1864. He then withdrew to the Shenandoah Valley, where he had left Gen. John C. Breckinridge’s division to hold the . . . — Map (db m76626) HM
67Virginia (Clarke County), Longwood — Battle of Cool SpringUnion Advance and Confederate Counterattack — Early's 1864 Attack on Washington —
(Preface): In June 1864, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee sent Gen. Jubal A. Early's corps from the Richmond battlefields to the Shenandoah Valley to counter Union Gen. David Hunter's army. After driving Hunter into West Virginia, Early invaded . . . — Map (db m133228) HM
68Virginia (Clarke County), Longwood — Col. George D. Wells Leads the WayBattle of Cool Spring — Early's 1864 Attack on Washington —
(Preface) In June 1864, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee detached Gen. Jubal A. Early's corps from the Richmond battlefields and dispatched it to the Shenandoah Valley to counter Union Gen. David Hunter's army. After driving Hunter into . . . — Map (db m133227) HM
69Virginia (Clarke County), Longwood — Confederate Counterattack and Union RetreatBattle of Cool Spring — Early's 1864 Attack on Washington —
(Preface) In June 1864, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee detached Gen. Jubal A. Early's corps from the Richmond battlefields and dispatched it to the Shenandoah Valley to counter Union Gen. David Hunter's army. After driving Hunter into West . . . — Map (db m133274) HM
70Virginia (Clarke County), Longwood — Thoburn’s RescueBattle of Cool Spring — Early’s 1864 Attack on Washington —
We “fired ninety rounds at the enemy… across the river.” —Lt. Jacob H. Lamb, 1st Rhode Island Light Artillery. Across the Shenandoah River from where you stand, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Rodes's division . . . — Map (db m133310) HM
71Virginia, Colonial Heights — Dunlop Station"...burning cartridges like shooting stars"
Dunlop Station on the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad was located here on the southern boundary of David Dunlop's Ellerslie estate. During the siege of Petersburg, June 1864-April 1865, a military rail spur was completed in March 1865 that extended . . . — Map (db m14636) HM
72Virginia (Colonial Heights), Dunlop Farms — EllerslieBeauregard’s Headquarters
In 1864, Ellerslie stood in the middle of the Confederate defense line along Swift Creek. On May 9-10, Confederate Gens. Johnson Hagood and Bushrod Johnson, with 4,200 men, contested the advance of a much larger Federal force, composed of elements . . . — Map (db m48440) HM
73Virginia (Culpeper County), Brandy Station — Battle of Brandy StationThe Largest Cavalry Battle of the Civil War
Confederate horsemen numbering 9500 under the command of Gen. J.E.B. Stuart were concentrated around Brandy Station in preparation of the upcoming raid into Pennsylvania - which would culminate at Gettysburg. The Federal army, being aware of the . . . — Map (db m4364) HM
74Virginia (Culpeper County), Brandy Station — Battle of Brandy StationHeadquarters Hill
John Strode, a prominent Revolutionary War gun manufacturer, built his manor house, Fleetwood, in the late 1700s. Strode was a friend of President Thomas Jefferson, who often stayed here when traveling between Monticello and Washington, D.C. The . . . — Map (db m97488) HM
75Virginia (Culpeper County), Brandy Station — Battle of Brandy StationBattle for Fleetwood Hill
On the evening of June 8, 1863, Confederate Gen. J.E.B. Stuart and his headquarters staff camped on the northern edge of Fleetwood Hill. Early the next morning, heavy gunfire from the direction of Beverly's Ford (three miles to your left rear), . . . — Map (db m97490) HM
76Virginia (Culpeper County), Brandy Station — Battle of Brandy StationThe Winter Camp of 1863-1864
The 1863 campaigns for Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Bristoe Station, and Mine Run exacted an immense toll upon the Army of the Potomac. Union Gen. George G. Meade deemed it vital to rest his command. War Department officials also used this . . . — Map (db m97493) HM
77Virginia (Culpeper County), Brandy Station — Battle of Brandy StationBattle's Wake
Driven from Fleetwood Hill, the Union cavalry pulled back toward the Rappahannock River and halted just beyond cannon range. Observing that the sullen Federals refused to depart, Confederate Gen. J.E.B. Stuart consolidated his defensive line around . . . — Map (db m97494) HM
78Virginia (Culpeper County), Brandy Station — Battle of Brandy StationConfederate Counterattack
Confederate Gen. J.E.B. Stuart realized that his headquarters here was overrun and that Gen. William E. Jones's Brigade was fighting to survive. Stuart ordered Gen. Wade Hampton's Brigade to fall back from the St. James Church line and recapture . . . — Map (db m97495) HM
79Virginia (Culpeper County), Brandy Station — Battle of Brandy StationKilpatrick's Attack
Col. H. Judson Kilpatrick formed his brigade on an open plateau to the southeast of Fleetwood Hill, 900 yards from here. He soon received orders to support Lt. Col. Percy Wyndham's Brigade, now fiercely engaged with Gen. William E. Jones's Brigade . . . — Map (db m97499) HM
80Virginia (Culpeper County), Brandy Station — Battle of Brandy StationWyndham's Attack
Union Lt. Col. Percy Wyndham advanced his command from Brandy Station and centered his attack on this spot. To your right, the 1st New Jersey Cavalry ascended the slope. The 1st Maryland Cavalry occupied the center, and to your left, circling around . . . — Map (db m97501) HM
81Virginia (Culpeper County), Brandy Station — Battle of Brandy StationHeights & Sights to the South & West
The commanding view from Fleetwood Hill rendered this “Famous Plateau” an ideal observation post during the war. Today the view looks much as it did in the 1860s. 1. COLE’S HILL During the winter of 1864, Federal Second Corps . . . — Map (db m154527) HM
82Virginia (Culpeper County), Brandy Station — Battle of Kelly's FordThe Chancellorsville Campaign
On January 25, 1863, Union general Joseph "Fighting Joe" Hooker replaced Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside as the fifth commander of the demoralized eastern armies in less than two years. On taking charge of the Army of the Potomac, Hooker implemented . . . — Map (db m154485) HM
83Virginia (Culpeper County), Brandy Station — Battle of Kelly's FordUnion Cavalry Comes of Age
On March 17, 1863, Union Gen. William W. Averell led 2,100 horsemen to the northern bank of the Rappahannock River at Kelly's Ford, four miles in front of you, under orders to "rout or destroy" Confederate Gen. Fitzhugh Lee and his cavalry command . . . — Map (db m154487) HM
84Virginia (Culpeper County), Culpeper — “Gallant” Pelham’s Last DaysThe Virginia House and Shackelford House
Confederate cavalry chief Gen. J.E.B. Stuart and Maj. John Pelham, the commander of Stuart’s Horse Artillery, frequented the Virginia House Hotel and often visited the Shackelford family across the street. A warm friendship developed between . . . — Map (db m12496) HM
85Virginia (Culpeper County), Culpeper — Cedar MountainJackson Draws His Sword
In the summer of 1862, Federal Gen. John Pope threatened to retaliate against Southern civilians who tried to thwart the efforts of his new army. The threats prompted Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee to issue Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson the . . . — Map (db m41662) HM
86Virginia (Culpeper County), Culpeper — Culpeper Court HouseBattle of Culpeper Court House
Following the Gettysburg Campaign, Federal officials sought to verify rumors that a substantial part of Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Confederate army had been detached. On September 13, 1863, Federal cavalry moved down the tracks from your left, under . . . — Map (db m8417) HM
87Virginia (Culpeper County), Culpeper — Culpeper Court House1863–64 Winter Encampment — Lee vs. Grant – The 1864 Campaign —
During the winter of 1863-64, Federal officers quartered in many of Culpeper’s homes. The surrounding landscape was dotted with tents and huts for ten square miles as nearly 100,000 soldiers encamped. Gen. U.S. Grant, commander of all Federal . . . — Map (db m8419) HM
88Virginia (Culpeper County), Rixeyville — Little Fork Episcopal Church"The peaceful parish became an entrenched camp"
In the spring of 1861, the Little Fork Rangers (Co. D, 4th Virginia Cavalry), mustered in the yard of Little Fork Episcopal Church. On July 4, the Rangers were presented with a battle flag as they left Rixeyville for the First Battle of Manassas. . . . — Map (db m72188) HM
89Virginia, Danville — Danville CemeteriesNational Cemetery
The remains of 1,323 Federal soldiers, 148 of them unknown, who died in Danville’s Civil War prisons are interred here. Many died from smallpox which ravaged the six prisons during the winter of 1863-1864. The names of the dead were recorded by . . . — Map (db m66010) HM
90Virginia, Danville — Danville FortificationsCivil War Earthworks Constructed for Danville's Protection
Danville residents, feeling vulnerable to enemy attack because of the vast amount of commissary and quartermaster supplies stored in their town and the presence of the Confederate arsenal, petitioned the town council in February 1863 to build . . . — Map (db m66004) HM
91Virginia, Danville — Prison Number 6Confederate Prison 1863-1865
Built for use as a tobacco factory and leased to the Confederate government, this building housed many Federal soldiers captured in the Battle of the Crater at Petersburg in July 1864. It was one of six buildings used in tobacco manufacturing, . . . — Map (db m66005) HM
92Virginia, Danville — Richmond & Danville RailroadReconstruction Period
When Confederate President Jefferson Davis was informed April 2, 1865, that Petersburg had fallen and Federal armies were approaching, he used the Richmond & Danville Railroad to evacuate his government to Danville. Ten days later, after Davis’ . . . — Map (db m66007) HM
93Virginia, Danville — Richmond & Danville RailroadDuring the Civil War
At the outbreak of the Civil War, the Richmond & Danville Railroad was already part of a rail network that would sustain the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. The Richmond & Danville extension to Greensboro, North Carolina, known as the . . . — Map (db m66008) HM
94Virginia, Danville — Richmond & Danville RailroadDevelopment of the Railroad
By the outbreak of the Civil War, the Virginia General Assembly had chartered only eight railroads totaling 638 miles. The North, in contrast, had developed an immense network of railroads and canals. This transportation network reached into the . . . — Map (db m66009) HM
95Virginia, Danville — Sutherlin MansionDanville Museum of Fine Arts and History
This Italian villa mansion was the home of Maj. William T. Sutherlin, wartime quartermaster for Danville and one of its most prominent citizens. For one week, April 3-10, 1865, Sutherlin and his wife opened their home to Jefferson Davis and the . . . — Map (db m66011) HM
96Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Dinwiddie — Dinwiddie Court HouseTurning North — Wilson-Kautz Raid —
In June 1864, to deny Gen. Robert E. Lee the use of the South Side R.R. and the Richmond and Danville R.R., Gen, Ulysses S. Grant sent Gen. James H. Wilson and Gen. August V. Kautz south of Petersburg on a cavalry raid to destroy track and rolling . . . — Map (db m17556) HM
97Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Ford — Ford's DepotThe Destruction Begins — Wilson-Kautz Raid —
In June 1864, to deny Gen. Robert E. Lee the use of the South Side R.R. and the Richmond and Danville R.R., Gen. Ulysses S. Grant sent Gen. James H. Wilson and Gen. August V Kautz south of Petersburg on a cavalry raid to destroy track and rolling . . . — Map (db m18840) HM
98Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — Petersburg BattlefieldsLife between the Picket Lines
"When a man is on picket at night he is monarch of all he surveys. No one living has more absolute power than he. His word is law."—Corp. Lewis Bissell, 2nd Connecticut Heavy Artillery, USA "I have seen veterans of three full . . . — Map (db m85913) HM
99Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — Petersburg BattlefieldsThe Campaign for Petersburg
“The charge of Major-Gen. Wright’s veterans under cover of the darkness and mist … will forever live in history as one of the grandest and most sublime actions of the war.”—Sgt. Newton J. Terrill, 14th New Jersey . . . — Map (db m89714) HM
100Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — Petersburg BattlefieldsThe Union Line
"We have set what we call Johnny catchers ... long poles set into the ground with the upper end about as high as a man's head and they are so thick that a rabbit could not crawl through."—Corp. Andrew W. Burwell, 5th Wisconsin . . . — Map (db m155596) HM

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Oct. 22, 2020