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Virginia Civil War Trails Historical Markers

598 markers matched your search criteria. The first 200 markers are listed. Next 398
 
Closeup of Map and Photos of Artifacts on Marker image, Touch for more information
By J. J. Prats, May 11, 2008
Closeup of Map and Photos of Artifacts on Marker
Virginia (Albemarle County), Charlottesville — Rio HillArtifacts Found at Rio Hill
Civil War relic collectors found Stuart’s winter camp and skirmish site (shaded area of map) long before the Rio Hill Shopping Center opened in 1989. Metal detectors were used to search the area and artifacts—bullets, buttons, belt and . . . — Map (db m7692) HM
Virginia (Albemarle County), Charlottesville — Rio Hill 1864 SkirmishGeorge A. Custer Attacks a Confederate Winter Camp
In December 1863, Confederate troops established winter quarters here. The approximately 200 soldiers, under the command of Capt. Marcellus N. Moorman, were from Stuart’s Horse Artillery Battalion and were equipped with 16 cannons. The men built . . . — Map (db m7690) HM
Virginia (Albemarle County), Scottsville — ScottsvilleWhen War Came
At 3 p.m. on Monday, March 6, 1865, the first of Union Gen. Philip H. Sheridan’s 10,000 cavalrymen under Gens. Wesley Merritt, Thomas Devin, and George A. Custer entered Scottsville unopposed. To accomplish their mission—destroy the James . . . — Map (db m17844) HM
Virginia, Alexandria — AlexandriaAlexandria in the Civil War
“Alexandria is ours,” declared Col. Orlando Wilcox of the 1st Michigan Vol. Inf. as his regiment captured the city on the morning of May 24, 1861. When Virginia's vote of secession became effective, Union forces immediately crossed the . . . — Map (db m159) HM
Virginia, Alexandria — Fort Ward1861-1865
This stairway leads up the west wall of Fort Ward between the Northwest Bastion (to the left) and the Southwest Bastion (to the right). Fort Ward had 14 cannon emplacements along this area of the wall that created overlapping fields of fire. . . . — Map (db m7709) HM
Virginia (Amelia County), Jetersville — Hillsman HouseLee’s Retreat — April 6, 1865
Union forces assembled along this ridge while Confederate troops prepared on the opposite slope. Federal forces crossed Little Sailor’s Creek for a fierce battle which compelled many Southerners to surrender. The house served as a hospital for both . . . — Map (db m11795) HM
Virginia (Amelia County), Jetersville — Overton / Hillsman HouseWar's Horror Knocks at the Door
As night began to fall here on, April 6, 1865, the hard fought battles of Little Sailor's Creek and the crossroads near the Marshall Farm draw to a close. Federal surgeons work by the little natural light that's still available. They are inside the . . . — Map (db m10274) HM
Virginia (Amelia County), Mannboro — Namozine ChurchPursuit Cathces Up — Lee’s Retreat
When Gen. Robert E. Lee evacuated the Army of Northern Virginia from Petersburg and Richmond on April 2-3, 1865, he ordered the army’s wings to unite at Amelia Court House, where trains would meet them with food and other supplies. The army would . . . — Map (db m6049) HM
Virginia (Appomattox County), Appomattox — Battle of Appomattox StationFinal Blow — Lee's Retreat
You are standing near the site of Appomattox Station Depot on the South Side Railroad. Here, on the afternoon of April 8, 1865, Union cavalrymen under Gen. George A. Custer dealt the Army of Northern Virginia a final blow. First, they captured . . . — Map (db m3837) HM
Virginia (Appomattox County), Appomattox — Confederate Artillery PositionBattle of Appomattox Station
Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Norther Virginia began the retreat west from Richmond and Petersburg on April 3, 1865, with about 250 cannon. Two days later, at Amelia Court House, about a hundred of the least effective pieces were culled . . . — Map (db m84749) HM
Virginia (Appomattox County), Appomattox — Custer's Third BrigadeBattle of Appomattox Station
Union Col. Henry Capehart commanded Gen. George A. Custer’s Third Cavalry Brigade on Custer’s left flank. On April 8, 1865, Capehart had only the 1st New York (Lincoln) an 1st and 2nd West Virginia regiments on hand, the 3rd West Virginia had . . . — Map (db m84751) HM
Virginia (Appomattox County), Appomattox — Walker's Last StandCuster's Charges
One of the last battles of the Civil War in Virginia took place here early in the evening of April 8, 1865. Confederate Gen. Reuben L. Walker, who commanded 100 guns of Gen. Robert E. Lee’s reserve artillery, made camp here late in the afternoon. . . . — Map (db m84750) HM
Virginia (Appomattox County), Vera — Lee’s Rear GuardFinal Blow — Lee’s Retreat
You are standing where Gen. James Longstreet’s corps entrenched early in the morning of April 9, 1865, to protect the rear of the Army of Northern Virginia. Gen. Robert E. Lee and most of the army bivouacked about four miles south, just short of . . . — Map (db m6051) HM
Virginia (Arlington County), Arlington — Fort C.F. SmithDefending the Capital
Fort C.F. Smith was constructed in early 1863 as part of the expansion and strengthening of the capital’s defenses that continued throughout the Civil War. With Forts Strong, Morton and Woodbury, Fort C.F. Smith formed the outer perimeter of the . . . — Map (db m5099) HM
Virginia (Arlington County), Arlington — Fort C.F. SmithMr. Lincoln’s Forts — Defenses of Washington, 1861-1865
Fort C.F. Smith was constructed in 1863 on farmland appropriated from William Jewell. The fort was named in honor of Gen. Charles Ferguson Smith, who was instrumental in the Union victory at Fort Donelson, Tennessee in 1862. The fortification was . . . — Map (db m5101) HM
Virginia (Arlington County), Arlington — Fort C.F. SmithProtecting the Capital
The ramps in front of you, now covered with grass, led to wooden platforms on which the various cannons were placed. When built in 1863, Fort C.F. Smith had platforms for twenty-two artillery pieces and four siege mortars. However, only sixteen . . . — Map (db m5102) HM
Virginia (Arlington County), Arlington — Fort Ethan AllenMr. Lincoln’s Forts — Defenses of Washington - 1861-1865
Fort Ethan Allen was constructed during the Civil War to provide one of the last lines of defense against possible Confederate attacks aimed at Washington. The fort commanded approaches to Chain Bridge (over the Potomac River) from the south of . . . — Map (db m2318) HM
Virginia (Arlington County), Arlington — Freedman’s VillageA New Home for African Americans
During the Civil War, many escaped and freed slaves traveled north seeking refuge in Union camps. Thousands crowded into the Federal City. The number of refugees quickly overwhelmed the area’s resources. Overcrowding and disease became prevalent. In . . . — Map (db m5293) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), New Hope — Battle of PiedmontFinal Action at New Hope
The Battle of Piedmont, fought on June 5, 1864 between Union Gen. David Hunter and Confederate Gen. William E. "Grumble" Jones. ended here. It began more than a mile northeast when the 12,000-man strong Federal army, whose mission was to scour the . . . — Map (db m8250) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Swoope — West ViewConfederate Camps — 1862 Valley Campaign
In 1862, West View was a village of about 15 buildings including a flour mill, post office, store, wagon shop and saw mills. About 3,000 soldiers camped in the surrounding fields from April 20 to May 6. Confederates under Gen. Edward . . . — Map (db m15788) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), West Augusta — Mountain HouseJackson's March — 1862 Valley Campaign
The Battle of McDowell began three miles to the southeast (near the intersection of Routes 629 and 716) when Confederates were fired upon by Union cavalry on May 7, 1862. After skirmishing, Federals rushed to the base camp here, sounding the alarm . . . — Map (db m62920) HM
Virginia (Bedford County), Bedford — AvenelIn the Eye of the Storm — Hunter’s Raid
(preface) On May 26, 1864, Union Gen. David Hunter marched south from Cedar Creek near Winchester to drive out Confederate forces, lay waste to the Shenandoah Valley, and destroy transportation facilities at Lynchburg. His raid was part of . . . — Map (db m42844) HM
Virginia (Bedford County), Bedford — BedfordHunter’s Raid — 1864 Valley Campaign
On the evening of June 15, 1864, the lead element of Union Gen. David Hunter’s 18,000-man army arrived here and cam near Avenel. The main force arrived the following morning and started destroying the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad tracks, burning . . . — Map (db m41408) HM
Virginia (Bedford County), Bedford — Peaks of Otter“A rougher road could not be imagined” — Hunter’s Raid
(preface) On May 26, 1864, Union Gen. David Hunter marched south from Cedar Creek near Winchester to drive out Confederate forces, lay waste to the Shenandoah Valley, and destroy transportation facilities at Lynchburg. His raid was part of . . . — Map (db m55780) HM
Virginia (Brunswick County), Alberta — DanieltownA Side Raid: 32 Troopers Captured — Wilson-Kautz Raid
In June 1864, to deny Gen. Robert E. Lee the use of the South Side R.R. and the Richmond and Danville R.R., Gen. Ulysses S Grant sent Gen. James H. Wilson and Gen. August V. Kautz south of Petersburg on a cavalry raid to destroy track and rolling . . . — Map (db m20168) HM
Virginia (Brunswick County), Dolphin — Smoky Ordinary“Rebel cavalry” — Wilson-Kautz Raid
In June 1864, to deny Gen. Robert E. Lee the use of the South Side R.R. and the Richmond and Danville R.R., Gen. Ulysses S. Grant sent Gen. James H. Wilson and Gen. August V. Kautz south of Petersburg on a cavalry raid to destroy track and rolling . . . — Map (db m20171) HM
Virginia (Brunswick County), Lawrenceville — Brunswick County Courthouse
Late in the afternoon of May 15, 1864, Union Gen. August V. Kautz and his cavalry division rode into Lawrenceville, the Brunswick County seat. They were on the second leg of a two-part, two-week-long expedition to destroy railroad bridges and depots . . . — Map (db m62400) HM
Virginia (Caroline County), Bowling Green — Star HotelConspirator's Lair
Built approximately 1820, the Star Hotel was one of two taverns serving Bowling Green. During the Civil War, it was operated by the Henry Gouldman family, and became a notorious Confederate spy headquarters and safe haven to those who aided Lincoln . . . — Map (db m4527) HM
Virginia (Caroline County), Carmel Church — Carmel ChurchGathering for North Anna — Lee vs. Grant - The 1864 Campaign
The scattered corps of the Union army reunited here at Carmel Church (known during the war as Mount Carmel Church) on May 23 before attacking Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee across the North Anna River, approximately three miles ahead. Gen. Winfield . . . — Map (db m3693) HM
Virginia (Caroline County), Guinea — Guinea StationGrant Maneuvers South
Lee vs. Grant – The 1864 Campaign General Winfield Hancock’s Union Second corps left Spotsylvania Court House after sunset on May 290, 1864. It trudged south along dark roads, headed toward Milford Station on the Richmond, . . . — Map (db m3308) HM
Virginia (Caroline County), Milford — Milford StationLee Avoids A Trap — Lee vs. Grant – The 1864 Campaign
Unable to crack Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee’s strongly fortified lines at Spotsylvania Court House, Union Gen. Grant ordered Gen. Winfield Hancock’s Second Corps to cross the Mattaponi River here at Milford Station and threaten the Confederate . . . — Map (db m19285) HM
Virginia (Caroline County), Port Royal — Port RoyalUnion Supply Depot
Port Royal possessed the finest harbor on the middle reaches of the Rappahannock River. Although the town's permanent wharf had been destroyed by Union gunboats before the Battle of Fredericksburg, the excellent harbor made Port Royal an obvious . . . — Map (db m57537) HM
Virginia (Caroline County), Woodford — Bethel ChurchUnion Command Meets
Lee vs. Grant - The 1864 Campaign "At the church…the 9th Corps was marching past, and Burnside was sitting, like a comfortable abbot, in one of the pews, surrounded by his buckish staff whose appearance is the reverse of clerical.” . . . — Map (db m4760) HM
Virginia (Charles City County), Charles City — Piney GroveThe Front Line and the Home Front
In Virginia, the “Home Front” and the “Front Line” were often just miles apart during the Civil War. In places such as Charles City County families provided their men for troops and also lost the income from their . . . — Map (db m18589) HM
Virginia (Charles City County), Charles City — Stuart's RideSafe among Friends and Family — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
In May 1862, Union Gen. George B. McClellan led the Army of the Potomac up the Peninsula to the gates of Richmond. Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee assumed command of the Army of Northern Virginia in June and began planning a counterattack. On June . . . — Map (db m61881) HM
Virginia (Charles City County), Charles City — Stuart's RideCoffee at Rowland’s — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
In May 1862, Union Gen. George B. McClellan led the Army of the Potomac up the Peninsula to the gates of Richmond. Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee assumed command of the Army of Northern Virginia in June and began planning a counterattack. On June . . . — Map (db m61882) HM
Virginia (Charles City County), Charles City — WestoverMcClellan’s New Base — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
Following the last of the Seven Days' Battles on July 1, 1862, at Malvern Hill, Gen. George B. McClellan's Union Army of the Potomac continued its retreat to the James River. McClellan had earlier decided to "change his base" from the Pamunkey River . . . — Map (db m30227) HM
Virginia (Charles City County), Charles City — Wilcox’s LandingCrossing the James — Lee vs. Grant – The 1864 Campaign
With the Federal armies stalled at Cold Harbor, Gen. U.S. Grant made the fateful decision to move on Petersburg. The march began under cover of darkness on the evening of June 12, 1864, and covered some 20 miles before reaching the James River . . . — Map (db m17507) HM
Virginia (Charlotte County), Charlotte Court House — Charlotte Court HouseForaging Parties: “People complimented us” — Wilson-Kautz Raid
In June 1864, to deny Gen. Robert E. Lee the use of the South Side R.R. and the Richmond and Danville R.R., Gen. Ulysses S. Grant sent Gen. James H. Wilson and Gen. August V. Kautz south of Petersburg on a cavalry raid to destroy track and rolling . . . — Map (db m31011) HM
Virginia (Charlotte County), Drakes Branch — Drakes Branch"Burnt all the depot buildings" — Wilson-Kautz Raid
In June 1864, to deny Gen. Robert E. Lee the use of the South Side R.R. and the Richmond and Danville R.R., Gen. Ulysses S. Grant sent Gen. James H. Wilson and Gen. August V. Kautz south of Petersburg on a cavalry raid to destroy track and rolling . . . — Map (db m31006) HM
Virginia (Charlotte County), Keysville — KeysvilleForaging and Destruction — Wilson-Kautz Raid
In June 1864, to deny Gen. Robert E. Lee the use of the South Side R.R. and the Richmond and Danville R.R., Gen. Ulysses S. Grant sent Gen. James H. Wilson and Gen. August V. Kautz south of Petersburg on a cavalry raid to destroy track and rolling . . . — Map (db m66003) HM
Virginia (Charlotte County), Saxe — Carrington's Mill"The D_ _ _ Rebels" — Wilson-Kautz Raid
In June 1864, to deny Gen. Robert E. Lee the use of the South Side R.R. and the Richmond and Danville R.R., Gen. Ulysses S. Grant sent Gen. James H. Wilson and Gen. August V. Kautz south of Petersburg on a cavalry raid to destroy track and rolling . . . — Map (db m31004) HM
Virginia (Charlotte County), Wylliesburg — WylliesburghFirst Rest — Wilson-Kautz Raid
In June 1864, to deny General Robert E. Lee the use of the South Side Railroad and the Richmond and Danville Railroad, General Ulysses S. Grant sent General James H. Wilson and General August V. Kautz south of Petersburg on a cavalry raid to destroy . . . — Map (db m40791) HM
Virginia, Charlottesville — CharlottesvilleConfederate Heroes Remembered
Lee and Jackson Parks contain two of Charlottesville's fine examples of public sculpture, gifts of benefactor Paul Goodloe McIntire (1860-1952). The Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson statue was dedicated in 1921,the Robert E. Lee statue in 1924. . . . — Map (db m497) HM
Virginia, Chesapeake — Dismal Swamp CanalThe Battle of South Mills
Before you is the Dismal Swamp Canal, a much sought after prize of war during the Civil War. The Confederates made good use of the canal facilities during the initial stages of the conflict. A large volume of supplies passed through in both . . . — Map (db m37765) HM
Virginia, Chesapeake — Glencoe"He was brave, gentle and polished"
“Glencoe,” the plantation home of Capt. William Wallace of the Jackson Grays, was located approximately one-half mile northeast of this site. William C. Wallace was born at Wallaceton, Norfolk County, Virginia, on March 23, 1842, and . . . — Map (db m22446) HM
Virginia, Chesapeake — Pleasant Grove Baptist Church CemeteryHome of the Jackson Greys
This is the former site of the Pleasant Grove Baptist Church. The monument to the "Jackson Greys" honors the regiment that was formed on the grounds of Pleasant Grove Baptist Church by Capt. (later Lieutenant Colonel) William H. Stewart who lived . . . — Map (db m45788) HM
Virginia, Chesapeake — Seven Patriot HeroesHomes and Last Resting Places
Nearby were the homes of three Afro-Virginians who served in the United States Colored Troops (USCT) during the Civil War. Sgt. March Corprew, Co. I, 2nd USCT Cavalry, and his brother Pvt. Daniel Corprew, Co. D, 1st USCT Cavalry, lived on a . . . — Map (db m48918) HM
Virginia, Chesapeake — The Cuffeytown ThirteenPatriot Heroes
Thirteen African American veterans of the Civil War are interred nearby at the Cuffeytown Historic Cemetery. They served in the 5th, 10th, and 36th United States Colored Troops infantry regiments organized in 1863 and 1864, after the Emancipation . . . — Map (db m48917) HM
Virginia, Chesapeake — Village of Deep CreekThe Dismal Swamp Rangers
Before you is the Deep Creek Lock of the Great Dismal Swamp Canal. The canal was an important thoroughfare, connecting the North Carolina Sounds with Hampton Roads and the Chesapeake Bay. The Dismal Swamp Canal is the oldest operating artificial . . . — Map (db m4773) HM
Virginia, Chesapeake — Village of Great BridgeA Vital Link
The village of Great Bridge was located at a strategic crossing of the Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal. This canal, along with the Dismal Swamp Canal, was recognized as being a strategically important corridor by both the Union and Confederate . . . — Map (db m48919) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Chester — Battery DantzlerDueled with Union Gunboats
In 1862, Confederate authorities considered locating the main defensive James River battery here to block the Union navy’s approach to Richmond. They chose Drewry’s Bluff instead because they feared that Union forces would bypass this position by . . . — Map (db m16058) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Chester — Dutch Gap CanalButler's Bypass — Bermuda Hundred Campaign
With the opposing armies locked in a protracted struggle around Petersburg and Bermuda Hundred, the James and Appomattox Rivers assumed added importance. In August 1864, Union Gen. Benjamin Butler began excavations at Dutch Gap. When completed, . . . — Map (db m16150) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Chester — Half-Way HouseButler’s Headquarters — Bermuda Hundred Campaign
As Grant grappled with Lee in the Wilderness and near Spotsylvania Court House in May 1864, Union Gen. Benjamin Butler landed with 30,000 troops at Bermuda Hundred, eight miles east of here. Butler’s objective was to open another front and to . . . — Map (db m16041) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Pickadat Corner — Battle of Swift Creek"Brave to Madness"
You are standing in the middle of the Union line that faced the Confederate route of attack up the Richmond Turnpike on May 9, 1864, during Union Gen. Benjamin F. Butler's Bermuda Hundred Campaign. Here, along Swift Creek, elements of Butler's Army . . . — Map (db m14626) HM
Virginia (Chesterfield County), Richmond — Fort StevensButler’s Campaign Ends — Bermuda Hundred Campaign
“Neither army, however, manifested any disposition either to advance or retire. It was a case of stand and fire, each endeavoring to cripple the other the most, and gain, if it could, some advantage here or there. The enemy’s one battery . . . — Map (db m14895) HM
Virginia (Clarke County), Berryville — Battle of Cool SpringSharp Action at the Shenandoah River — 1864 Valley Campaign
To draw Union troops from Petersburg to Washington, Confederate Gen. Jubal A. Early attacked the capital’s defenses on July 11, 1864. He then withdrew to the Shenandoah Valley, where he had left Gen. John C. Breckinridge’s division to hold the . . . — Map (db m1201) HM
Virginia (Clarke County), Berryville — Battle of Cool SpringSharp Action at the Shenandoah River — Early's 1864 Attack on Washington
To draw Union troops from Petersburg to Washington, Confederate Gen. Jubal A. Early attacked the capital’s defenses on July 11, 1864. He then withdrew to the Shenandoah Valley, where he had left Gen. John C. Breckinridge’s division to hold the . . . — Map (db m76626) HM
Virginia (Clarke County), Berryville — Battle of Cool SpringUnion Advance and Confederate Counterattack — Early's 1864 Attack on Washington
(Preface): In June 1864, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee sent Gen. Jubal A. Early's corps from the Richmond battlefields to the Shenandoah Valley to counter Union Gen. David Hunter's army. After driving Hunter into West Virginia, Early invaded . . . — Map (db m76628) HM
Virginia, Colonial Heights — Dunlop Station"...burning cartridges like shooting stars"
Dunlop Station on the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad was located here on the southern boundary of David Dunlop's Ellerslie estate. During the siege of Petersburg, June 1864-April 1865, a military rail spur was completed in March 1865 that extended . . . — Map (db m14636) HM
Virginia, Colonial Heights — EllerslieBeauregard’s Headquarters
In 1864, Ellerslie stood in the middle of the Confederate defense line along Swift Creek. On May 9-10, Confederate Gens. Johnson Hagood and Bushrod Johnson, with 4,200 men, contested the advance of a much larger Federal force, composed of elements . . . — Map (db m48440) HM
Virginia (Culpeper County), Brandy Station — Battle of Brandy StationThe Largest Cavalry Battle of the Civil War
Confederate horsemen numbering 9500 under the command of Gen. J.E.B. Stuart were concentrated around Brandy Station in preparation of the upcoming raid into Pennsylvania - which would culminate at Gettysburg. The Federal army, being aware of the . . . — Map (db m4364) HM
Virginia (Culpeper County), Brandy Station — Battle of Brandy StationHeadquarters Hill
John Strode, a prominent Revolutionary War gun manufacturer, built his manor house, Fleetwood, in the late 1700s. Strode was a friend of President Thomas Jefferson, who often stayed here when traveling between Monticello and Washington, D.C. The . . . — Map (db m97488) HM
Virginia (Culpeper County), Brandy Station — Battle of Brandy StationBattle for Fleetwood Hill
On the evening of June 8, 1863, Confederate Gen. J.E.B. Stuart and his headquarters staff camped on the northern edge of Fleetwood Hill. Early the next morning, heavy gunfire from the direction of Beverly's Ford (three miles to your left rear), . . . — Map (db m97490) HM
Virginia (Culpeper County), Brandy Station — Battle of Brandy StationThe Winter Camp of 1863-1864
The 1863 campaigns for Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Bristoe Station, and Mine Run exacted an immense toll upon the Army of the Potomac. Union Gen. George G. Meade deemed it vital to rest his command. War Department officials also used this . . . — Map (db m97493) HM
Virginia (Culpeper County), Brandy Station — Battle of Brandy StationBattle's Wake
Driven from Fleetwood Hill, the Union cavalry pulled back toward the Rappahannock River and halted just beyond cannon range. Observing that the sullen Federals refused to depart, Confederate Gen. J.E.B. Stuart consolidated his defensive line around . . . — Map (db m97494) HM
Virginia (Culpeper County), Brandy Station — Battle of Brandy StationConfederate Counterattack
Confederate Gen. J.E.B. Stuart realized that his headquarters here was overrun and that Gen. William E. Jones's Brigade was fighting to survive. Stuart ordered Gen. Wade Hampton's Brigade to fall back from the St. James Church line and recapture . . . — Map (db m97495) HM
Virginia (Culpeper County), Brandy Station — Battle of Brandy StationKilpatrick's Attack
Col. H. Judson Kilpatrick formed his brigade on an open plateau to the southeast of Fleetwood Hill, 900 yards from here. He soon received orders to support Lt. Col. Percy Wyndham's Brigade, now fiercely engaged with Gen. William E. Jones's Brigade . . . — Map (db m97499) HM
Virginia (Culpeper County), Brandy Station — Battle of Brandy StationWyndham's Attack
Union Lt. Col. Percy Wyndham advanced his command from Brandy Station and centered his attack on this spot. To your right, the 1st New Jersey Cavalry ascended the slope. The 1st Maryland Cavalry occupied the center, and to your left, circling around . . . — Map (db m97501) HM
Virginia (Culpeper County), Brandy Station — Battle of Kelly's FordThe Chancellorsville Campaign
On January 25, 1863, Union general Joseph "Fighting Joe" Hooker replaced Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside as the fifth commander of the demoralized eastern armies in less than two years. On taking charge of the Army of the Potomac, Hooker implemented . . . — Map (db m63902) HM
Virginia (Culpeper County), Brandy Station — Battle of Kelly's FordUnion Cavalry Comes of Age
On March 17, 1863, Union Gen. William W. Averell led 2,100 horsemen to the northern bank of the Rappahannock River at Kelly's Ford, four miles in front of you, under orders to "rout or destroy" Confederate Gen. Fitzhugh Lee and his cavalry command . . . — Map (db m63903) HM
Virginia (Culpeper County), Culpeper — “Gallant” Pelham’s Last DaysThe Virginia House and Shackelford House
Confederate cavalry chief Gen. J.E.B. Stuart and Maj. John Pelham, the commander of Stuart’s Horse Artillery, frequented the Virginia House Hotel and often visited the Shackelford family across the street. A warm friendship developed between . . . — Map (db m12496) HM
Virginia (Culpeper County), Culpeper — Cedar MountainJackson Draws His Sword
In the summer of 1862, Federal Gen. John Pope threatened to retaliate against Southern civilians who tried to thwart the efforts of his new army. The threats prompted Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee to issue Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson the . . . — Map (db m41662) HM
Virginia (Culpeper County), Culpeper — Culpeper Court HouseBattle of Culpeper Court House
Following the Gettysburg Campaign, Federal officials sought to verify rumors that a substantial part of Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Confederate army had been detached. On September 13, 1863, Federal cavalry moved down the tracks from your left, under . . . — Map (db m8417) HM
Virginia (Culpeper County), Culpeper — Culpeper Court House1863–64 Winter Encampment — Lee vs. Grant – The 1864 Campaign
During the winter of 1863-64, Federal officers quartered in many of Culpeper’s homes. The surrounding landscape was dotted with tents and huts for ten square miles as nearly 100,000 soldiers encamped. Gen. U.S. Grant, commander of all Federal . . . — Map (db m8419) HM
Virginia (Culpeper County), Rixeyville — Little Fork Episcopal Church"The peaceful parish became an entrenched camp"
In the spring of 1861, the Little Fork Rangers (Co. D, 4th Virginia Cavalry), mustered in the yard of Little Fork Episcopal Church. On July 4, the Rangers were presented with a battle flag as they left Rixeyville for the First Battle of Manassas. . . . — Map (db m72188) HM
Virginia, Danville — Danville CemeteriesNational Cemetery
The remains of 1,323 Federal soldiers, 148 of them unknown, who died in Danville’s Civil War prisons are interred here. Many died from smallpox which ravaged the six prisons during the winter of 1863-1864. The names of the dead were recorded by . . . — Map (db m66010) HM
Virginia, Danville — Danville FortificationsCivil War Earthworks Constructed for Danville's Protection
Danville residents, feeling vulnerable to enemy attack because of the vast amount of commissary and quartermaster supplies stored in their town and the presence of the Confederate arsenal, petitioned the town council in February 1863 to build . . . — Map (db m66004) HM
Virginia, Danville — Prison Number 6Confederate Prison 1863-1865
Built for use as a tobacco factory and leased to the Confederate government, this building housed many Federal soldiers captured in the Battle of the Crater at Petersburg in July 1864. It was one of six buildings used in tobacco manufacturing, . . . — Map (db m66005) HM
Virginia, Danville — Richmond & Danville RailroadReconstruction Period
When Confederate President Jefferson Davis was informed April 2, 1865, that Petersburg had fallen and Federal armies were approaching, he used the Richmond & Danville Railroad to evacuate his government to Danville. Ten days later, after Davis’ . . . — Map (db m66007) HM
Virginia, Danville — Richmond & Danville RailroadDuring the Civil War
At the outbreak of the Civil War, the Richmond & Danville Railroad was already part of a rail network that would sustain the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. The Richmond & Danville extension to Greensboro, North Carolina, known as the . . . — Map (db m66008) HM
Virginia, Danville — Richmond & Danville RailroadDevelopment of the Railroad
By the outbreak of the Civil War, the Virginia General Assembly had chartered only eight railroads totaling 638 miles. The North, in contrast, had developed an immense network of railroads and canals. This transportation network reached into the . . . — Map (db m66009) HM
Virginia, Danville — Sutherlin MansionDanville Museum of Fine Arts and History
This Italian villa mansion was the home of Maj. William T. Sutherlin, wartime quartermaster for Danville and one of its most prominent citizens. For one week, April 3-10, 1865, Sutherlin and his wife opened their home to Jefferson Davis and the . . . — Map (db m66011) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Dinwiddie — Dinwiddie Court HouseTurning North — Wilson-Kautz Raid
In June 1864, to deny Gen. Robert E. Lee the use of the South Side R.R. and the Richmond and Danville R.R., Gen, Ulysses S. Grant sent Gen. James H. Wilson and Gen. August V. Kautz south of Petersburg on a cavalry raid to destroy track and rolling . . . — Map (db m17556) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Ford — Ford's DepotThe Destruction Begins — Wilson-Kautz Raid
In June 1864, to deny Gen. Robert E. Lee the use of the South Side R.R. and the Richmond and Danville R.R., Gen. Ulysses S. Grant sent Gen. James H. Wilson and Gen. August V Kautz south of Petersburg on a cavalry raid to destroy track and rolling . . . — Map (db m18840) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — Petersburg BattlefieldsThe Union Line
"We have set what we call Johnny catchers ... long poles set into the ground with the upper end about as high as a man's head and they are so thick that a rabbit could not crawl through."—Corp. Andrew W. Burwell, 5th Wisconsin . . . — Map (db m85884) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — Petersburg BattlefieldsLife between the Picket Lines
"When a man is on picket at night he is monarch of all he surveys. No one living has more absolute power than he. His word is law."—Corp. Lewis Bissell, 2nd Connecticut Heavy Artillery, USA "I have seen veterans of three full . . . — Map (db m85913) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — Petersburg BattlefieldsThe Campaign for Petersburg
“The charge of Major-Gen. Wright’s veterans under cover of the darkness and mist … will forever live in history as one of the grandest and most sublime actions of the war.”—Sgt. Newton J. Terrill, 14th New Jersey . . . — Map (db m89714) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Reams — Ream's StationFederal Debacle: "The retreat was a route" — Wilson-Kautz Raid
Racing the pursuing Confederate cavalry for the safety of the Union lines at Petersburg after accomplishing most of its mission, Gen. James H. Wilson's command reached Ream's Station about 7 a.m. June 29. Two brigades of Gen. William Mahone's . . . — Map (db m13774) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Reams — Ream's StationFirst Encounter — Wilson-Kautz Raid
In June 1864, to deny Gen. Robert E. Lee the use of the South Side R.R. and the Richmond and Danville R.R., Gen. Ulysses S. Grant sent Gen. James H. Wilson and Gen. August V. Kautz south of Petersburg on a cavalry raid to destroy track and rolling . . . — Map (db m13776) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Sutherland — Sutherland StationConfederate Defense Crumbles — Lee’s Retreat
The Union attack that broke the back of the Confederate defense of Petersburg and forced Gen. Robert E. Lee to evacuate the Army of Northern Virginia from the city happened here April 2, 1865. You are standing at the end of the Confederate right . . . — Map (db m6048) HM
Virginia, Emporia — Village View"Apple Jack" Raid
Just west of you is the railbed of the original Petersburg and Weldon Railroad, a major supply line to the Confederate army in Petersburg and Richmond. Because of its importance, the Union army made an effort to destroy the line here at Hicksford . . . — Map (db m18843) HM
Virginia, Fairfax — Blenheim (Willcoxon Farm)Civil War Soldier Art
Blenheim, built for Albert and Mary Willcoxon about 1859, contains some of the nation’s best-preserved Civil War soldier writings. More than 110 identified Union soldiers, representing units from New York, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Wisconsin, West . . . — Map (db m21077) HM
Virginia, Fairfax — FairfaxSpies, Mosby and Marr
On June 1. 1861, the first major skirmish of the Civil War occurred on the main street of Fairfax Court House. In the pre-dawn hours 50 men of Co. B, Second U.S. Cavalry, led by Lt. Charles H. Tomkins, rode into town firing their weapons. As Capt. . . . — Map (db m626) HM
Virginia, Fairfax — Fairfax County CourthouseWar on the Courthouse Grounds
At different times, Union and Confederate forces occupied the Fairfax County Courthouse at this important crossroads. The flag of each side flew from its cupola during the war, and the building suffered damage. On April 25, 1861, the Fairfax . . . — Map (db m43134) HM
Virginia (Fairfax County), Alexandria — The Rose Hill RaidA Not-So-Tender Reunion
On September 28, 1863, Confederate Maj. John S. Mosby raided the house that stood nearby on the bluff at the end of May Boulevard. The day before, Mosby and eight of his men road from Fauquier County toward Alexandria, where Mosby planned to capture . . . — Map (db m67535) HM
Virginia (Fairfax County), Burke — Burke's StationThe Christmas Raid
After the Battle of Fredericksburg in December 1862, most of Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia settled into winter quarters except for Gen. J.E.B. Stuart's cavalry, which instead went on the move. Wade Hampton, Fitzhugh Lee, . . . — Map (db m83049) HM
Virginia (Fairfax County), Burke — Burke's StationWood Choppers and Teamsters
During the Civil War, African American laborers chopped wood and conveyed it to Burke’s Station, a major Federal timber transportation station located here on the Orange & Alexandria Railroad. To supply the Union army and engineers with timber for . . . — Map (db m88520) HM
Virginia (Fairfax County), Centreville — Blackburn’s FordBullets “Humming Like a Bee-hive”
On July 18, 1861, Gen. Irvin McDowell, the Union army commander, learned that the Confederate army had withdrawn from its Centreville earthworks to a strong defensive position behind Bull Run. McDowell ordered Gen. Daniel Tyler to reconnoiter the . . . — Map (db m42643) HM
Virginia (Fairfax County), Centreville — Blackburn’s FordGuarding the Fords
By the early summer of 1861, Americans in both the North and South greeted the outbreak of war with patriotism and expectations of a quick decisive battle to end the conflict. In the North, the public clamored for immediate invasion to crush the . . . — Map (db m42644) HM
Virginia (Fairfax County), Centreville — Old Stone ChurchHaven for the Wounded
Here, where the Warrenton Turnpike turned west from Braddock Road, the Union army marched from Centreville to meet Confederate forces in the first great battle of the Civil War on July 21, 1961. The afternoon, Union soldiers passed by here again, . . . — Map (db m530) HM
Virginia (Fairfax County), Centreville — Retreat From ManassasPanic at Cub Run Bridge
Following the disastrous defeat at the First Battle of Manassas on July 21, 1861, the Union army retreated toward Centreville late in the afternoon with Confederate forces in pursuit. Thousands of Federal soldiers converged simultaneously at the . . . — Map (db m75727) HM
Virginia (Fairfax County), Centreville — St. John’s Episcopal ChurchStill Faithful after the Ravages of War
Passing armies occupied and fortified Centreville, positioned between Washington, D.C., and Manassas Junction, beginning in July 1861 when Confederate and Union forces met during the war’s first significant campaign. As American and British . . . — Map (db m57135) HM
Virginia (Fairfax County), Chantilly — The Sully FarmsAlone in Dixie
At the time of the Civil War, the farms of Sully and Little Sully (no longer standing) were the homes of the Barlow and Haight families respectively. These families, connected by marriage, had come to Virginia from Dutchess County, New York, and . . . — Map (db m217) HM
Virginia (Fairfax County), Clifton — Devereux StationOrange and Alexandria Railroad
Devereux Station, constructed in 1863 on the Orange and Alexandria (O&A) Railroad, was located down the tracks to your left. After the Confederate army withdrew from northern Virginia toward Richmond in March 1862, the U.S. Military Railroad (USMRR) . . . — Map (db m57200) HM
Virginia (Fairfax County), Clifton — Wolf Run ShoalsStrategic Crossing Point
During the Civil War, both Union and Confederate forces considered Wolf Run Shoals an essential crossing point on the Occoquan River through 1963. Confederate regiments camped on the south side of the shoals and posted pickets there from the winter . . . — Map (db m74885) HM
Virginia (Fairfax County), Fairfax — Reid-Ballard HouseOnce a Prominent Landmark — Ox Hill (Chantilly) Battlefield
The historic Reid-Ballard House once stood 140 yards west-northwest of this marker. The original log structure was built by Joseph Reid before the Revolution on land inherited by his wife, Barbara Walker Reid. The house and land passed to succeeding . . . — Map (db m3216) HM
Virginia (Fairfax County), Fairfax — The Battle of Ox HillThe Death of Generals Stevens and Kearny — Second Manassas Campaign
The Battle of Ox Hill (or Chantilly) was fought here, in rain and storm, on September 1, 1862. It was a bloody aftermath following the Second Battle of Manassas (August 28-30) where the Union Army under Gen. John Pope was defeated and driven across . . . — Map (db m116) HM
Virginia (Fairfax County), Fairfax Station — Fairfax Station“The angel of the battlefield.”
The first Fairfax Station depot, built by Irish immigrants in 1852, was a stop on the Orange and Alexandria Railroad from Alexandria to Gordonsville. Early in 1862, after Confederate forces withdrew, the railroad carried military supplies and . . . — Map (db m885) HM
Virginia (Fairfax County), Fairfax Station — Skirmish at St. Mary’sVictory or Death
Monday, August 8, 1864, was a hot and sultry day. Capt. John McMenamin of the 15th New York Volunteer Cavalry and Capt. James Fleming of the 16th New York Volunteer Cavalry had stopped at St. Mary's Church on the Ox Road (now Fairfax Station Rd.), . . . — Map (db m186) HM
Virginia (Fairfax County), Herndon — Battle of Dranesville“First Federal Victory South of the Potomac”
In the fall of 1861, Fairfax County found itself between two large armies. Confederate Gen. Joseph E. Johnston and his army occupied the Centreville area. The Federal army, still regrouping after the devastating defeat at the First Battle of . . . — Map (db m71883) HM
Virginia (Fairfax County), Herndon — Mosby’s Herndon Station Raid“My loss was nothing.” — Mosby's Confederacy
On St. Patrick's Day, March 17, 1863, Confederate Capt. John S. Mosby and 40 Partisan Rangers attacked the picket post of the 1st Vermont Cavalry guarding this station on the Alexandria, Loudoun and Hampshire Railroad. The detachment commander Lt. . . . — Map (db m151) HM
Virginia (Fairfax County), Lorton — Pohick ChurchCivil War Balloon Outpost
During the Civil War, the prominent hilltop location of Pohick Church made it a target for occupation and vandalism, but it also served as an aeronautical center. On November 12, 1861, Union Gen. Samuel P. Heintzelman’s 2nd Michigan Volunteers . . . — Map (db m65051) HM
Virginia (Fairfax County), McLean — Battle of LewinsvilleUnion Reconnaissance Party Attacked
On September 11, 1861, Lt. Orlando Poe led a party of U.S. Army Topographical Engineers to map the area around Lewinsville for military use. Col. Isaac Stevens and 1,800 men protected the engineers. Stevens’s command included the 79th New York . . . — Map (db m56685) HM
Virginia (Fairfax County), Springfield — Orange and Alexandria RRStrategic Target
The Lake Accotink access road here lies atop the original road bed of the Orange and Alexandria Railroad, chartered in 1849 to link the port city of Alexandria with Gordonsville in central Virginia. After the war began in 1861, railroads became . . . — Map (db m2749) HM
Virginia (Fairfax County), Vienna — Civil War Star Fort1861–1865
This six-point, star-shaped earthen fort with a 130-yard perimeter was constructed on the highest point of land in the area. It provided a commanding view of the western and northwestern approaches to Vienna. Earthwork fortifications, serving as . . . — Map (db m1527) HM
Virginia (Fairfax County), Vienna — Freeman Store and MuseumCaught in Conflict
Caught in Conflict. In 1859, Abram Lydecker, a New Jersey merchant, purchased land in Vienna on which to build a large combination dwelling and store. The Lydecker family was displaced early as the Civil War swirled around the small . . . — Map (db m1643) HM
Virginia (Fairfax County), Vienna — Historic CemeteriesFlint Hill & Oakton Church of the Brethren
Before you is Flint Hill Cemetery, the resting place of many of this area's most prominent Civil War-era civilian and military figures. Twenty-four veterans, including four who served in Confederate Col. John S. Mosby's Partisan Rangers, are buried . . . — Map (db m59041) HM
Virginia (Fairfax County), Vienna — Hunter’s MillPennsylvania Reserve Corps Camp
For four days in March 1862, the Pennsylvania Reserve Corps camped here. It left Camp Pierpont at Langley on March 10 for Hunter's Mill on orders of Union Gen. George B. McClellan, commander of the Army of the Potomac, who had heard that Gen. Joseph . . . — Map (db m20263) HM
Virginia, Falls Church — Falls ChurchBetween the Armies
In 1861, Falls Church was a farm village located on the Alexandria-Leesburg Turnpike. On May 24, when Virginia's vote of secession became effective, Union troops crossed the Potomac and occupied Arlington Heights and Alexandria. On June 1, the 2nd . . . — Map (db m2825) HM
Virginia, Falls Church — Falls Church Home FrontCherry Hill Farm in the Civil War
Although soldiers repeatedly overran and raided Cherry Hill Farm during the Civil War, this ca. 1845 farmhouse and the ca. 1856 barn behind it survived almost intact. William Blaisdell, of Massachusetts paid $4,000 for the 66-acre property in 1856. . . . — Map (db m65407) HM
Virginia, Falls Church — Galloway Methodist ChurchHistoric African American Cemetery
In 1867, African Americans built Galloway United Methodist Church and established the historic cemetery you are facing. According to local tradition, before and during the Civil War enslaved people on the Dulany plantation secretly worshiped in the . . . — Map (db m72029) HM
Virginia, Falls Church — Harriet and George BriceSeizing Freedom and Facing Challenges
You are standing across the street from land that Harriet Brice, a “free woman of color,” purchased in 1864. Together with her husband, George Brice, she struggled to farm the property during the Civil War. Although we had gained her . . . — Map (db m72112) HM
Virginia, Falls Church — Living in FearMosby's Falls Church Raid
Confederate Col. John Singleton Mosby's Partisan Rangers (43rd Battalion Virginia Cavalry) conducted raids on Falls Church through the summer and fall of 1864. On the night of October 17, a detachment of Mosby's command rode through the village down . . . — Map (db m69552) HM
Virginia, Falls Church — Taylor’s TavernProfessor Lowe's Balloons
At the beginning of the war, Union commanders were uncertain of Confederate intentions and military capabilities. On June 22, 1861, civilian balloonist Thaddeus S.C. Lowe inflated his racing balloon Enterprise at the Washington Gas Company to . . . — Map (db m41495) HM
Virginia, Falls Church — The Falls ChurchVandalism and Renewal
The Civil War dramatically affected this 1769 Anglican/Episcopal church that stands before you. The congregation disbanded as the war broke out, with some families fleeing the village. Confederate forces occupied the church in August and September . . . — Map (db m72085) HM
Virginia (Fauquier County), Atoka — Rector’s CrossroadsThey Did Their Job — Gettysburg Campaign
(Preface): After Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's stunning victory at Chancellorsville in May 1863, he led the Army of Northern Virginia west to the Shenandoah Valley, then north through central Maryland and across the Mason-Dixon Line into . . . — Map (db m2785) HM
Virginia (Fauquier County), Catlett — Catlett’s StationStuart’s Revenge
Second Manassas Campaign August 22, 1862, was a day of surprises in Fauquier County, most of which were provided by Confederate Gen. J.E.B. Stuart and his 1,500 cavalrymen. Their target was the lightly guarded Union supply depot here at . . . — Map (db m2750) HM
Virginia (Fauquier County), Delaplane — Piedmont StationBy Train to Manassas — First Manassas Campaign
Here at Piedmont Station (now Delaplane) trains were used for the first time in history to move troops to impending battle. On July 19, 1861 the fields surrounding this stop on the Manassas Gap Railroad—which appeared then almost exactly . . . — Map (db m41648) HM
Virginia (Fauquier County), Marshall — SalemLee’s Narrow Escape — Mosby's Confederacy, First and Second Manassas Campaign
The Village of Salem (renamed Marshall in 1882) was in the heartland of Col. John Singleton Mosby’s Confederacy. His 43rd Battalion of Partisan Rangers was summoned by the grapevine when needed and executed successful raids, often under the cover of . . . — Map (db m1183) HM
Virginia (Fauquier County), Paris — Mount Bleak FarmThe Settles Anticipate War
Mosby's Confederacy and First Manassas Campaign In the early morning hours of July 19, 1861, thousands of campfire lights burned in the camp of Col. Thomas J. Jackson's brigade which occupied the fields surrounding nearby Paris. Many thoughts . . . — Map (db m4976) HM
Virginia (Fauquier County), Rectortown — RectortownMcClellan’s Demise, Mosby’s Raffle — Mosby's Confederacy
On November 5, 1862, several weeks after a tainted victory at Antietam, the Army of the Potomac's Commander-in-Chief Gen. George Brinton McClellan established his headquarters here. That same day President Abraham Lincoln wrote the orders relieving . . . — Map (db m1173) HM
Virginia (Fauquier County), Remington — Kelly’s FordCavalry and Coffee
Pickets of the opposing armies frequently exchanged gunfire over the Rappahannock River and occasionally swapped Yankee coffee for Rebel tobacco. On St. Patrick’s Day, 1863, they did both here at Kelly’s Ford, about 100 yards downstream from the . . . — Map (db m41653) HM
Virginia (Fauquier County), Remington — Rappahannock StationA Rare Night Attack on the River — Mosby’s Confederacy
The hamlet of Mill View, present-day Remington, became known as Rappahannock Station to the Civil War armies which campaigned in this area. Here the vital Orange & Alexandria railroad (to your left) crossed the Rappahannock River just behind the low . . . — Map (db m2525) HM
Virginia (Fauquier County), The Plains — The PlainsThe Death of a “Jessie Scout” — Mosby’s Confederacy, First Manassas Campaign, Second Manassas Campaign
The Plains, situated on the Manassas Gap Railroad between Piedmont Station and Manassas Junction, was frequently traversed by troops from both sides. Throughout the war, local resident Edward (Ned) Carter Turner kept a detailed diary. Ned’s . . . — Map (db m1237) HM
Virginia (Fauquier County), Upperville — Battle of UnisonFoiling the Trap
(Preface): After the Battle of Antietam in September 1862, Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia escaped to Virginia. President Abraham Lincoln repeatedly urged Union Gen. George B. McClellan to pursue and attack. Following a plan . . . — Map (db m42491) HM
Virginia (Fauquier County), Upperville — Battle of Upperville“Thus Passes a Sunday in War” — Gettysburg Campaign
(Preface): After Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's stunning victory at Chancellorsville in May 1863, he led the Army of Northern Virginia west to the Shenandoah Valley, then north through central Maryland and across the Mason-Dixon Line into . . . — Map (db m3754) HM
Virginia (Fauquier County), Upperville — Battle of UppervilleA Swirling Cavalry Fight — Gettysburg Campaign
(Preface): After Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's stunning victory at Chancellorsville in May 1863, he led the Army of Northern Virginia went into the Shenandoah Valley, then north through Maryland and across the Mason-Dixon Line into . . . — Map (db m41655) HM
Virginia (Fauquier County), Upperville — Lee Moves North AgainScreening Lee's Infantry — Gettysburg Campaign
(Preface): After Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's stunning victory at Chancellorsville in May 1863, he led the Army of Northern Virginia west to the Shenandoah Valley, then north through central Maryland and across the Mason-Dixon Line into . . . — Map (db m3753) HM
Virginia (Fauquier County), Upperville — UppervilleDrama at Vineyard Hill — Gettysburg Campaign
This site, known during the war as Vineyard Hill, commands a clear view of the road, stone walls, and fields in front of you where 10,000 cavalry and infantry clashed in the Battle of Upperville on June 21, 1863. It was the fifth day of attack and . . . — Map (db m1550) HM
Virginia (Fauquier County), Warrenton — BrentmoorSpilman-Mosby House
Judge Edward M. Spilman of the Fauquier County Circuit Court constructed this house in 1859-61. James Keith, who served in the Black Horse Cavalry and later became president of the Supreme Court of Appeals of Virginia, acquired it in 1869. John . . . — Map (db m7750) HM
Virginia (Fauquier County), Warrenton — Buckland RacesAn Inglorious Skedaddle
For Gen. J.E.B. Stuart and his Confederate cavalry, the 1863 campaigns brought fewer victories against the improving cavalry corps of the Union Army of the Potomac—that is, until October 19, 1863. Here on Chestnut Hill the . . . — Map (db m784) HM
Virginia (Fauquier County), Warrenton — WarrentonHome of the “Gray Ghost.”
Although Warrenton was spared the ravages of major battles during the war, control of the town changed hands 67 times and many homes and churches housed soldiers or were used as hospitals. Warrenton was the home of several notable Confederates . . . — Map (db m41657) HM
Virginia (Fauquier County), Warrenton — Warrenton CemeteryNotable Confederate Resting Place
The gate to your right opens to Warrenton Cemetery, the final resting place of 986 Confederate soldiers, of every Southern state, about 650 casualties of the Civil War. Many wounded Confederates were evacuated to Warrenton and vicinity after the . . . — Map (db m57286) HM
Virginia, Franklin — Battle of Franklin“Jumping out of bed”
The war seemed far from Franklin when Union forces captured Roanoke Island and the North Carolina Sounds in February 1862. In May, however, when they occupied Norfolk and Suffolk to control both coastal Virginia and North Carolina, suddenly the war . . . — Map (db m18135) HM
Virginia, Franklin — Confederate Commissary CenterSwimming in Bacon
Before the Civil War erupted, Franklin became a regional transportation and commercial center for the Blackwater-Chowan River basin because the seaboard and Roanoke Railroad connected with steamship lines here. When the war began, the town . . . — Map (db m18133) HM
Virginia, Franklin — The Blackwater Line“That little stream has ... saved us”
To protect Richmond from a Union attack from Suffolk, Confederate authorities fortified the Blackwater River in 1862. You are standing on the Blackwater Line. The intermittent earthworks stretched fifty miles from north of Zuni to the North Carolina . . . — Map (db m18134) HM
Virginia (Franklin County), Boones Mill — Jubal Early HomeplaceUnreconstructed Confederate General
This is the childhood home of Jubal Anderson Early, who was born on November 3, 1816. He graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1837 and served as a lieutenant in the Seminole War in Florida before resigning in 1838. He practiced . . . — Map (db m87172) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Battle of Cedar CreekUnion Left Flank — 1864 Valley Campaign
(Preface): The fertile Shenandoah Valley was the "Breadbasket of the Confederacy" as well as an avenue of invasion. Confederate Gen. Jubal A. Early's march north and his raid on Washington, D.C., in June-July 1864 alerted Union Gen. Ulysses . . . — Map (db m78137) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Stephens City — NewtownBurnings and Hangings — 1864 Valley Campaign
As the Federal army attempted to conquer and hold the Valley in 1864, its lines of supply and communication were extended and became susceptible to attack by bands of Confederate partisans. On May 24, 1864, under orders from Union Gen. David . . . — Map (db m41658) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Stephenson — Jordan SpringsHealing Springs
During the Civil War, both United States and Confederate forces used Jordan Springs resort as a hospital at different times. Wounded and sick Confederate soldiers from the Antietam and Gettysburg battlefields came to the springs—although . . . — Map (db m2358) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Stephenson — Stephenson Depot"The Thermopylae of my campaign.”
In the spring of 1863, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia began a march that culminated at the Battle of Gettysburg. Lee chose the Shenandoah Valley for his invasion route. Ninety-six hundred Federals under Gen. Robert . . . — Map (db m41659) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Stephenson — Third Battle of Winchester"One Moving Mass of Glittering Sabers" — 1864 Valley Campaigns
On September 19, 1864, Union Gen. Philip H. Sheridan’s Army of the Shenandoah routed Confederate Gen. Jubal A. Early’s Valley Army at the Third Battle of Winchester (also called Opequon) in the bloodiest and largest battle in the Shenandoah Valley. . . . — Map (db m100977) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Battle of Rutherford's FarmUnion Victory
Confederate Gen. Jubal A. Early attacked the defenses of Washington, D.C., in July 1864, then retreated to the Shenandoah Valley. Union Gen. Horatio G. Wright pursued him, and after a sharp fight and Confederate victory at Cool Spring on July 18, . . . — Map (db m13988) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Civil War Earthworks"Where they are compelled by nature ... to resort to it"
During the Civil War, armies of both sides built earthwork fortifications of varying sizes and shapes. The star fort was one of the most difficult types to construct. Although the design afforded the defenders the potential to fire into an attacking . . . — Map (db m100976) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Constructing Star Fort"It was hard work"
Union Gen. Robert H. Milroy and his division entered Winchester on January 1, 1863. The abolitionist general, who vowed to enforce the Emancipation Proclamation aggressively, soon set to work strengthening the town's defenses. His soldiers rotated . . . — Map (db m100975) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Fort Collier“I never saw such a sight”
Confederate troops constructed Fort Collier in 1861 after the evacuation of Harpers Ferry. The earthworks, which surrounded the Benjamin Stine house here, commanded the approach to Winchester on the Martinsburg and Winchester Turnpike. The fort saw . . . — Map (db m2492) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — John Rutherford's FarmInterrupted by War
John H. Rutherford was born about 1820. He acquired approximately 275 acres here between 1843 and 1848 from the heirs of John Carter. About May 24, 1849, Rutherford married Camilla C. Baker. At first, the couple lived with Mrs. Susan Pitman Carter, . . . — Map (db m14028) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Rose Hill“I do not recollect having ever heard such a roar of musketry.” — 1862 Valley Campaign
The First Battle of Kernstown, on March 23, 1862, was also the first major Civil War battle fought in the Shenandoah Valley. Throughout the morning, 16 Union cannons on Pritchard’s Hill held off Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s . . . — Map (db m2646) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Rutherford's FarmIn the Path of Battle
In addition to the action of July 20, 1864, known as the Battle of Rutherford’s Farm, two other significant events occurred on or near John Rutherford’s property here. The first took place on June 14-15, 1863, during the Gettysburg Campaign, as . . . — Map (db m14026) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Second Battle of WinchesterLouisiana Tigers Capture West Fort — Gettysburg Campaign
In June 1863, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee marched his infantry from Culpeper County to the Shenandoah Valley to launch his second invasion of the North. First, however, he had to capture Winchester, the largest town on his line of communication, . . . — Map (db m2645) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Second Battle of Winchester"The guns in Star Fort greeted them" — Gettysburg Campaign
(preface) After Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's stunning victory at Chancellorsville in May 1863, he led the Army of Northern Virginia west to the Shenandoah Valley, then north through central Maryland and across the Mason-Dixon Line into . . . — Map (db m100973) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Second Battle of Winchester"A scene ... I shall never forget" — Gettysburg Campaign
While Union artillery from Star Fort dueled with Confederate gunners in West Fort on June 14, 1863, Winchester's civilians fretted for their safety. Some wondered if Union Gen. Robert H. Milroy would destroy Winchester by either burning or . . . — Map (db m100978) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Star FortGuardian of Winchester
Three times during the Civil War, Star Fort played a major role in the defense of Winchester. Union Gen. Robert H. Milroy’s troops began constructing the fort in January 1863 on the site of artillery emplacements Confederate Gen. Thomas J. . . . — Map (db m100985) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Third Battle of WinchesterA Gathering of Future Leaders — 1864 Valley Campaign
The Third Battle of Winchester, fought here on September 19, 1864, was a proving ground for several men on both sides who shaped post-war America. They included two future presidents, two senators, a state governor, and several military leaders. . . . — Map (db m3086) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Third Battle of Winchester"The enemy within the fort ... hastily evacuated" — 1864 Valley Campaign
(preface) The fertile Shenandoah Valley was the "Breadbasket of the Confederacy" as well as an avenue of invasion. Confederate Gen. Jubal A. Early's march north and his raid on Washington, D.C., in June-July 1864 alerted Union Gen. Ulysses . . . — Map (db m100981) HM
Virginia, Fredericksburg — FredericksburgCivil War Sites
For 18 months Fredericksburg was at the heart of the Civil War. Union and Confederate soldiers camped here, fought here and died here. Today there are many sites within the city. Civil War walking tour information is available free at the . . . — Map (db m9093) HM
Virginia, Fredericksburg — FredericksburgWhere 100,000 Fell
Because of the immense amount of fighting that occurred here, the Fredericksburg area has been called the vortex of the Civil War. Four major battles - Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Wilderness and Spotsylvania Court House - resulting in . . . — Map (db m9096) HM
Virginia, Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg City DockBridges and Biscuits
Why was Fredericksburg important to the Union war effort? The answer lies in logistics. The Union army, numbering more than 100,000 troops, required tons of food, clothing and other supplies to operate, Wagon trains could supply the army for short . . . — Map (db m1131) HM
Virginia, Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg City DockContesting the Crossing
Confederate troops under the command of Gen. William Barksdale were awake and alert hereon the morning of December 11,1862, waiting anxiously for the sun to rise. On the river, unseen in the inky blackness but clearly audible in the night’s . . . — Map (db m1132) HM
Virginia, Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg City DockUnion Artillery on Stafford Heights
Directly ahead of you, across the river, stood George Washington’s boyhood home, Ferry Farm. According to legend, the future president cut down his father’s cherry tree there and threw a coin across the river. The property took its name from a ferry . . . — Map (db m1133) HM
Virginia (Gloucester County), Gloucester Courthouse — Gloucester in the Civil WarTarget of a Raid
Confederate authorities frequently stored arms and supplies in civilian warehouses, commercial buildings, and depots. County seats, with their commodious courthouses, jails, and offices, also were used, and Federal authorities routinely raided these . . . — Map (db m44389) HM
Virginia (Gloucester County), Gloucester Point — Gloucester PointAncient Defender of the York — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
The earthworks before you are the remains of the star-shaped “covering work” that helped to defend the York River against Union attack from 1861 to 1862. Tyndall’s (Gloucester) Point was first fortified in 1667 and was officially named . . . — Map (db m18642) HM
Virginia (Greensville County), Purdy — Double BridgesFateful Decision: Wilson Turns North — Wilson-Kautz Raid
In June 1864, to deny Gen. Robert E. Lee the use of the South Side R.R. and the Richmond and Danville R.R., Gen. Ulysses S Grant sent Gen. James H. Wilson and Gen. August V. Kautz south of Petersburg on a cavalry raid to destroy track and rolling . . . — Map (db m20169) HM
Virginia (Halifax County), Halifax — Halifax Court House"Answering the Call" — Wilson-Kautz Raid
In June 1864, to deny Gen. Robert E. Lee the use of the South Side R.R. and the Richmond and Danville R.R., Gen. Ulysses S. Grant sent Gen. James H. Wilson and Gen. August V. Kautz south of Petersburg on a cavalry raid to destroy track and rolling . . . — Map (db m30977) HM
Virginia (Hampton), Fort Monroe — Fort MonroeFreedom’s Fortress — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
Fort Monroe is the largest stone fortification ever built in the United States. Construction began in 1819 and continued for 15 years. Second Lt. Robert E. Lee served as an engineer at Fort Monroe from 1831 to 1834. During the Civil War, Fort . . . — Map (db m10357) HM
Virginia, Hampton — 1 — Battle of Big BethelProtecting the Peninsula
This is the site of the first land battle of the Civil War in present-day Virginia. During the spring of 1861, Federal officials took steps to secure Fort Monroe, which occupied a strategically vital position at the mouths of the Chesapeake Bay and . . . — Map (db m66886) HM
Virginia, Hampton — 2 — Battle of Big BethelHampton Roads in 1861
Unlike at Fort Sumter in South Carolina, the U.S. Army held Fort Monroe and its environs too strongly for Confederate forces to overcome. Instead, the Confederates concentrated on attempting to control Hampton Roads and protect Norfolk, the major . . . — Map (db m103829) HM
Virginia, Hampton — 3 — Battle of Big BethelCommanding Officers
Confederate Col. John Bankhead Magruder (1807-1871) graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1830. He served in e Second Sem inole War 1835-1842) and the Mexican-American War (1846-1848), and commanded an artillery battery in . . . — Map (db m103830) HM
Virginia, Hampton — 4 — Battle of Big BethelFirst Steps to Freedom
“As a political question and a question of humanity can I receive the services of father and mother and not take the children? Of the humanitarian aspect I have no doubt; of the political one I have no right to judge.”—Gen. . . . — Map (db m103831) HM
Virginia, Hampton — 5 — Battle of Big BethelChanging Landscape
In the spring of 1862, Union Gen. George B. McClellan led his 100,000-man Army of the Potomac west from Hampton past Big Bethel in a campaign to capture Richmond. The battlefield of June 9, 1861, soon faded into obscurity. Little remains of the . . . — Map (db m103832) HM
Virginia, Hampton — 6 — Battle of Big BethelThe Federal Attack
During the Federal attack, the first Confederate enlisted man who died in combat during the Civil War was killed here. Union Gen. Ebenezer W. Pierce began his assault at about 9 A.M. on June 10, 1861. Capt. H. Judson Kilpatrick led the 5th New . . . — Map (db m103833) HM
Virginia, Hampton — 7 — Battle of Big BethelCombatants’ Stories
The Battle of Big Bethel was, for most of the participants, their first experience with warfare. Officers and enlisted men on both sides often wrote of details that in fights to come would not merit a mention. Union Gen. Ebenezer W. Pierce, the . . . — Map (db m103834) HM
Virginia, Hampton — 8 — Battle of Big BethelConfederate Victory
As the Confederates here tried to burn the Zouaves out of the buildings that stood in front of you, the last act of the battle unfolded to your left across the creek. The "New England Battalion” (1st Vermont, 4th Massachusetts, and 7th New . . . — Map (db m103835) HM
Virginia, Hampton — 9 — Battle of Big BethelAftermath
For the Federals, the Big Bethel expedition ended in complete failure. Casualties totaled 76: 18 killed, 53 wounded, and 5 missing. The Northern press blamed Gen. Benjamin F Butler for ordering his troops into battle with poor preparation and for . . . — Map (db m103836) HM
Virginia, Hampton — 10 — Battle of Big BethelLong-Term Consequences
Although Confederate Col. John B. Magruder and his forces won the Battle of Big Bethel, they could not stem the Federal tide for long. On June 15, 1861, within a week of the battle, a huge Sawyer rifled cannon mounted at Fort Calhoun (Fort Wool) on . . . — Map (db m103837) HM
Virginia, Hampton — Camp HamiltonOn Sacred Soil
Here stood the U.S. Army’s first camp on Virginia soil after secession, built in May 1861. Only the Veteran’s Cemetery on County Street remains of this entrenched camp. The influx of soldiers at Fort Monroe prompted the commander, Lt. Col. Justin . . . — Map (db m10479) HM
Virginia, Hampton — Emancipation Oak“Thirst for Knowledge”
Here, under an oak tree, newly freed African American students listened in January 1863 as the Emancipation Proclamation was read aloud. Union Gen. Benjamin F. Butler’s “contraband of war” decision at Fort Monroe in 1861 anticipated that . . . — Map (db m33817) HM
Virginia, Hampton — HamptonA Sacrifice to the Grim God of War — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
The control of Hampton had been disputed during the war’s first months. Brig. Gen. Benjamin F. Butler sought to expand Union control over the lower Peninsula. Despite his defeat during the June 10, 1861, Battle of Big Bethel, his troops occupied . . . — Map (db m33838) HM
Virginia, Hampton — Hampton Courthouse“Roofless and Thoroughly Gutted”
“The courthouse, roofless and thoroughly gutted. … [Its] chimney served oar cooks well in getting supper. The Telegraph tent was soon up and the operator at work on the newly strung wire to Fort Monroe.” – Pvt. Robert Knox . . . — Map (db m33853) HM
Virginia, Hampton — Hampton Is Burned"… a bright light over by the bay."
When Capt. Jefferson C. Phillips’s Confederate troops set the town of Hampton on fire on the evening of August 7, 1861, a house that stood on this King Street site was one of the many structures destroyed. Archaeology tells the story of its demise. . . . — Map (db m33845) HM
Virginia, Hampton — St. John’s ChurchThe Venerable Survivor
When Confederate Gen. John B. Magruder learned that the Federals intended to house troops and escaped slaves in Hampton, he burned down the town. Local soldiers, led by Capt. Jefferson C. Phillips, completed this “loathsome yet patriotic . . . — Map (db m33847) HM
Virginia, Hampton — Stalemate in Hampton RoadsIn a “big glass case” — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
After the March 8-9, 1862, Battle of Hampton Roads, CSS Virginia went into drydock for refitting. USS Monitor guarded Union Gen. George B. McClellan’s transport vessels in the York River near Fort Monroe, and the Federals reinforced . . . — Map (db m10351) HM
Virginia (Hanover County), Ashland — AshlandThe War Years — Lee vs. Grant — The 1864 Campaign
Ashland in 1860 was a quiet, charming village. Its 150 residents lived in cottages on tree-lined streets. A fashionable hotel, a notable racecourse, and a famous mineral springs resort made Ashland a social center. Then came war. In the summer . . . — Map (db m8199) HM
Virginia (Hanover County), Doswell — Hanover JunctionCritical Intersection — Lee vs. Grant — The 1864 Campaign
This junction was one of the most pivotal sites for the well-being of Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee’s army. Known during the war as Hanover Junction, it was the intersection of two important railroads. The Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac . . . — Map (db m3748) HM
Virginia (Hanover County), Hanover — Hanover TavernWar Comes to Hanover Courthouse
This community’s first real taste of war came in May 1862, when Gen. George B. McC1e11an’s Union army moved from the east to threaten Richmond. On May 25, McClellan ordered troops to reconnoiter the Hanover Courthouse area and push back any enemy . . . — Map (db m15818) HM
Virginia (Hanover County), Old Church — Stuart's RideOld Church — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
In May 1862, Union Gen. George B. McClellan led the Army of the Potomac up the Peninsula to the gates of Richmond. Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee assumed command of the Army of Northern Virginia in June and began planning a counterattack. On June . . . — Map (db m61876) HM
Virginia (Hanover County), Studley — Enon ChurchThe Battle of Haw's Shop — Lee vs. Grant – The 1864 Campaign
Confederate cavalry under Gen. Wade Hampton arrived here May 28, 1864, hoping to locate the whereabouts of the Federal army. Hampton’s leading column collided with Gen. David Gregg’s Union cavalry division near the Haw’s Shop crossroads, one mile in . . . — Map (db m15781) HM
Virginia (Hanover County), Studley — Fighting at the TotopotomoyPolly Hundley’s Corner — Lee vs. Grant – The 1864 Campaign
This intersection was known as Polly Hundley’s Corner during the Civil War. The roads led to Atlee’s Station, the Pamunkey River, Mechanicsville and Hanover Courthouse. A sign here announced that it was only seven miles to Richmond and just two . . . — Map (db m15757) HM
Virginia, Harrisonburg — Chestnut RidgeDeath of Ashby — 1862 Valley Campaign
On June 6, 1862, the vanguard of Union Gen. John C. Frémont’s force, pursuing Confederate Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s army south up the Shenandoah Valley, reached this point near Harrisonburg. Jackson’s rear guard, led by Gen. . . . — Map (db m15752) HM

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