163 entries match your criteria. The first 100 are listed. The final 63 ⊳
Star Spangled Banner National Historic Trail Historical MarkersMarkers related to the War of 1812 in the area of the Chesapeake Bay produced by the National Park Service.
By J. Makali Bruton, January 25, 2015
Wide view of Barney at Bladensburg Marker
|Barney Circle honors U.S. Navy Commodore Joshua Barney. In August 1814, Barney, his Chesapeake Flotillamen, and a contingent of U.S. Marines guarded a bridge over the Eastern Branch (Anacostia River) on today's Bladensburg Road, NE. When it became . . . — — Map (db m80473) HM|
|Congressional Cemetery, founded 1807, is the resting ground for many War of 1812 figures. Among them are Navy Yard Commandant Thomas Tingey, the first architect of the Capitol, Dr. William Thornton, State Department Clerk Stephen Pleasonton, and . . . — — Map (db m80481) HM|
|The original Library of Congress occupied a room in the U.S. Capitol. When British troops burned the Capitol in 1814, the collection was destroyed. After the war Thomas Jefferson helped re-establish the library by selling to Congress at a . . . — — Map (db m80848) HM|
| “[The British] put a slow match to the [Sewall] house … and those rockets burst until … they made the rafters fly East and West.” — Enslaved African American diarist and eyewitness, Michael Shiner.
As the British . . . — — Map (db m87856) HM|
|The U.S. Capitol was the British troop's first target when they arrived in Washington on August 24, 1814, only hours after their afternoon victory at the Battle of Bladensburg. The invaders fired rockets through the Capitol's windows. When the . . . — — Map (db m80844) HM|
|The Octagon Once was the city residence of wealthy Virginia landowner Colonel John Tayloe III. After the British burned the White House and other government buildings, President James Madison accepted Tayloe's invitation to use the Octagon as a . . . — — Map (db m87563) HM|
|In 1814 this was the home of the Charles Carroll family, fiends of President James Madison and his wife, Dolley. Carroll came to the President’s House on August 24, as Madison was returning from the defeat at Battle of Bladensburg. Soon word arrived . . . — — Map (db m95914) HM|
|On August 24, 1814, as word spread that the British were coming, Dr. William Thornton and his wife Anna Marie fled their downtown F Street home and took refuge here at Tudor Place, home of their friend Martha Parke Custis Peter. That night, Mrs. . . . — — Map (db m95949) WM|
As war with Britain wore on, some U.S. military leaders believed the nation's capital, with its inland location and military defenses, was safe. So Washingtonians were cruelly surprised when the British invaded on August 24, 1814. As the enemy . . . — — Map (db m97215) HM|
|Fort Severn and Fort Madison on this stretch of the Severn River, along with a gun battery at Horn Point in Eastport, made Annapolis the best-fortified city in Maryland at the start of the War of 1812.
British ships hovered near the harbor several . . . — — Map (db m79920) HM|
|British vessels anchored offshore several times in 1813 and 1814, giving Annapolis good reason to expect an attack. Lookouts watched enemy maneuvers from the statehouse dome. Public records were removed from the city for safekeeping. When British . . . — — Map (db m79936) HM|
|A victory off the coast of Brazil inspired John Contee to name this property “Java’s Farm.” Contee was a lieutenant on the USS Constitution when it captured and burned the British frigate HMS Java, December 29, 1812.
Contee purchased a . . . — — Map (db m80857) HM|
Twin Oaks - the name evokes a rural character long since lost to this part of Anne Arundel County. Built in 1857 by William Linthicum, this antebellum manor home presided over a 130-acre farm.
Twin oaks was the summer retreat of . . . — — Map (db m68392) HM|
|Joshua Barney’s Chesapeake Flotilla was trapped in the shallows just upriver from here. With orders to keep his boats out of enemy hands, Barney reluctantly ordered his men to destroy the flotilla when the British approached. They laid trains of . . . — — Map (db m79987) HM|
|Bodkin Island, having an excellent view down the Bay, was an observation station long before the war. The "Bodkin Telegraphe", a flag-signalling system based on Baltimore's Federal Hill, alerted Baltimore merchants from here as their ships . . . — — Map (db m76732) HM|
|What became Fort Smallwood provided an ideal vantage point for the start - and end - of the British assalut on Baltimore in 1814. On September 11, ships anchored across the river from here. More than 4,500 troops were rowed ashore at North Point to . . . — — Map (db m75087) HM|
|Enemy ships lying off Sandy Point kept Annapolis on edge in August 1813, as the city braced for attack.
It was a trying time for the British, too. A newspaper reported August 14: “Seven deserters came on shore at Sandy Point.” It was . . . — — Map (db m79916) HM|
|When 250-300 British troops crossed from Tilghman Island to Town Point on October 27, 1814, they easily overcame five local militiamen manning a nine-pound cannon. They burned three buildings, and a windmill.
Moving up Herring Creek, they . . . — — Map (db m79956) WM|
|Captain Henry Thompson, Clifton Mansion’s original owner, formed the First Baltimore Horse Artillery unit in 1813. General John Stricker chose Thompson’s troop to report on enemy movements at the August 1814 Battle of Bladensburg.
Selected as . . . — — Map (db m79744) WM|
|At home in the city credited with helping to turn the tide for Americans in the War of 1812, the collections of the Maryland Historical Society preserve evidence of the people who live this history. The Center for Maryland History has the nation’s . . . — — Map (db m79842) HM|
|The mouth of Harris Creek was once part of Baltimore’s thriving maritime industry. David Stodder began building ships here in the 1780s.
The first U.S. Navy frigate, Constellation, launched from Stodders Shipyard in 1797 and played an active role . . . — — Map (db m79670) HM|
|After 10 harrowing days aboard ship and witnessing the British bombardment of Fort McHenry, Francis Scott Key spent his first night ashore at the Indian Queen Tavern, September 16-17, 1814. The inn operated at this site until the 1830s.
Moved by . . . — — Map (db m79849) WM|
|Baltimore’s importance as the commercial heart of the Chesapeake region wasn’t the only reason the British wanted to capture the city in 1814. They also wanted to stifle Fell’s Point---the home port for many of the privateers that preyed on British . . . — — Map (db m79711) WM|
|During the War of 1812 the young United States was embroiled in conflict with Great Britain. From 1812 to 1815 Americans fought to protect their rights and economic independence. They faced superior enemy forces on the homefront and the high . . . — — Map (db m79710) HM|
|British ships launched an attack on Fort McHenry early on September 13, 1814. The fort defended the water approach to the city of Baltimore. The future of the city and possibly the United States depended on the outcome. After the American defeat at . . . — — Map (db m61551) HM|
|After crushing the Americans at Bladensburg and invading the Nation’s Capital, the British targeted Baltimore. If they could capture the city---the third largest in the United States and a commercial and shipbuilding hub---they could likely bring . . . — — Map (db m79868) HM|
|Incited by anti-war editorials in the Federal Republican, an angry mob destroyed the newspaper’s Gay Street office in June 1812. Rioters returned when editor Alexander Contee Hanson resumed publication from the Charles Street site on July 27. . . . — — Map (db m79870) HM|
|In 1813, Mary Pickersgill’s flag-making business was commissioned to sew a garrison flag and a smaller storm flag for Fort McHenry, Mary’s mother, daughter, nieces, and African American servants helped complete the task in about seven weeks.
On . . . — — Map (db m79832) HM|
|Three gun batteries hugging the upper shore of Ferry Branch guarded the west flank of Fort McHenry. They included the makeshift earthworks of Fort Babcock, the incomplete Fort Covington, and a temporary redoubt at Ferry Point.
During the . . . — — Map (db m79813) HM|
|Daniel Wells, 19 and Henry McComas, 18, made history September 12, 1814, when they allegedly killed British commander Major General Robert Ross. The two sharpshooters fired simultaneously. Both were quickly shot dead by British . . . — — Map (db m154032) HM|
|Events here October 4, 1808, known as “Gin Riots” were more rallies than riots. Some 1,300 horsemen, 400 sailors, and thousands of civilians paraded to Hampstead Hill to destroy 720 gallons of Dutch gin.
The British, intercepting . . . — — Map (db m79651) HM|
|After the stinging defeat at Bladensburg and invasion of Washington, Americans rallied to save Baltimore. All available able-bodied men were called to build defenses. Black and white, slave and free, united to dig earthworks across Hampstead Hill . . . — — Map (db m79653) HM|
|Known as Lookout Hill, this high ground served as observation post, military camp, and gun battery. Although unfinished when the British arrived, the battery helped fend off a naval flanking attack September 14, 1814. Had the enemy maneuver . . . — — Map (db m79809) HM|
|Once Baltimore’s most prestigious cemetery, Westminster Burying Ground was the final resting place for many prominent Baltimoreans, including some 25 from the War of 1812. Notable burials include: General Samuel Smith, commander of American forces . . . — — Map (db m79848) HM|
|The narrow land shaped by Bear Creek, Bread and Cheese Creek, and Back River was the site of the Battle of North Point, September 12, 1814. Some 3,200 Americans clashed with 4,500 British to delay the advance on Baltimore.
When Britain threatened . . . — — Map (db m79747) WM|
The excitement was palpable as crowds gathered here September 12, 1839, to mark the 25th anniversary of the Battle of North Point. Officials laid the cornerstone for a memorial to the citizens-soldiers who defended Baltimore against British . . . — — Map (db m79749) WM|
|In preparation for a probable British landing at North Point, defensive earthworks were partially dug at a narrows in the Patapsco Peninsula three miles south of here. Midway between North Point and the American defenses at Baltimore, British forces . . . — — Map (db m88795) WM|
|People living in the path of the British army as it marched toward Baltimore in September 1814 feared the worst. Some hurriedly hid valuables; others packed what they could and fled. Residents who remained faced the enemy with courage.
The British . . . — — Map (db m83039) HM|
|In 1814 Baltimore's defenders watched about 4,500 British troops march from North Point toward the city. Roughly 3,200 Americans, led by Brigadier General John Stricker, were sent to impede the advance. He positioned his men across a road at a . . . — — Map (db m68528) HM|
|In 1814 Baltimore's defenders watched about 4,500 British troops march from North Point toward the city. Roughly 3,200 Americans, led by Brigadier General John Stricker, were sent to impede the advance. He positioned his men across a road at a . . . — — Map (db m79757) HM|
|After an impressive victory at Washington, the British targeted Baltimore, the third largest city in the nation with a population of more than 40,000. Troops landed at North Point September 12, 1814, and began marching north to attack the city from . . . — — Map (db m102886) HM|
|Baltimore successfully resisted the British assault in September 1814, thanks to thousands of determined volunteer citizen-soldiers. The following year a grateful city laid the cornerstone for the Battle Monument in downtown Baltimore, the first War . . . — — Map (db m83041) HM|
|The Methodist Meeting House that stood near this site saw action September 11-12, 1814. Brigadier General John Stricker camped 3,200 troops here to await the enemy’s advance. When the Americans withdrew, British soldiers camped on the same grounds. . . . — — Map (db m83036) HM|
|Transport ships carrying a British invasion force arrived in Old Road Bay, September 11, 1814. Before dawn the next day, troops were ferried to this landing site to begin the 15-mile march to Baltimore. Reinforced by navy warships, they expected . . . — — Map (db m79775) HM|
|Private Bernard Todd paid dearly for having his home used for military purposes. When the British threatened Baltimore in 1813, it was headquarters for American troops who guarded the Patapsco Neck.
Todd’s property also served as a signal house and . . . — — Map (db m80869) HM|
|British troops landing at North Point on September 12, 1814, could almost taste victory. Three weeks earlier they defeated the Americans at Bladensburg and invaded Washington. Now 4,500 men marched up North Point Road toward Baltimore, while the . . . — — Map (db m79759) HM|
|Nathan Towson, born 1784 in the area named for his family, served in the U.S. Army for 42 years. He enlisted in 1812 when war with Britain seemed imminent. As an artillery captain, Towson distinguished himself in nearly every major engagement on the . . . — — Map (db m83413) HM|
|Northampton Iron Furnace, operating from 1761 to about 1830 approximately a mile north of here, played a significant role in the War of 1812. Part of the prosperous Hampton estate, the foundry’s workforce was made up primarily of enslaved . . . — — Map (db m83051) HM|
|Bellona Gunpowder Company mills, operating from 1801 to 1856, was located in present-day Robert E. Lee Park along the banks of the Jones Falls. Bellona was one of several Baltimore powder mills and produced explosives used in the defense of . . . — — Map (db m114575) HM WM|
|War vessels passed by here in 1814.
The Chesapeake Flotilla, consisting of 50- and 75-foot gun barges, sought safety in shallow waters upstream. British ships hotly pursued, and Americans eventually scuttled the flotilla to keep it from . . . — — Map (db m68044) HM|
|A British force of about 160 Royal Marines and 30 Colonial Marines (former slaves) took Lower Marlboro on June 15, 1814, without and resistance. Occupying the town overnight, they burned warehouses full of tobacco, stole a schooner, livestock, and . . . — — Map (db m80885) HM|
|British raiding parties brought the war to Calvert County in 1814, destroying plantations and towns and carrying away the spoils. With the county’s tobacco-based economy and England as its primary market at the start of the war, Britain’s blockade . . . — — Map (db m80882) HM|
|British forces landed at Hallowing Point July 21, 1814. They took 21 slaves and destroyed the home and barn of Colonel Benjamin Mackall. This was perhaps retaliation for the house being used by Calvert County militia.
“About 300 men landed . . . — — Map (db m80892) HM|
|Imagine the horror of a night-time raid!
Residents of Prince Frederick must have known they were British targets, as recent raids had already devastated nearby Lower Marlboro, St. Leonard, and Huntingtown. Alarm spread with news of . . . — — Map (db m68045) HM|
|The point to the north protruding into the river is appropriately called “Point Patience” as it was difficult to maneuver around in the era of sail. The south side of the point provided good anchorage, visibility, protection from other . . . — — Map (db m81121) HM|
|British warships blockaded the mouth of the Patuxent River after the Chesapeake Flotilla and Royal Navy skirmished off Cedar Point to the south June 1, 1814. Drum Point to the north served as a major British anchorage. The British made mischief in . . . — — Map (db m81120) HM|
|Terror reigned along the Patuxent River in 1814. British invaders plundered and burned towns and plantations on both sides of the river. Menacing warships within view on Somervell’s Island (present-day Solomons) blockaded the river’s mouth, cutting . . . — — Map (db m81097) HM|
|Southern Maryland was a dangerous place to live in the hot summer of 1814. British raiding parties traveled the Patuxent River and swept through the countryside terrorizing civilians and taking provisions for British troops gathering in the area. . . . — — Map (db m81096) HM|
|Some of the fiercest fighting of the war occurred here, where St. Leonard Creek meets the Patuxent River. During the summer of 1814, the British navy tried to flush out and destroy Commodore Joshua Barney’s Chesapeake Flotilla—a rag-tag . . . — — Map (db m80899) HM|
|The original St. Leonard’s Town, at the head of St. Leonard Creek, served as the Chesapeake Flotilla’s base in June 1814. The flotilla moved out after intense fighting on June 26, exposing the town to destructive British raids.
The town site . . . — — Map (db m80893) HM|
|The largest naval engagement in Maryland took place in St. Leonard Creek in June 1814. Americans prevailed in a series of skirmishes June 8-10, but the British ultimately trapped them in the creek. The first battle had little effect.
On June 26, . . . — — Map (db m80898) HM|
| Hard Pressed Militiamen were often assigned elsewhere, leaving hometown defense to those exempted from service due to age or infirmity. Outnumbered, and with limited artillery and ammunition, even the bravest defenders rarely rebuffed an . . . — — Map (db m79526) HM|
|Mount Harmon offered a vantage point for events unfolding along the Sassafras May 6, 1813. Barges of British marines passed by en route to Georgetown and Fredericktown. As they returned, smoke rose in the skies behind them from the burning of . . . — — Map (db m156570) HM|
| The Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail traces the War of 1812 in the Chesapeake. Along the trail you'll encounter tangible evidence of the war and stories that bring the people and events to life. Discover the far-reaching impacts of . . . — — Map (db m154170) HM|
| British raiders traveled along rivers to Upper Bay towns in 1813. Elkton, at the head of Elk River, expected to be a target, because it could be a landing site for an advance on Philadelphia. Citizens of Elkton built three earthen forts and . . . — — Map (db m154174) HM|
|The British took their terror campaign to the Elk River in April 1813. Their target—Elkton—was protected by several forts.
After capturing a gun battery at Frenchtown, British raiders destroyed its storehouses, a fishery, and . . . — — Map (db m146172) HM|
Three defensive earthworks safeguarded Elkton---Fort Hollingsworth, here, plus Defiance and Frederick downriver. A 60-foot chain across the channel secured the Elk River. On April 29, 1813, defenders at Fort Defiance fired on approaching . . . — — Map (db m145611) HM|
| During the War of 1812 the young United States was embroiled in conflict with Great Britain. From 1812 to 1815 Americans fought to protect their rights and economic independence. They faced superior enemy forces on the homefront and the high . . . — — Map (db m154177) HM|
|The Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail traces the War of 1812 in the Chesapeake. Along the trail you'll encounter tangible evidence of the war and stories that bring the people and events to life. Discover the far-reaching impacts of the . . . — — Map (db m145483) HM|
|From Bulls (or Bull) Mountain, American militia had a commanding view of Elk Neck peninsula. They observed the Upper Chesapeake Bay and North East River to the north and west, and Elk River to the south and east.
As enemy ships approached on . . . — — Map (db m152170) HM|
John and Elizabeth Rodgers owned and operated the mid-18th century Rodgers Tavern here plus a tavern in Havre de Grace. They ran a ferry business between the two. The hostelry here was a popular stop on the Old Post Road.
Their famous . . . — — Map (db m145747) HM|
|After burning much of Havre de Grace May 3, 1813, British raiders crossed the Susquehanna to Cecil County. At Principio Iron Works they captured a five-gun battery and destroyed the foundry complex and the bridge across Principio Creek. More than 40 . . . — — Map (db m145868) HM|
|Port Deposit, then called Creswell’s Ferry, was on high alert May 3, 1813. Smoke rising from towns across the river meant British raiders might strike here.
Port Deposit was spared, perhaps due to its well-defended battery. Or, as legend claims, . . . — — Map (db m145934) HM|
|Residents along the Patuxent watched nervously as wave after wave of British warships approached the tiny town of Benedict. For months enemy raiders had terrorized Southern Maryland. Benedict felt their sting twice in June 1814. Now, August 19-20, . . . — — Map (db m68046) HM|
|More than 4,000 British troops camped in this valley and surrounding hills August 19, 1814. Leaving their ships anchored at Benedict, they headed north on August 20.
Over the next ten days they marched through grueling heat and storms, defeated . . . — — Map (db m81190) WM|
|More than 4,000 British troops camped here August 20, 1814, awaiting orders. After sailing from Bermuda in cramped quarters, they appreciated being on firm ground. One noted they were “made happy by the very feeling of the green sod under . . . — — Map (db m81188) HM|
| British vessels labored through Kettle Bottom Shoals near here in August 1814 during a diversionary expedition up the Potomac. When Americans destroyed Fort Washington (also called Fort Warburton) without firing a shot, the British proceeded . . . — — Map (db m97034) WM|
|Local militia attacked a British raiding party whose vessel was icebound near James Island February 7, 1815. Protected by a breastwork of ice, the Americans continued firing until the crew of 20 surrendered.
The two-hour skirmish, the “Battle . . . — — Map (db m78799) WM|
|The Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail traces the War of 1812 in the Chesapeake. Along the trail you'll encounter tangible evidence of the war and stories that bring the people and events to life. Discover the far-reaching impacts of the . . . — — Map (db m80609) HM|
| The Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail traces the War of 1812 in the Chesapeake. Along the trail you'll encounter tangible evidence of the war and stories that bring the people and events to life. Discover the far-reaching impacts of . . . — — Map (db m152380) HM|
|Frenchtown, on the Elk River, was struck on the morning of April 29, 1813. Rear Admiral Cockburn attempted a surprise attack and was greeted with a barrage from the town's battery. The guns had little effect and the British landed and burned the . . . — — Map (db m64176) HM|
|The town's defenders -- numbering about 20 -- failed to prevent some 400 British troops from coming ashore May 3, 1813.
A gun battery, probably located north of where the lighthouse now stands, was manned single-handedly by John . . . — — Map (db m69226) HM|
|John O'Neill led a futile defense when British raiders attacked Havre de Grace May 3, 1812. As other defenders fled, O'Neill briefly manned a cannon alone.
His courage earned O'Neill a presidential appointment as first keeper of the Concord Point . . . — — Map (db m69182) HM|
|Five days before the 1813 attack on Havre de Grace, British ships anchored at Spesutia Island, just south of here. Island residents were "greatly terrified" upon their arrival, but were assured they would not be harmed. The Royal Navy used the . . . — — Map (db m64165) HM|
|As the British savagely burned the buildings in Havre de Grace during their morning attack May 3, 1813, the townspeople ran west for protection to a home that stood near this location. The home, known as Bloomsbury, was owned by Baltimore . . . — — Map (db m80342) HM|
|The British fleet approached Havre de Grace at dawn on the morning of May 3, 1813 in small launches. Rear Admiral Cockburn favored attacking towns at first light. Havre de Grace residents awoke to the terrifying sounds of bombs exploding and rockets . . . — — Map (db m64167) HM|
|Travelers on the Post Road, the main route of north/south travel, passed through Havre de Grace and crossed the Susquehanna River on a ferry to Perryville. The ferry was chartered in 1695 and remained in use until the first railroad bridge was built . . . — — Map (db m64140) HM|
| St. John's Episcopal Church survived the British attack on Havre de Grace May 3, 1813. The enemy spared the 1809 structure but damaged the interior. According to a newspaper account: "Finding nothing to steal (the raiders) 'magnanimously' . . . — — Map (db m152375) HM|
|Rodgers House miraculously survived the 1813 burning of Havre de Grace. Dating from 1788, this is the town's oldest documented structure. John and Elizabeth Rodgers, parents of U.S. Naval hero John Rodgers, operated a tavern here. They also . . . — — Map (db m64144) HM|
|A target of the British during the War of 1812, Principio Iron Foundry was destroyed on May 3, 1813. the foundry, located on the Northeast River was owned by Samuel Hughes and had a contract with the U.S. Navy. In this raid Hughes' losses included . . . — — Map (db m64177) HM|
|Little evidence remains of what was once the northernmost navigable deep-water port on the Susquehanna River. The “Upper Ferry” crossed between here and Port Deposit.
When the British attacked May 3, 1813, they helped themselves to a . . . — — Map (db m80344) HM|
|On the morning of May 3, 1813, the British came ashore at several points and set to work plundering and burning the town. they used Congreve rockets, which made horrible whizzing and popping sounds, to create chaos and terror. The British . . . — — Map (db m64209) HM|
|During the War of 1812, Havre de Grace was a fishing village, but also played host to many travelers. The Post Road, the main route of land travel in the day, came through town, and travelers used the local ferry at the north end of town to cross . . . — — Map (db m64166) HM|
|Cannon and rocket fire shook residents of Havre de Grace from their sleep as the British attacked at dawn May 3, 1813. An eyewitness reported: "Distressed people, women and children half naked" ran from their homes. The local militia fled, . . . — — Map (db m59832) HM|
|The taverns and the ferry made Havre de Grace, originally called Susquehanna Lower Ferry, a successful town in the early 19th century. People arrived via the Post Road, the major route of north/south travel in the day, and crossed the Susquehanna . . . — — Map (db m64141) HM|
|The British under Rear Admiral George Cockburn attacked Havre de Grace on May 3, 1813. They went from house to house, burning and confiscating belongings along the way. Beds were ripped apart, and furniture and clothing were ruined. "The hills . . . — — Map (db m64142) HM|
|During the War of 1812 the young United States was embroiled in conflict with Great Britain. From 1812 to 1815 Americans fought to protect their rights and economic independence. They faced superior enemy forces on the homefront and the high . . . — — Map (db m59827) HM|
|When four British barges entered Worton Creek in July 1814, local militia sprang into action. They ambushed the barges and forced them out of the creek. The Americans claimed they killed about 15 of the 20 enemy soldiers without losing any of their . . . — — Map (db m80623) HM|
|The people of Chestertown---a commercial center connected to international trade---generally opposed going to war with Great Britain. Yet when war came, most supported the American effort. Chestertown sent many distinguished fighters to battle.
The . . . — — Map (db m80629) HM|
|Early September 3, 1814, at Mitchell House, British raiders roused Joseph T. Mitchell and his wife from their bed, shot their horses, and abducted Mitchell. They believed he ws commissary general for all of Maryland.
His was a lesser job as . . . — — Map (db m80628) HM|
163 entries matched your criteria. The first 100 are listed above. The final 63 ⊳