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“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
 
 

Frederick County Virginia Historical Markers

 
Stone Marker at the Crossroads of the Martinsburg Pike and Hopewell Road image, Touch for more information
By Craig Swain, August 25, 2007
Stone Marker at the Crossroads of the Martinsburg Pike and Hopewell Road
Virginia (Frederick County), Clear Brook — Hopewell Friends Meeting House
One mile west Meeting established 1734 since which time regular religious services have been held * Erected 1934 * — Map (db m2282) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Clear Brook — Z-291 — West Virginia / Frederick County
West Virginia. West Virginia was long a part of Virginia. Morgan Morgan began the settlement of the region in 1727. A great battle with the Indians took place as Point Pleasant, 1774. West Virginia became a separate state of the Union in 1863. . . . — Map (db m80323) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Gore — Z-217 — Frederick County Va. / West Virginia
(West Facing Side): Frederick County Va. Area 435 Square Miles Formed in 1738 from Orange and named for Frederick, Prince of Wales, father of King George III. Several battles were fought in the vicinity of Winchester 1862-1864 (East . . . — Map (db m3097) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Gore — B-18 — Willa Cather Birthplace
Here Willa Sibert Cather, the novelist, was born December 7, 1873. This community was her home until 1883, when her family moved to Nebraska. Nearby on Back Creek stands the old mill described in her novel Saphira and the Slave Girl. — Map (db m92498) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Gore — B-17 — Willow Shade
This house, built in 1858, was the childhood home of novelist Willa Cather from 1874 to 1883, when she moved with her family to Nebraska. It was the setting of the final chapters of her novel SAPPHIRA AND THE SLAVE . . . — Map (db m3095) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Green Spring — A-67 — Old Stone Church at Greenspring
One-half mile west at Greenspring stands the Old Stone Church, the second church building on the site, which was built in 1838 for a Lutheran congregation. The first church had been built as a subscription school and as a house of worship. Old Stone . . . — Map (db m7340) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middleton — Cedar Creek Battlefield and Belle Grove
Cedar Creek Battlefield and Belle Grove has been designated a Registered National Historic Landmark under the jurisdiction of the Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935. This site possesses exceptional value in commemorating or illustrating the . . . — Map (db m92700) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — 128th New York Volunteer Regiment
Dedicated on 15 October 1907, this monument is adjacent to the original Valley Pike right of way. It marks the eastern limit of the XIX U.S. Corps positions occupied on 19 October 1864 and is at the approximate point where U.S. Generals Horatio G. . . . — Map (db m3397) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — 128th Regt N.Y.S.V.I.
In Memory of The Men of This Regiment Who Lost Their Lives at the Battle of Cedar Creek, October 19, 1864 Erected by Their Comrades and Friends Dedicated in 1907 — Map (db m117458) WM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — 1st Maine Battery
Captain Eben D. Haley's 1st Maine Light Artillery occupied a knoll behind the contact point of Colonel Daniel Macaulay's 3rd Brigade and Brigadier General Henry W. Birge's 1st Brigade. The battery quickly came under Confederate artillery fire and . . . — Map (db m3427) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — A Rich Prize7:00 a.m.
Belle Grove was Union headquarters, and thus was surrounded by hundreds of supply wagons, ambulances and tents. As the Confederate advance neared the plantation manor house there was a scramble to evacuate them to safely. Most escaped capture. The . . . — Map (db m123963) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — A-15 — Battle of Cedar Creek
Near this point General Early, on the morning of October 19, 1864, stopped his advance and from this position he was driven by Sheridan in the afternoon. — Map (db m568) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Battle of Cedar Creek
October 19, 1864. General Philip Sheridan defeated General Jubal Early here for the third time in 30 days. Sheridan’s pursuit of Confederates from Fisher’s Hill halted at Mount Crawford. On his return he encamped his three corps in this immediate . . . — Map (db m581) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Battle of Cedar Creek
The Battle of Cedar Creek 19 October 1864 (a.m.) Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan’s Union forces established themselves on both sides of the Valley Pike, north of Cedar Creek, centered on Belle Grove. Confederate Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early . . . — Map (db m15171) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — A-56 — Battle of Cedar Creek
In early Oct. 1864, portions of Union Maj. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan’s army bivouacked here on the hills and rolling farmland just north of Cedar Creek along the Valley Turnpike (present-day U.S. Rte. 11). Just before daybreak on 19 Oct., Confederate . . . — Map (db m50310) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Battle of Cedar Creek
The Battle of Cedar Creek 19 October 1864 (a.m.) Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan’s Union forces established themselves on both sides of the Valley Pike, north of Cedar Creek, centered on Belle Grove. Confederate Lt. Gen. Jubal A. . . . — Map (db m78063) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Battle of Cedar CreekUnion Left Flank — 1864 Valley Campaign
(Preface): The fertile Shenandoah Valley was the "Breadbasket of the Confederacy" as well as an avenue of invasion. Confederate Gen. Jubal A. Early's march north and his raid on Washington, D.C., in June-July 1864 alerted Union Gen. Ulysses . . . — Map (db m78137) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Battle of Cedar Creek 1864
CS - US — Map (db m117594) WM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Battlefield Center
From this position (Belle Grove Mansion is west of here) most of the VI and XIX U.S. Corps camps were visible on 19 October 1864. The XIX Corps camped close to their earthworks along the ridge to the south. VI Corps units were placed along the . . . — Map (db m3363) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Bearing the BruntCedar Creek and Belle Grove National Historical Park
On October 15, 1907, veterans of the 128th New York Regiment met on the Cedar Creek battlefield to dedicate the monument to their unit. These men, along with the rest of the 19th Corps, had borne the brunt of the Confederate attack against their . . . — Map (db m117461) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Cedar Creek The 8th Vermont Vol's
Genl. Stephen Thomas Commanding Brigade Advanced across the Pike The morning of Oct. 19, 1864. Engaged the enemy near and beyond this point, and before sunrise lost in killed and wounded 110 men. Three color bearers were shot down and 13 . . . — Map (db m89382) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Colonel Charles Russell Lowell
Commanding Reserve Brigade Cavalry Corps Army of the Shenandoah Fell in action near this place October 19, 1864 Useful Citizen * Gallant Soldier He died too early for his country (reverse side) Cedar . . . — Map (db m1868) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — A-14 — End Of Sheridan’s Ride
This knoll marks the position of the Union Army when Sheridan rejoined it at 10:30 A.M., October 19, 1864, in the Battle of Cedar Creek. His arrival, with Wright's efforts, checked the Union retreat. — Map (db m577) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — A-16 — Engagement Of Middletown
Here Stonewall Jackson, on May 24, 1862, attacked Banks retreating from Strasburg and forced him to divide his army. — Map (db m578) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Eve of BattleCedar Creek and Belle Grove National Historical Park
On the night of October 18, 1864, tents sheltering part of General Philip Sheridan's 32,000 strong Union Army of the Shenandoah blanketed the fields before you. Numerous supply wagons stood around Belle Grove. Above the banks of Cedar Creek, more . . . — Map (db m117576) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Z-179 — Frederick County / Shenandoah County
(South Facing Side): Frederick County Area 485 Square Miles Formed in 1738 from Orange, and named for Frederick, Prince of Wales, Father of King George III. Several battles were fought in the vicinity of Winchester, 1862-1864. (North . . . — Map (db m3430) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Heater Fields
The 2nd (Vermont) Brigade of the 2nd Division, VI U.S. Corps, briefly deployed around the Heater House as skirmishers in the first federal effort to stop the 19 October 1864 Confederate morning attack. When this proved unfeasible, the entire . . . — Map (db m15653) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Heater House
Probably built around 1800, this clapboard-covered log house was once the center of a prosperous 600 acre farm owned by Solomon and Caroline Wunder Heater. Although two of her sons died in Confederate service, Mrs. Heater, a native of Pennsylvania, . . . — Map (db m3334) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — A-105 — Middletown
The Virginia General Assembly established Middletown in 1794. Dr. Peter Senseney laid out the original lots for the village. Surrounded by farms and plantations, including historic Belle Grove, the community grew along the Great Wagon Road, which . . . — Map (db m1862) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Molineux's 2nd Brigade
The westernmost brigade of U.S. Brigadier General Cuvier Grover's 2nd Division, XIX U.S. Corps, the 2nd Brigade first came under pressure when C.S. Major General Joseph B. Kershaw's Division attacked its front and left. Then C.S. Major General John . . . — Map (db m3428) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Monte Vista
This Property Has Been placed on the National Register of Historic Places By the United States Department of the Interior Circa 1883 — Map (db m78060) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — N.C. Troops at Cedar Creek
Brig Gen John Pegram’s Division Lt Col William Davis Brigade (Formerly Brig Gen Archibald Godwin’s) 6th North Carolina 21st North Carolina 54th North Carolina 57th North Carolina Brig Gen Robert D. Johnston’s Brigade 5th North . . . — Map (db m123872) HM WM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Old Hall at Belle Grove
In 1783, Isaac Hite, Jr. married Nelly Madison Hite of Montpelier, and acquired by grant from his father the 483 acre tract that was to become the center of Belle Grove Plantation. Until the elegant manor house was built between 1794 and 1797, the . . . — Map (db m44581) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — A-37 — Old Stone Fort
One mile west is the old stone fort, built about 1755. The northern end is loop-holed for defense against indians. — Map (db m569) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Ramseur Monument
Esse Quam Videri Northwest of this tablet, 800 yards, is the Belle Grove House in which died, October 20, 1864, of wounds received at Cedar Creek October 19, 1864, Maj.-Gen. Stephen Dodson Ramseur, C.S.A. A native of North Carolina, he . . . — Map (db m18684) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — The Battle of Cedar Creek
Fought on these hills and fields, Oct 19, 1864. Gen. Jubal A. Early's 22,000 Confederates attacked Gen. Philip H. Sheridan's 60,000 Federals. The first assault a surprise flank movement by Gen. John B. Gordon, was a Confederate success. This . . . — Map (db m3380) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — The Battle of Cedar CreekBy Julian Scott
In 1870 the Vermont Legislature commissioned a painting for the State House by artist Julian Scott to commemorate the valor of the state's Civil War soldiers. The Battle of Cedar Creek, in which more Vermont regiments were under fire than any . . . — Map (db m78349) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — The Cauldron
The defense of the high ground around Middletown Cemetery by the 2nd Division, U. S. VI Corps, stopped the Confederate momentum. Confederate forces from the divisions of Generals Stephen D. Ramseur and Gabriel Wharton regrouped in the area between . . . — Map (db m36752) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — A-17 — Tomb Of An Unknown Soldier
On the highest mountain top to the southeast is the grave of an unknown soldier. The mountain top was used as a signal station by both armies, 1861-1865. — Map (db m586) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Union Camps
Federal wagons and teams were in camp, close to and along the pike, while the shelter tents of the soldiers were arranged close to the earthworks themselves. By 8 A.M. on 19 October 1864, the area was filled with withdrawing units and individuals, . . . — Map (db m91963) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Union Trenches
The main portion of the XIX U.S. Corps earthworks began here and extended one mile westward. Colonel Daniel Macaulay's 3rd Brigade, a part of Brigadier General Cuvier Grover's 2nd Division, occupied them with the 128th New York and 38th . . . — Map (db m3399) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Union Withdrawal
Elements of Brigadier General James W. MacMillan's 1st Division, XIX U.S. Corps, left their part of the earthworks to fight C.S. Major General John B. Gordon's men closer to the Valley Pike. When Colonel Edward L. Molineux's and Brigadier General . . . — Map (db m3429) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Vermont at Cedar Creek
Vermont soldiers played an important role in the Union victory at Cedar Creek. In a desperate stand made to slow the early morning onslaught of confederate Jubal Early’s army, the Eighth Vermont Regiment lost 110 of its 164 men engaged. The First . . . — Map (db m78347) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Star Tannery — Z-283 — Frederick County / Shenandoah County
Frederick County. Area 485 Square Miles. Formed in 1738 from Orange, and named for Frederick, Prince of Wales, Father of King George III. Several battles were fought in the vicinity of Winchester, 1862–1864. Shenandoah County. . . . — Map (db m9251) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Stephens City — A-12 — House of First Settler
Springdale, home of Colonel John Hite, son of Joist Hite, leader of the first settlers in this section, was built in 1753. Just to the South are ruins of Hite’s Fort, built about 1734. — Map (db m2255) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Stephens City — NewtownBurnings and Hangings — 1864 Valley Campaign
As the Federal army attempted to conquer and hold the Valley in 1864, its lines of supply and communication were extended and became susceptible to attack by bands of Confederate partisans. On May 24, 1864, under orders from Union Gen. David . . . — Map (db m41658) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Stephens City — A-12 — Stephens City
General David Hunter ordered the burning of this town on May 30, 1864; but Major Joseph Streans of the First New York Cavalry prevented it. — Map (db m580) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Stephenson — A-1 — Action at Stephenson’s Depot
Near this place on June 15, 1863, Confederate troops of General Edward “Allegheny” Johnson’s Division attacked and routed General Robert Milroy’s Union Army during its retreat from Winchester. The short, pre-dawn battle resulted in the . . . — Map (db m2329) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Stephenson — Jordan SpringsHealing Springs
During the Civil War, both United States and Confederate forces used Jordan Springs resort as a hospital at different times. Wounded and sick Confederate soldiers from the Antietam and Gettysburg battlefields came to the springs—although . . . — Map (db m2358) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Stephenson — Stephenson Depot"The Thermopylae of my campaign.”
In the spring of 1863, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia began a march that culminated at the Battle of Gettysburg. Lee chose the Shenandoah Valley for his invasion route. Ninety-six hundred Federals under Gen. Robert . . . — Map (db m41659) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Stephenson — Third Battle of Winchester"One Moving Mass of Glittering Sabers" — 1864 Valley Campaigns
On September 19, 1864, Union Gen. Philip H. Sheridan’s Army of the Shenandoah routed Confederate Gen. Jubal A. Early’s Valley Army at the Third Battle of Winchester (also called Opequon) in the bloodiest and largest battle in the Shenandoah Valley. . . . — Map (db m100977) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — 1790 Stone Church
These native limestone steps are in their original position and mark the main entrance to a 40' x 60' stone church built on this site in 1790. The entrance was in the center of its east wall with the pulpit area against the west wall. This church . . . — Map (db m2634) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — A "Malicious Design"Burning the Winchester Medical College
This is the former location of the Winchester Medical College. In the spring of 1862, Union soldiers from Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks's command allegedly entered the building and discovered a partially dissected African American boy. They also found . . . — Map (db m126603) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — A-2 — Action of Rutherford’s Farm
Near here, the Confederate General Stephen D. Ramseur was attacked by General William W. Averell and pushed back toward Winchester, July 20, 1864. — Map (db m12091) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — A-9 — Battle of Kernstown
On the hill to the west, Stonewall Jackson late in the afternoon of March 23, 1862 attacked the Union force under Shields holding Winchester. After a fierce action, Jackson, who was greatly outnumbered, withdrew southward, leaving his dead on the . . . — Map (db m3150) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Battle of KernstownMarch 23, 1862
General James Shields with 7,000 Federals defeated Stonewall Jackson with 3,500 Confederates. Jackson's object was to create a diversion which would prevent troops being sent to McClellan for the attack on Richmond. He arrived south of Kernstown in . . . — Map (db m33024) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Battle of Rutherford's FarmUnion Victory
Confederate Gen. Jubal A. Early attacked the defenses of Washington, D.C., in July 1864, then retreated to the Shenandoah Valley. Union Gen. Horatio G. Wright pursued him, and after a sharp fight and Confederate victory at Cool Spring on July 18, . . . — Map (db m13988) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — A-3 — Capture of Star Fort
The fort on the hilltop to the southwest, known as Star Fort, was taken by Colonel Schoonmaker of Sheridan’s Army in the Battle of September 19, 1864. — Map (db m2275) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Civil War Earthworks"Where they are compelled by nature ... to resort to it"
During the Civil War, armies of both sides built earthwork fortifications of varying sizes and shapes. The star fort was one of the most difficult types to construct. Although the design afforded the defenders the potential to fire into an attacking . . . — Map (db m100976) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Z-122 — Clark County / Frederick County
West Facing Side: Clark County. Area 171 Square Miles. — Formed in 1836 from Frederick and added to from Warren. Named for George Rogers Clark, conqueror of the Northwest. Lord Fairfax and General Danial Morgan, Revolutionary . . . — Map (db m1784) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — B-16 — Colonel John Singleton Mosby
This road, along which many of his skirmishes took place, is named for Colonel John Singleton Mosby, commander of the 43rd Battalion of the Confederate Partisan Rangers. Their activities in this area helped keep the Confederate cause alive in . . . — Map (db m2668) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Constructing Star Fort"It was hard work"
Union Gen. Robert H. Milroy and his division entered Winchester on January 1, 1863. The abolitionist general, who vowed to enforce the Emancipation Proclamation aggressively, soon set to work strengthening the town's defenses. His soldiers rotated . . . — Map (db m100975) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — J-16 — Defenses of Winchester
The fort on the hilltop to the north is one of a chain of defenses commanding the crossings of the Opequon. It was constructed by Milroy in 1863. — Map (db m80324) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Fight for the High Ground
The Shenandoah Valley's strategic location and rich farmland caused it to be the scene of two major Civil War campaigns that comprised hundreds of battles and skirmishes. Many Valley farms, like Rose Hill, became battlefields or campgrounds . . . — Map (db m3498) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — First Battle of Kernstown
Was fought here Sunday, March 23, 1862 Confederates under Gen. T.J. “Stonewall” Jackson attacked Federals under Gen. James Shields. The fighting was chiefly west of the road and continued from early afternoon until nightfall. When . . . — Map (db m2635) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — A-11 — First Battle of Winchester
Here Confederate Maj. Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson and his army, early on the morning of 25 May 1862, defeated Union Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Bank’s forces during Jackson’s Shenandoah Valley campaign. Banks, outnumbered and . . . — Map (db m2596) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — A-4 — Fort Collier
Just to the east, a redoubt known as Fort Collier was built by Joseph E. Johnston in 1861. Early’s left rested here during the Third Battle of Winchester, September 19, 1864. — Map (db m2481) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Fort Collier“I never saw such a sight”
Confederate troops constructed Fort Collier in 1861 after the evacuation of Harpers Ferry. The earthworks, which surrounded the Benjamin Stine house here, commanded the approach to Winchester on the Martinsburg and Winchester Turnpike. The fort saw . . . — Map (db m2492) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Q 4a — General Daniel Morgan / Winchester
(North Side): Morgan used this road in traveling from his home, “Saratoga,” to Winchester. He was a frontiersman, Indian fighter and the commander of Morgan’s famous riflemen in the Revolution. He won glory at Quebec and Saratoga, . . . — Map (db m2290) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Q 4c — George Washington in Winchester
In Mar. 1748, George Washington first visited Winchester, then known as Fredericktown, as a surveyor for Lord Fairfax. Washington purchased property in Winchester in 1753 and was an unsuccessful candidate for a House of Burgesses seat here in 1755. . . . — Map (db m2663) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — A-38 — Hackwood Park
One mile east is the site of Hackwood Estate House, built in 1777 by General John Smith. Documents reveal that the Hackwood House caught fire during the Third Battle of Winchester. Union troops used the buildings on the site for a hospital, . . . — Map (db m12090) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — How To See the Battlefield
On March 23, 1862, the opening conflict of the famous Valley Campaign began on the adjoining Glass and Pritchard farms. You are visiting the Glass Farm called Rose Hill. The neighboring Pritchard Farm is 1½ miles to the southeast (right) of . . . — Map (db m3496) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — In Memory of the Many Soldiers of the Revolution
In Memory of the many soldiers of the Revolution interred at Opequon Church of whom only seven are known Major John Gilkeson Captain William Chipley Captain Samuel Gilkeson Captain James Simrall Captain Samuel Vance Captain William Vance Private . . . — Map (db m2633) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — John Rutherford's FarmInterrupted by War
John H. Rutherford was born about 1820. He acquired approximately 275 acres here between 1843 and 1848 from the heirs of John Carter. About May 24, 1849, Rutherford married Camilla C. Baker. At first, the couple lived with Mrs. Susan Pitman Carter, . . . — Map (db m14028) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Q 4-b — Jost Hite and Winchester
German emigrant Jost Hite and about 16 other German and Scots-Irish families from Pennsylvania came to this region in 1732, creating one of the early permanent European settlements. They settled along the Opequon Creek watershed south-west of the . . . — Map (db m2267) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Kernstown Battles
Around this site and a mile to the west occurred two major battles of the Civil War. First Kernstown March 23, 1862 Stonewall Jackson attacked what appeared to be a withdrawing federal force led by federal Br. Gen. Shields. Desperate fighting . . . — Map (db m2632) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Q 4d — Lord Fairfax
Thomas Fairfax (1693-1781), sixth Baron Fairfax of Cameron, was the proprietor of the Northern Neck Proprietary, a vast landholding that lay between the Rappahannock and the Potomac Rivers, and extended to the Blue Ridge. Born in England, he came to . . . — Map (db m2299) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Lt. Collier’s Earthworks
From the time of Virginia’s secession from the Union on May 23, 1861, until just before the Battle of Manassas on July 21, 1861, the Confederate government in Richmond recognized the importance of defending the Lower Shenandoah Valley. When . . . — Map (db m2494) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Northern Victory, Southern Defeat
As Southern units retreated and resistance fell apart, Northern victory was assured. Jackson found himself surrounded by a disorderly retreat of his soldiers. In the growing dark, a few fresh Southern units made gallant attempts to cover the . . . — Map (db m3507) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — 169 — Opequon Presbyterian ChurchAmerican Presbyterian and Reformed Historical Site
Early Years This historic church was established by Scotch-Irish and German settlers who migrated from eastern Pennsylvania in the early 1730’s. William Hoge donated two acres of land for a meeting house, and an additional two acres for a . . . — Map (db m122175) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Rose Hill“I do not recollect having ever heard such a roar of musketry.” — 1862 Valley Campaign
The First Battle of Kernstown, on March 23, 1862, was also the first major Civil War battle fought in the Shenandoah Valley. Throughout the morning, 16 Union cannons on Pritchard’s Hill held off Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s . . . — Map (db m2646) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Rutherford's FarmIn the Path of Battle
In addition to the action of July 20, 1864, known as the Battle of Rutherford’s Farm, two other significant events occurred on or near John Rutherford’s property here. The first took place on June 14-15, 1863, during the Gettysburg Campaign, as . . . — Map (db m14026) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — A-8 — Second Battle of Winchester
On June 14, 1863, Jubal A. Early moved west from this point to attack Federal fortifications west of Winchester. — Map (db m2597) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Second Battle of WinchesterLouisiana Tigers Capture West Fort — Gettysburg Campaign
In June 1863, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee marched his infantry from Culpeper County to the Shenandoah Valley to launch his second invasion of the North. First, however, he had to capture Winchester, the largest town on his line of communication, . . . — Map (db m2645) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — B-19 — Second Battle of Winchester
Here Jubal A. Early, detached to attack the rear of Milroy, holding Winchester, crossed this road and moved eastward in the afternoon of June 15, 1863. — Map (db m2666) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Second Battle of Winchester"The guns in Star Fort greeted them" — Gettysburg Campaign
(preface) After Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's stunning victory at Chancellorsville in May 1863, he led the Army of Northern Virginia west to the Shenandoah Valley, then north through central Maryland and across the Mason-Dixon Line into . . . — Map (db m100973) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Second Battle of Winchester"A scene ... I shall never forget" — Gettysburg Campaign
While Union artillery from Star Fort dueled with Confederate gunners in West Fort on June 14, 1863, Winchester's civilians fretted for their safety. Some wondered if Union Gen. Robert H. Milroy would destroy Winchester by either burning or . . . — Map (db m100978) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Star FortGuardian of Winchester
Three times during the Civil War, Star Fort played a major role in the defense of Winchester. Union Gen. Robert H. Milroy’s troops began constructing the fort in January 1863 on the site of artillery emplacements Confederate Gen. Thomas J. . . . — Map (db m117368) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Advance of Tyler’s Brigade
Northern Colonel Nathan Kimball saw the position of his troops on nearby Pritchard's Hill (1.5 miles left and in front of you) becoming indefensible. Southern artillery recently placed on the higher elevation of Sandy Ridge (just in front of you) . . . — Map (db m3501) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Defense of the Stone Wall
Southern General Thomas Jackson was already going by the nickname "Stonewall" when he directed his troops to this location to support the Southern artillery on Sandy Ridge. Ironically, his troops' retreat from this stone wall led to Jackson's only . . . — Map (db m3502) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Q-4 — The Great Indian (and Wagon) Road
The Great Indian Road, called Philadelphia Wagon Road by many settlers, was developed by Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) warriors traveling in the 1700s through the Great Valley of the Appalachians (which they called Jonontore) from Cohongaronto (north of . . . — Map (db m12089) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Order for Retreat
Northern commander Colonel Nathan Kimball 1.5 miles away (over the hill on your right) on Prichard's Hill faced the threat of defeat. He decided to seize the initiative and order a second assault against the Southern artillery atop Sandy Ridge. At . . . — Map (db m3504) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester
(Left Side): The Third Battle of Winchester - September 19, 1864 Bloodiest Battle of the Shenandoah Valley Gen. Jubal Early assuming that Gen. Phil Sheridan was yet another cautious Union commander, divided his roughly 14,000 troops on a . . . — Map (db m3090) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester Confederate Horse Artillery
"A more murderous fire I never witnessed..."Col. Thomas Munford, C.S.A. In an effort to protect the Confederate left flank, Gen. Fitzhugh Lee placed a detachment of cavalry and six pieces of horse artillery, lighter cannons made . . . — Map (db m3091) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester The Attack of the Eighth Corps
"The order was to walk fast, keep silent, until within about one hundred yards of the guns, and then with a yell to charge at full speed." Col. Rutherford B. Hayes, U.S.A. At noon on September 19, Union General Sheridan's Sixth and . . . — Map (db m3092) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester Fording Red Bud Run
"To stop was death. To go on was probably the same; but on we started again." Col. Rutherford B. Hayes, U.S.A. Red Bud Run is as wide and boggy today as it was in 1864. During their attack, the men of the Eighth Corps sank into the . . . — Map (db m3159) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester Hackwood House
Prominent Virginian John Smith was charged with guarding prisoners of war held in Winchester during the Revolutionary War. He purportedly had this stately home (in front of you) built by Hessian and British prisoners around 1777. During the . . . — Map (db m3164) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester Confederate Defense
In the mid-morning of September 19, Confederate Gen. John B. Gordon's infantry, veteran troops from Georgia, Louisiana, and Virginia, took position to your right on the other side of Hackwood Lane. At 11:40 a.m., at the sound of artillery fire, . . . — Map (db m3174) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester The Second Woods
You are standing at the site of what is known as the Second Woods. The fighting in and around the Second Woods was so rapid and chaotic that many participants disagreed on the details and order of the events. But this is much clear: at 11:40 a.m., . . . — Map (db m3175) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester The Confederates Reform
"Unless this force were driven back, the day was lost." General Jubal A. Early, C.S.A. Standing here about noon during the battle, you would have seen Union troops under Gen. Henry Birge pursuing Gen. Clement Evans' Georgians from right . . . — Map (db m3187) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester The West Woods
You are standing near the center of General Early's infantry line at what has come to be called the West Woods. Although these particular trees were not here during the Battle of Third Winchester, some are in the same location as those that stood on . . . — Map (db m3188) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester The Middle Field - Bloodiest Encounter in the Shenandoah Valley
You are standing in the Middle Field - perhaps the bloodiest place in the Shenandoah Valley. After hours of preparation, Sheridan's Army of the Shenandoah was ready to advance against the Confederate position east of Winchester at 11:40 a.m. . . . — Map (db m3189) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester The First Woods - A Perfect Slaughterhouse
As Confederates drove Union Gen. Grover's 2nd Division back across the fields in front of you, the 1st Division of the Nineteenth Army Corps was moving up to the edge of the First Woods behind you, (the tree line was then some 400 yards further . . . — Map (db m3192) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester
(Left Side): The Third Battle of Winchester - September 19, 1864 Bloodiest Battle of the Shenandoah Valley Gen. Jubal Early assuming that Gen. Phil Sheridan was yet another cautious Union commander, divided his roughly 14,000 troops on a . . . — Map (db m3194) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester Camp Averell
In the months after the Third Battle of Winchester, this area became home to Camp Averell, named after Union cavalry gen. William Woods Averell. Elements of six cavalry and "mounted infantry" regiments from New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia . . . — Map (db m3196) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester The Union Rear
The First Woods saw little combat, but areas near the front lines were bustling with activity. Here, men of Grover's, Dwight's, and Thoburn's Union divisions formed for their attacks across the Middle Field. Union Generals rallied the broken . . . — Map (db m3198) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester Union Victories in the Valley
After the successful attack of the Union Eighth Corps, it was only a matter of time before the Confederates lost the battle. As Confederate Gen. Early consolidated his lines closer and closer to Winchester, his men faced coordinated infantry . . . — Map (db m3199) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester Thoburn's Attack
As the Nineteenth Corps tried to reorganize its lines, Union Col. Joseph Thoburn's division of the Eighth Army Corps came up from reserve and took position at the edge of the First Woods behind you. Union Gen. Philip Sheridan soon arrived and . . . — Map (db m6314) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterHackwood Lane
You are standing on Hackwood Lane. Running east to west, it was part of a network of country lanes connecting the Berryville Pike and the Valley Pike in the mid-19th century. The trees on either side were not present during the battle. — Map (db m62779) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — J-3 — Third Battle of Winchester
Here Confederate forces under General Jubal A. Early, facing east, received the attack of Sheridan’s army at noon on September 19, 1864. Early repulsed the attack and countercharged, breaking the Union line. Only prompt action by General Emory Upton . . . — Map (db m2268) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — J-13 — Third Battle of Winchester
On a hill, approximately one-half mile to the west, Philip H. Sheridan established his final position on September 19, 1864. General Jubal A. Early held the ground one-half mile further to the west. At 4 P.M., Sheridan advanced with massed cavalry . . . — Map (db m2271) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Third Battle of WinchesterA Gathering of Future Leaders — 1864 Valley Campaign
The Third Battle of Winchester, fought here on September 19, 1864, was a proving ground for several men on both sides who shaped post-war America. They included two future presidents, two senators, a state governor, and several military leaders. . . . — Map (db m3086) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Third Battle of Winchester"The enemy within the fort ... hastily evacuated" — 1864 Valley Campaign
(preface) The fertile Shenandoah Valley was the "Breadbasket of the Confederacy" as well as an avenue of invasion. Confederate Gen. Jubal A. Early's march north and his raid on Washington, D.C., in June-July 1864 alerted Union Gen. Ulysses . . . — Map (db m117369) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — War in the Backyard
At the beginning of the Civil War, the third generation of the Scots-Irish Glass family lived at Rose Hill. The household consisted of Thomas Glass (age 67), and his wife Margaret (age 51), his son William (age 25) and fifteen slaves, most of them . . . — Map (db m3495) HM

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