“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
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Immigration Topic

Liberty Enlightening the World Marker image, Touch for more information
By James L.Whitman, January 21, 2023
Liberty Enlightening the World Marker
1 Alabama, Henry County, Abbeville — Liberty Enlightening the World
In 1865, Frenchman Édouard de Laboulaye proposed the idea of presenting a monumental gift from the people of France to the people of the United States. A prominent political thinker in his time, Laboulaye had spent much of his political career . . . Map (db m214431) HM
2 Alabama, Montgomery County, Montgomery — Cassimus House
This property has been placed on the National Register of Historic Places by the United States Department of the InteriorMap (db m217247) HM
3 Arizona, Navajo County, Winslow — 2 — Early Trails Across the Little Colorado River ValleyJourneys to Winslow
The Little Colorado River and its tributaries supplied a vital water source to the area's earliest inhabitants and travelers. The watershed sustained the nearby Homol'ovi villages of the Ancestral Puebloans. A passable ford across the river allowed . . . Map (db m209669) HM
4 Arizona, Navajo County, Winslow — 3 — The Railroads Build a Town: Early DaysJourneys to Winslow
In 1863, the United States government created the Arizona Territory from land it acquired during the Mexican-American War and the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo. Its northern region remained isolated and undeveloped until the railroad arrived. . . . Map (db m209689) HM
5 Arkansas, Pulaski County, Little Rock — 33 — Primrose CemeteryResting Place for Early Germanic Settlers
During the nineteenth century, waves of German-speaking immigrants settled in Pulaski County. Establishing themselves here as early as 1833, these families had a significant impact on the development of the area through their work as farmers, . . . Map (db m220389) HM
6 California, Alameda County, Alameda — TonarigumiAlameda’s Historic Japantown
Traces of Alameda Japantown Opening up shops on Park Street Traces of a small close-knit Japanese community remain, yet little is known of the Japantown that once thrived in Alameda. At the turn of the 20th century, Issei, first generation . . . Map (db m220123) HM
7 California, Alameda County, Hayward — A Chance EncounterUn Encuentro Casual
Near this site, an Ohlone man traveling along a well-worn path encountered a group of armed men riding large four-legged beasts. The man, having never seen such men or horses, was startled. To show that he would not resist or threaten them, he lay . . . Map (db m207584) HM
8 California, El Dorado County, Coloma — Changing Life for the Nisenan
In the years leading up to the Gold Rush, life changed dramatically for the Nisenan who called this valley home. Cullumah To the Nisenan, “Cullumah” was home. For generations, they thrived in the valley and mountains, building large . . . Map (db m214607) HM
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9 California, El Dorado County, Coloma — Fate Picks Marshall
Panel One: New Jersey-born James Wilson Marshall came to John Sutter’s fort at Sacramento in July 1845, just a year before the American conquest of California. Trained as a carpenter and wheelwright by his father, Marshall quickly found . . . Map (db m215533) HM
10 California, El Dorado County, Coloma — Unstoppable News
Caught up in the frenzied news about the gold discovery, thousand of gold seekers from all corners of the world flooded into Coloma. Fortune Seekers California’s gold fields offered boundless opportunity and the hop of a brighter future. . . . Map (db m214879) HM
11 California, Marin County, Tiburon — Arrivals from Around the World
The search for freedom and opportunities brings people to America. California has been a primary Pacific Coast destination since the 1800s. Between 1910 and 1940, about one million people from 80 countries were processed through the Angel Island . . . Map (db m203479) HM
12 California, San Francisco City and County, San Francisco, Lincoln Park — Port of San FranciscoCanoes, Clipper Ships & Steamers
From the native Ohlone and Miwok peoples’ tule reed canoes to today’s immense cargo ships, vessels have plied San Francisco Bay for many centuries. In 1775, the Spanish ship San Carlos sailed through the Golden Gate to become the . . . Map (db m210704) HM
13 California, San Mateo County, Montara, Montara State Beach — A Rich Native HistoryMontara State Beach
Remembering the First People of Montara Native Americans tell us they lived in their homelands since the creator placed them here. Archaeology confirms their presence for over 12,000 years. Over time they had to meet the challenges of changing . . . Map (db m229651) HM
14 California, San Mateo County, Redwood City — Alta California1795-1848
Spain claimed Alta California after its conquest of Mexico (1519-1521) When reports of British and Russian encroachment in Northern California began to circulate in the 1760s, Spain expanded its colonial settlements to defend the California . . . Map (db m206740) HM
15 California, San Mateo County, Redwood City — Mezesville1850-1900 — Stanford | Redwood City —
The discovery of gold at Sutter’s Fort in 1848 ushered in a period of rapid change in California as thousands of immigrants flooded into the state and the non-native population grew from 20,000 to 100,000 in one year. Mexico ceded California to . . . Map (db m206644) HM
16 California, Santa Clara County, Gilroy — GilroyA True Community
Settlers from many countries came to Gilroy and brought their traditions and skills with them, contributing to Gilroy’s growth and vitality. Germans Adam Riehl founded Gilroy Brewery and was one of Gilroy’s early City Mayors. The . . . Map (db m218874) HM
17 California, Santa Clara County, Hollister — Ancient Paths
California had an ancient system of Paths made by migrating herd as they searched for food and salt. Native Americans later used these trails to hunt, gather, and trade for survival. European colonists improved these roads as they settled here. The . . . Map (db m209016) HM
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18 California, Santa Clara County, Morgan Hill — Catherine O’Toole Murphy Dunne1828
Born in Wexford, Ireland, immigrated to Canada and in 1851 married Bernard Murphy in Quebec. Following his father, Martin Murphy Sr., the couple moved to California. She was widowed when there was a boiler explosion on the steamboat “Jenny Lind” . . . Map (db m213067) HM
19 California, Santa Clara County, Morgan Hill — Italian Immigrants1880
Italian immigrants came to Morgan Hill in the years of the great Mediterranean migration to the United States between 1880-1930. Their commitment to family, strong work ethic and passion to succeed laid the cultural foundation for a strong agrarian . . . Map (db m213167) HM
20 California, Santa Clara County, San Jose, History Park — Exodus and EntryFrom Vietnam to America
The Vietnam War (1964-75) was America's longest war. For the Vietnamese, the war had begun in 1945 with the fight for independence from French colonial rule. In that struggle, the U.S. supported the French forces. In 1975, South Vietnam's . . . Map (db m231601) HM
21 California, Sonoma County, Sonoma — The Count's Journey Maze
Marker One: Hidden within our maze are several private spaces; you may walk along our circuitous paths to find them. Inside these private spaces are signposts describing the astonishing life and journeys of Count Agoston Haraszthy, who . . . Map (db m231511) HM
22 Colorado, Denver County, Denver, Ballpark District — The Reverend Yoshitaka TamaiBorn October 10, 1900 - Died September 25, 1983.
A native of Toyama-ken, Japan, the Rev. Tamai came to Denver in June of 1930. He devoted the rest of his life - 53 years - to the spiritual, cultural and social needs of Buddhists in Colorado, Wyoming, Nebraska, Montana, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas . . . Map (db m231831) HM
23 Colorado, Weld County, Greeley — Immigration
Discovery of gold in the Rocky Mountains in 1859 lured thousands of prospectors to the area eventually known as the Colorado Territory. This first wave of fortune seekers triggered the development of farms, ranches, businesses, and railroads . . . Map (db m222040) HM
24 Connecticut, Fairfield County, Danbury — 27 — 19th & 20th Century ImmigrantsDanbury, Connecticut — The Museum in the Streets® —
The potato famine of 1846-1851 brought large numbers of Irish immigrants to town. Many purchased homes in the Town Hill neighborhood and St. Peter Church became a focal point for the community. Germans immigrants were the first major group . . . Map (db m71353) HM
25 Connecticut, Fairfield County, Danbury — 28 — Diversity in DanburyDanbury, Connecticut — The Museum in the Streets® —
The start of the 20th century saw a continual influx of newcomers to Danbury. A religious census taken in 1916 showed that 27 nationalities and 20 creeds were represented among the 22,533 residents of the town. The 1910 census shows that a . . . Map (db m71473) HM
26 Connecticut, Fairfield County, Westport — The Town of Westport, ConnecticutFounded in 1835
Indigenous people frequented this area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans in the 17th century. In 1637, native Paugussets were driven away after the Great Swamp Fight between the larger Pequot tribe and European colonizers. In . . . Map (db m226768) HM
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27 Connecticut, Hartford County, Hartford, Clay Arsenal — 29th Connecticut Volunteer Infantry Regiment
Between 1863 and 1865, nearly 1,700 men of color enlisted in the 29th Volunteer Infantry Regiment, Connecticut's first non-white military unit. The recruits came from a variety of racial and ethnic origins and professional backgrounds. A . . . Map (db m230467) HM
28 Connecticut, Hartford County, Hartford, Northeast — Black Heroes in Hartford: Reverend Collin B. BennettBusinessman, City Councilman, Priest — (1931 - 1998) —
Born in St. Andrew, Jamaica, he immigrated to Connecticut in 1951, where he opened a real estate and insurance company. Elected to Hartford's city council in 1965, he battled to assist low-income families in purchasing homes for eight years. . . . Map (db m230481) HM
29 Connecticut, Hartford County, Windsor Locks — Irish Immigrants Memorial
More than 400 Irish immigrants came to this area between 1827 and 1829 to build the canal next to where this park now stands. These brave people lived in makeshift camps and worked dawn until dusk in hard and dangerous conditions to build a . . . Map (db m208597) HM
30 Connecticut, New Haven County, New Haven, Downtown — The Dawn of Cycling🇫🇷 🇺🇸
In July of 1865 Pierre L'allement left his native France for America with the makings of a primitive iron bicycle in tow. That fall the 22-year-old mechanic settled in Ansonia about 12 miles west of here. The following April he rode his . . . Map (db m227297) HM
31 Connecticut, New London County, New London — Italian American Fountain
Given by the Italian American Community and its Friends to the City of New London in Memory of Those who came to America to Fulfill Their Hopes and Dreams May 3, 1987Map (db m217034) HM
32 Delaware, New Castle County, Wilmington — Gibbons House
The foremen of the Hagley Yard and their families lived in this house for more than 50 years, following its construction by the company in 1846. John Stewart and his family were photographed in front of the house in 1885, the year he succeeded . . . Map (db m231912) HM
33 Delaware, New Castle County, Wilmington, Brandywine Park — Armando Felix "Tantor" Hidalgo '63Nov. 20, 1943 - Jan. 16, 2010
In the human experience, nothing has the power to transcend political and cultural boundaries quite like sport. On September 10, 1962, Armando "Tantor" Hidalgo '63, one of the 21 Cuban emigres that attended Salesianum from 1960-64, took the field . . . Map (db m217914) HM
34 Delaware, New Castle County, Wilmington, Hedgeville — St. Hedwig's Church Bell
As the first century of our parish and the second millenium of our Catholic faith draw to a close we dedicate this bell which called the faithful to prayer for eight decades to our immigrant fathers and mothers who founded St. Hedwig . . . Map (db m217935) HM
35 Delaware, New Castle County, Wilmington, Hedgeville — St. Hedwig's R.C. Church408 Harrison Street
St. Hedwig's R.C. Church has been placed on the National Register of Historic Places November 12, 1982 Very Rev. Thomas F. Gardocki, Pastor Map (db m196475) HM
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36 Delaware, New Castle County, Wilmington, Little Italy — NC-180 — St. Anthony of PaduaRoman Catholic Church
By the late 1800s, the opportunities offered by Wilmington’s expanding economy made it a desirable destination for persons from Italy seeking freedom and prosperity. Settlement accelerated in the early 20th century, and in 1924, the Bishop of . . . Map (db m145724) HM
37 District of Columbia, Washington, Northwest Washington, Columbia Heights — 8 — Mount Pleasant: The Immigrants' Journey
Low cost housing in Mount Pleasant in the decades following World War II made it an ideal place for immigrants to the area. Refugees fleeing World War II and the Cold War in Eastern Europe were the first group to arrive. A small Czech community . . . Map (db m130866) HM
38 District of Columbia, Washington, Northwest Washington, Foggy Bottom — Risa PunoCommon Ground, 2017 — Wood and glass tiles, 21 × 21 × 2½ feet —
"I am interested in how interactivity and play help us understand how we relate to one another. I create disarmingly fun experiences allowing people to let down their boundaries and connect. By expressing my ideas through . . . Map (db m223817) HM
39 District of Columbia, Washington, Northwest Washington, Mount Pleasant — 7 — Twenty-seven Little FlagsVillage in the City — Mount Pleasant Heritage Trail —
Just like Mount Pleasant, Bancroft School is known for its ethnic and racial diversity. "at one of the spring fairs in the early 1970s, we asked people to bring native dishes, and I bought 27 little flags to mark the food," parent Gloria . . . Map (db m130872) HM
40 District of Columbia, Washington, Northwest Washington, Mount Vernon Square — Roots of Saint Sophia Greek Orthodox Cathedral / Remembering "the Village"Midcity at the Crossroads — Shaw Heritage Trail —
Roots of Saint Sophia Greek Orthodox Cathedral In 1904 members of Washington, DC's "Greek Colony" — mostly recently arrived immigrant men — held the city's first Greek Orthodox church service above a warehouse on Indiana . . . Map (db m130901) HM
41 District of Columbia, Washington, Northwest Washington, Park View — 16 — From Beer Garden to Park ViewLift Every Voice — Georgia Ave./Pleasant Plains Heritage Trail — Reported missing
"Innumerable colored Chinese lanterns ... shedding that dim uncertain light which is the delight of lovers and the poetry of beer drinking" — Washington Post, June 1879
Back when this area was open . . . Map (db m99221) HM
42 District of Columbia, Washington, Northwest Washington, Park View — 17 — The Next WaveLift Every Voice — Georgia Ave./Pleasant Plains Heritage Trail —
Caribbean immigrants discovered this stretch of Georgia Avenue in the 1940s, bringing island culture along with jerk chicken, curry, and coco bread. Many, like Eric Williams, who later led Trinidad and Tobago to independence in 1962, came to . . . Map (db m130769) HM
43 District of Columbia, Washington, Northwest Washington, Petworth — Immigrant Day of ResilienceBy Shirien Damra - 2021
This mural created by Shirien Damra and United We Dream commemorates the very first Immigrant Day of Resilience on April 15, 2021. On this day, we honor Edder, Joella, Satsuki, and the millions of resilient immigrants in the United States . . . Map (db m201675) HM
44 District of Columbia, Washington, Northwest Washington, Sheridan-Kalorama — Dr. Philip Jaisohn
서재필 선생 Philip Jaisohn 1864 - 1951 The First Korean American Pioneer for the Korean Independence and Democracy Philip Jaisohn loved his native land, Korea Shook it from its . . . Map (db m223330) HM
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45 District of Columbia, Washington, Northwest Washington, The National Mall — Deer's Tongue LettuceLactuca sativa Asteraceae — A Farmers' Market Favorite —
Deer's Tongue lettuce was brought to North America by English settlers in the mid-1700s. Because the leaves are delicate, they are not distributed commercially. It is best to grow this lettuce variety in a backyard garden or small farm.Map (db m211416) HM
46 District of Columbia, Washington, Northwest Washington, The National Mall — The German-American Friendship Garden
The German-American Friendship Garden 1683 - 1983 commemorates 300 years of German immigration and contributions to America and symbolizes the friendship between the German and American peopleMap (db m234006) HM
47 District of Columbia, Washington, Southeast Washington, Barney Circle — Gadsby Vault
Established in 1836 by hotelier John Gadsby, this structure was built to house many members of his family. An immigrant from England, Gadsby started his career in Alexandria in 1795. His reputation for fine hospitality was sealed at the City . . . Map (db m211921) HM
48 District of Columbia, Washington, Southwest Washington, Southwest Federal Center — Railroad Retirement1941 — granite —
Robert Kittredge (b. 1910, Cairo, Egypt - d. 2003, Oak Creek Canyon, Arizona)
In 1935, Congress passed the Railroad Retirement Act, providing unemployment insurance and pensions for America's railway workers, . . . Map (db m227330) HM
49 District of Columbia, Washington, Southwest Washington, Southwest Waterfront — History of SW / Buzzard Point
Emerging from master planner Pierre L'Enfant's District Plan completed in 1791, Southwest D.C. began largely as an industrial shipyard, with fishermen selling directly off their boats until the Municipal Fish Market was established. In the years . . . Map (db m213299) HM
50 Florida, Hillsborough County, Tampa, Downtown — Emiliano Jose (E.J.) Salcines
Born in West Tampa in 1938 to immigrants from Spain, Judge E.J. Salcines is widely admired for his professionalism and leadership in the administration of justice spanning almost fifty-five years. A graduate of Florida Southern College and South . . . Map (db m215682) HM
51 Florida, Marion County, Ocala — Marti City
Marti City, the center of Ocala’s tobacco industry, was a Cuban community of cigar makers, located 2 miles S.S.W. of this park. The Cubans worked with tobacco leaves that came from Cuba to Ocala through Jacksonville. Twenty cigar factories were . . . Map (db m212100) HM
52 Florida, Monroe County, Key West — Cuban Missile CrisisKey West — Florida Keys Historical Military Memorial
Cuban Missile Crisis Following the discovery of Russian nuclear missile installations in Cuba on October 15, 1962, large numbers of military troops and aircraft began arriving in Key West while destroyers and submarines in the harbor . . . Map (db m224166) HM WM
53 Florida, Monroe County, Key West — Maria Valdez Gutsens1861-1941 — Key West Historic Memorial Sculpture Garden —
In 1904, the beneficencia Cubana was organized for work among the Key West Cuban poor. In December, 1910, Maria Gutsens, Mrs Blanca Ferriol de Perez, Mrs. Carlotta Cenarro de Alayeto, Mrs. Maria Manas de Betancourt, Mrs. Esperanza La Fe, Mrs. . . . Map (db m223607) HM
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54 Florida, Monroe County, Key West — 26 — USCGC InghamKey West Art & Historical Society
This 327 foot long, 6,200 hp cutter with a crew of 300 served in World War II, Vietnam, and the Korean war. The Ingham received a record 35 awards and was the most decorated vessel of its time. During it's service December 15, 1942, the Ingham . . . Map (db m222494) HM WM
55 Florida, Pinellas County, Tarpon Springs — Faklis Department Store & Shoe Repair and Faklis Orthopedic Services139 East Tarpon Avenue — Since 1912 —
This one-part masonry vernacular commercial building is the home of one of Tarpon Springs’ oldest businesses, Faklis Department Store & Show Repair, which began in 1912 as a shoe repair shop. Vasile Faklis, who started the business, came to Tarpon . . . Map (db m216602) HM
56 Florida, Pinellas County, Tarpon Springs — F-1141 — Greektown Historic District
Side 1 In 2014, Tarpon Springs' Greektown was listed as a Historic District and Traditional Cultural Property on the National Register of Historic Places for its unique ethnic heritage and maritime character. Greektown is bounded by the Anclote . . . Map (db m215070) HM
57 Georgia, Richmond County, Augusta, Downtown Augusta — 121-26 — The Augusta Chinese and the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association中華公所
The second half of the nineteenth century saw increased Chinese immigration to the United States to meet the needs of large-scale labor projects. In 1873, Chinese laborers were contracted to expand the Augusta Canal. The Chinese Exclusion . . . Map (db m235779) HM
58 Illinois, Cook County, Chicago, Andersonville — Andersonville
Historien Om [the story of] The story of Andersonville begins as a cherry orchard In the 1850s and evolves throughout the years, adding several layers of identity: first as a Swedish settlement on the outskirts of . . . Map (db m235738) HM
59 Illinois, Cook County, Chicago, Ukrainian Village — Ukrainian VillageChicago Landmark District
This well-preserved collection of workers cottages, single-family houses, Chicago-style flat buildings, and small apartments form a distinctive residential streetscape that tells the story of German, Polish, and, ultimately, Ukrainian immigrants who . . . Map (db m234579) HM
60 Illinois, Cook County, Chicago, Ukrainian Village — Ukrainian VillageChicago Landmark District
This well-preserved collection of workers cottages, single-family houses, Chicago-style flat buildings, and small apartments form a distinctive residential streetscape that tells the story of German, Polish, and, ultimately, Ukrainian immigrants who . . . Map (db m234581) HM
61 Illinois, Cook County, Chicago, Wicker Park — Wicker ParkChicago Landmark District
Featuring a mix of elaborate residences built by affluent residents and more modest homes typical of the period, this community of German, Eastern European, and Scandinavian immigrants was home to merchants and labor activists alike in the late 19th . . . Map (db m233603) HM
62 Illinois, Jefferson County, Mount Vernon — Atkinson Cemetery
The Atkinson Cemetery was established March 11, 1875, by James Atkinson, who granted the land as a community burial ground. The first recorded burial (1843) was of Sarah A. Short, daughter of Thomas Jefferson and Martha "Patsy" (Maddux) Short. The . . . Map (db m236731) HM
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63 Illinois, Madison County, Granite City — The City of Granite CityEstablished 1896
Granite City grew up a mill town, drawing its expanding population from the flood of Central European immigrants who came to this new land with not much more than their heritage and optimism, in search of freedom and opportunity. Two German . . . Map (db m205771) HM
64 Illinois, Monroe County, Waterloo — Early Politicians
Colonel William R. Morrison One of Waterloo's most renowned and distinguished citizens was Colonel William R. Morrison, to whom the city owes its library. The library building at the corner of Library and Park Streets was Colonel . . . Map (db m219967) HM
65 Illinois, Monroe County, Waterloo — St. Paul United Church Of Christ
St. Paul United Church of Christ, of Waterloo, Illinois, had its beginning in 1846, in response to the formation of new denomination in Europe…a merger of many churches of German Reformed and Lutheran origin into the United Evangelical Church of . . . Map (db m220354) HM
66 Illinois, Monroe County, Waterloo — The Founding of Waterloo
The first French people came to Illinois during the seventeenth century because of political instability in France. The settlers took a trail from Kaskaskia to Cahokia called the "Hill Trail" Along this trail, just south of Waterloo, is a spring . . . Map (db m219731) HM
67 Illinois, Monroe County, Waterloo — The Moore Family
The Moore family left a distinguished mark on Waterloo's history. Some time after settlement at Bellefontaine had been made, Captain James Moore, having established to some degree amicable relations with the Indians, took steps toward . . . Map (db m219950) HM
68 Illinois, Randolph County, Prairie du Rocher — 1 — Prairie Du RocherHistoric Walking Trail
The historic village of Prairie du Rocher was established in 1722 by French settlers. It was named Prairie du Rocher, which means "Prairie of the Rocks", referencing the bluffs that surround the area. This area was an ideal place to settle due to . . . Map (db m224238) HM
69 Illinois, St. Clair County, Belleville — George Bunsen1794-1872 — Public Education Advocate —
Born in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, Bunsen fled to St. Clair County in 1834 after participating in a failed revolt. He farmed with other Latin Farmers and taught school. He was elected a delegate to the Illinois Constitutional Convention of 1847. . . . Map (db m208519) HM
70 Illinois, St. Clair County, Summerfield, Lebanon Township — Friedrich Franz Karl Hecker(1811-1881)
Born in Angelbachtal, Baden-Wurttemberg in present-day Germany, Hecker studied law at the University of Heidelberg. Hecker was one of the leaders who championed for democratic reforms in the 1848 uprisings in Germany. Like many other . . . Map (db m228249) HM
71 Illinois, Whiteside County, Fulton, Fulton Township — The Dutch on the River
Dutch culture is alive and well in Fulton. Fulton's Dutch heritage dates to its earliest days and the arrival of the first Dutch settlers. The First Arrivals In 1856, Thomas Smith became the first of many Dutch to settle in Fulton. . . . Map (db m230369) HM
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72 Illinois, Will County, Joliet — George Kiser, Iron Works laborerI&M Canal Passage
George Kiser, an African-American, moved to Joliet from Missouri in the early 1900s. A laborer at the Joliet Iron Works, he worked in noisy, hot and dangerous conditions. The mill employed workers from all over the world - migrants from the south . . . Map (db m158086) HM
73 Indiana, Dearborn County, Lawrenceburg, Lawrenceburg Township — German Methodist Episcopal ChurchDeutsche M.E. Kirche — 1860 —
1830's – Ger. immigrants began setting in Lawrenceburgh. 1839 – Congregation formed. Like many other early church groups they met in the old Methodist Episcopal Meeting House erected in 1821 on Walnut Street where the Liedertafel Hall now . . . Map (db m222851) HM
74 Indiana, Elkhart County, Elkhart — John F. Funk (1835-1930)
Elkhart became a major center for the Mennonite church after John and Salome Funk moved here from Chicago in 1867. He was founding pastor of Prairie Street Mennonite Church at this location in 1871. His Mennonite Publishing Company connected . . . Map (db m236149) HM
75 Indiana, Jefferson County, Madison — The Settling of Madison
Madison's history is filled with a wide variety of ethnic pioneers and settlers, including Jewish, Irish, German, French and African Americans, qualifying it as a true American melting pot. The first census of America taken in 1790 revealed that 77% . . . Map (db m206728) HM
76 Indiana, Marion County, Indianapolis, Bates-Hendricks — The South Side Turnverein Building
built c. 1900 renovated c. 2019 has been placed on the National Register of Historic Places by the United States Department of the InteriorMap (db m231771) HM
77 Indiana, Marion County, Indianapolis, Downtown — Independent Turnverein902 North Meridian Street
This property Independent Turnverein has been placed on the National Register of Historic Places by the United States Department of the Interior Map (db m132865) HM
78 Indiana, Vanderburgh County, Evansville, Star — Evansville's German Heritage
The first demographic waves of German immigrants occurred in the 1680s when they settled in Pennsylvania. In the nineteenth century, Germans continued to come to America in waves. Quite a few settled in this area between 1836 and 1840. The most . . . Map (db m226796) HM
79 Indiana, Vigo County, Terre Haute, Downtown — 84.2018.1 — Little Syria on the Wabash
In the early 1900s, Arabic speaking Christian Syrians established a community here, part of a movement of Middle Easterners contributing to the growth of cities in Indiana and U.S. Syrians began their lives in this city as poor pack peddlers . . . Map (db m226133) HM
80 Indiana, Wabash County, Wabash — Dr. James H. Ford / New Flour Exchange
Dr. James H. Ford Dr. James H. Ford erected 73 W. Canal in 1887. The first floor was his office and the second was a "carriage repository" for F.M. Beck's harness and buggy stock. Dr. Ford held a medical record in Indiana by assisting the . . . Map (db m215049) HM
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81 Indiana, Wayne County, Richmond — German Heritage
As German immigrants entered the United States in large numbers in the mid 19th century, many found their home in Richmond. Here, the city's trade and industrial opportunities offered a favorable climate for German residents looking to start a new . . . Map (db m232949) HM
82 Indiana, Wayne County, Richmond — Old Richmond
Located south of Richmond's historic downtown, the Old Richmond Historic District encompasses more than 200 acres and 500 buildings associated with the development of Richmond from 1819 to 1935. The district includes the land associated with the . . . Map (db m232950) HM
83 Iowa, Marion County, Pella — Dutch Influence on Today's Pella
In 1847, the Dutch band left their farms and homes in the Netherlands because they wanted to worship their own way, and they needed more economic opportunity. Their determination led them to this part of the Iowa prairie. For the first few years of . . . Map (db m236388) HM
84 Iowa, Marion County, Pella — 10 — Historic Pella
In the spring of 1847 four sailing vessels carrying 800 freedom-seeking Hollanders landed at Baltimore. They were met by Dominie Henry Peter Scholte, their faithful leader, who led them across the Alleghenies to Pittsburgh and down the Ohio and up . . . Map (db m235885) HM
85 Iowa, Marion County, Pella — Why the Dutch Left Their Homeland
The story of the Dutch emigration to Pella started in 1814 when article 133 was included in the first Constitution of the United Netherlands, stating: "The Christian Reformed Religion is that of the Sovereign." This (now called the Dutch Reformed . . . Map (db m236381) HM
86 Iowa, Winneshiek County, Decorah — Bethania ChurchHeritage Park, Vesterheim Norwegian-American Museum
Overview Many immigrants found community in churches where people spoke their language and held familiar beliefs. Women played very important roles in building community in Norwegian Lutheran churches, even though they were not allowed to vote . . . Map (db m236298) HM
87 Iowa, Winneshiek County, Decorah — Blacksmith ShopHeritage Park, Vesterheim Norwegian-American Museum
Overview Mikkel and Hage Sennes emigrated from Norway with a variety of skills that helped them eventually thrive in America. They also learned new skills once they settled in the U.S. They built this blacksmith shop on their farm in Minnesota . . . Map (db m236609) HM
88 Iowa, Winneshiek County, Decorah — Egge-Koren HouseHeritage Park, Vesterheim Norwegian-American Museum
Overview New immigrants often moved to existing ethnic communities where faith, food, and culture were familiar. Sometimes, these new immigrants would need to navigate shared living space and class differences with strangers along with living . . . Map (db m236297) HM
89 Iowa, Winneshiek County, Decorah — Haugan HouseHeritage Park, Vesterheim Norwegian-American Museum
Overview Hans and Anna Haugan were in their fifties when they immigrated to America. Not everyone who immigrated to America stayed. By some estimates, nearly one in five Norwegian immigrants returned home. Some left because they earned enough . . . Map (db m236300) HM
90 Iowa, Winneshiek County, Decorah — Norsvin MillHeritage Park, Vesterheim Norwegian-American Museum
Overview Nineteenth century Norwegian farmers grew food for their families instead of for income. Many farms in Norway used small water-powered mills to grind grain, press apples and process cloth. These mills were usually only big enough to . . . Map (db m236295) HM
91 Iowa, Winneshiek County, Decorah — Painter-Bernatz MillHeritage Park, Vesterheim Norwegian-American Museum
Overview Northeast Iowa was home to many different Native American groups that utilized the natural resources of this area for thousands of years. After Native Americans were forced out of the region by the U.S. government, European settlers . . . Map (db m236400) HM
92 Iowa, Winneshiek County, Decorah — Rovang SchoolhouseHeritage Park, Vesterheim Norwegian-American Museum
Overview In the mid-19th century, a group of Norwegian immigrants who followed the state church in Norway wanted to create a system of schools associated with the church. Congregation members wanted to send their children to public schools to . . . Map (db m236299) HM
93 Iowa, Winneshiek County, Decorah — StabburHeritage Park, Vesterheim Norwegian-American Museum
Overview Vesterheim was the first institution in the United States to collect and preserve buildings by moving them to a museum setting. The Eriksen-Hansen Stabbur protected grain and meat from pests and moisture by elevating them off the . . . Map (db m236399) HM
94 Iowa, Winneshiek County, Decorah — Stovewood HouseHeritage Park, Vesterheim Norwegian-American Museum
Overview Native Americans lived in northeast Iowa for thousands of years before being forced off their land by the U.S. government to make room for non-native settlers. Colonizers arrived in this area in 1848 and came from numerous countries in . . . Map (db m236608) HM
95 Iowa, Winneshiek County, Decorah — Tasa Drying ShedHeritage Park, Vesterheim Norwegian-American Museum
Overview Many buildings on farms in Norway were designed to serve one purpose. This building was probably used to dry grain for brewing beer. While many Norwegians and Norwegian Americans brewed their own beer, others fought for temperance. . . . Map (db m236672) HM
96 Iowa, Winneshiek County, Decorah — Valders HouseHeritage Park, Vesterheim Norwegian-American Museum
Overview Norway's population nearly tripled during the 19th century. This increase, combined with restrictive inheritance laws and lack of farmable land, made it extremely difficult to escape rural poverty. Most Norwegian immigrants were from . . . Map (db m236296) HM
97 Iowa, Winneshiek County, Decorah — VesterheimHeritage Park, Vesterheim Norwegian-American Museum
Look up to see sails. Look down and around you to see the outline of a small ship. Imagine what it would have been like to immigrate to the United States on a sailing ship in the 1800s. The journey may take 6 to 14 weeks. Why are you leaving your . . . Map (db m236682) HM
98 Iowa, Winneshiek County, Decorah — Welcome to VesterheimThe National Norwegian-American Musuem and Folk Art School
Vesterheim explores the diversity of American immigration through the lens of the Norwegian-American experience and showcases the best in historic and contemporary folk arts in the Norwegian tradition.
• World-class museum collection • . . . Map (db m236294) HM
99 Iowa, Winneshiek County, Decorah — Wickney HouseHeritage Park, Vesterheim Norwegian-American Museum
Overview The Homestead Act of 1862 made government land taken from Native Americans available for free if it was used for five years. This law allowed millions of European immigrants to settle in the prairies and woodlands of the central . . . Map (db m236673) HM
100 Kansas, Cloud County, Concordia — Mary Mullen Leikam Kraus Jacobs HardtAugust 20, 1899 - May 5, 1992 — Orphan Train Rider to Ellis County, Kansas, c. 1901 —
Mary Mullen was born to Mary Ann Mullen in 1899 in New York City. As an infant, she was taken to the New York Foundling Hospital, to be cared for by the Sisters of Charity. Soon, she was selected for placement in a Western home, and traveled to . . . Map (db m212528) HM

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Nov. 30, 2023