Created in 1818 by an act of
Alabama Territorial Legislature.
Autauga Indians lived on creek
from which the county takes its name.
Autaugas were members of the Alibamo tribe.
They sent many warriors to resist
Andrew Jackson's invasion in . . . — — Map (db m27907) HM
Tribute dedicated to the memory of the soldiers who gave their lives in the defense of our country here at Fort Morgan.
Here lies the pride of seven flags entombed in our ancestor’s worth, who heard the thunder of the fray . . . — — Map (db m4649) HM
"Damn the Torpedoes!" is a familiar battle cry, but there's more to the story! The Mobile Civil War Trail is your guide to military movements and the way of life on and around Mobile Bay in the closing two years of the Civil . . . — — Map (db m87247) HM
After the surrender of Fort Gaines, U.S. General Gordon Granger prepared to besiege Fort Morgan. On August 9, 1864, he moved by transport to Navy Cove and debarked 2,000 men and his siege equipment at the Pilot Town wharf. By 2:00 p.m. he had . . . — — Map (db m87246) HM
This smoothbore, muzzle-loading cannon was one of the
main coast defense weapons in the United States' arsenal when Fort Morgan was completed in 1834. With an eight pound charge of powder the gun could fire a 32 pound solid iron shot about one . . . — — Map (db m87245) HM
6.4” (100 pounder) Parrott Rifle
Designed by Robert Parker Parrott at the outbreak of the Civil War, the Parrott Rifle became one of the most used rifled artillery pieces during the war. With shells that exploded on impact, rifled . . . — — Map (db m69898) HM
Constructed between 1899 and 1900, the battery was named in honor of Major General Henry Dearborn, a Revolutionary War hero. The battery mounted eight 12” breech-loading mortars. Each mortar weighed 13 tons and was 11’ 9” long. The . . . — — Map (db m69919) HM
Battery Schenck, named for First Lieutenant William Schenck who was killed in action during the Philippine Insurrection, was the second rapid fire battery constructed at Fort Morgan. Completed on June 4, 1900, the battery would sit without guns for . . . — — Map (db m70058) HM
The first of two rapid fire gun batteries, Battery Thomas was named in honor of Captain Evan Thomas, 4th U.S. Artillery, who was killed in action with the Modoc Indians at Lava Beds, California in 1873.
In March 1898, as the nation moved . . . — — Map (db m69826) HM
The Citadel, a large ten sided brick and wood structure, once dominated the Fort’s parade ground. Completed in 1825 as a defensive barracks, it was capable of housing 400 soldiers.
During the Union bombardment on August 22, 1864, the pine . . . — — Map (db m68751) HM
At, or near, this site, the United States, after seizing this point of land from the Spanish in 1813, built Fort Bowyer, a structure of wood and sand.
A small garrison of men courageously fought to defend the fort against two British attacks, one . . . — — Map (db m104017) HM
When Fort Morgan was modified between the 1890’s and early 1900’s, an allocation of $7,000.00 was made to build a “Peace” magazine. This building was the central storage area for the powder used by the fort’s guns. If war was expected, . . . — — Map (db m69917) HM
Eager to attack Mobile Bay since 1862, U. S. Admiral David Farragut knew he could not capture control of the lower bay without the support of the army and without a flotilla of ironclad monitors to confront the Confederate ironclad CSS . . . — — Map (db m68815) HM
The Citadel, a large ten sided brick and wood structure, once dominated the Fort’s parade ground. Capable of housing 400 soldiers, it served as a defensive barracks for the Fort’s garrison.
During the Union bombardment of Fort Morgan on August . . . — — Map (db m92994) HM
To Wait and Watch
In late August 1864 the Federals controlled Mobile Bay but could not attack Mobile. Admiral Farragut could not reach the city even with his light draft vessels, because the channels in the upper Bay had been obstructed. . . . — — Map (db m69909) HM
The U.S. Model 1918M1 155mm Gun, more commonly known as the “G.P.F.”, was a French heavy artillery piece manufactured in the U.S. for use by the U.S. Army during World War I. Due to the gun’s mobility and hitting power, it was used . . . — — Map (db m69910) HM
This earthen mound was part of a redoubt constructed by the 1st Division, U.S. Colored Troops in April, 1865. The regiment saw considerable action against Confederate warships protecting the Blakely River. These earthworks have been preserved as a . . . — — Map (db m100853) HM
Capt. Cuthbert Slocomb of the 5th Company, Washington Artillery of New Orleans, commanded Redoubt No. 3, also known as Battery Blair,
consisted of one 8-inch Columbiad, two 12-pound Napoleons, one 3-inch ordinance rifle, and . . . — — Map (db m100871) HM
Also called the Sandbag Battery, Redoubt No. 5 was originally commanded by Lt. Andrew Hargrove of Lumsden's Tuscaloosa Battery, Company F, 2nd Alabama Light Artillery Battalion. During the early stages of the battle, Lumsden's . . . — — Map (db m100875) HM
From this Confederate Fort 15 heavy artillery guns, repelled elements of 2 Union Army Corps, routed 5 ironclad monitors attacking up the Blakely River and for 13 days helped prevent the capture of Mobile until after General Lee's Surrender at . . . — — Map (db m100911) HM
Highest point along 2 miles of Confederate battle lines extending east and north. Here 200 soldiers from Georgia, Louisiana & Arkansas, held off a numerically superior Union Force for thirteen days and nights in the last battle of the War Between . . . — — Map (db m100913) HM
Dedicated to the men of the Confederate States of America who valiantly fought for our American liberties, "Governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed... whenever any form of government becomes . . . — — Map (db m100936) HM
Built of red clay, armed with 12 heavy guns and served by 307 crack
Confederate Artilleryman from Batteries Perry (Tenn.) Phillips (Tenn.) Lumsden (Ala.) and Garrity (Mobile, Ala.). It was the keystone in the defense of Spanish Fort, 1865. — — Map (db m100868) HM
During the Revolutionary War, France, Spain, Britain, and the United States were interested in the fate of this region. In March 1780, Spanish forces captured Mobile. They established a palisaded fort with trenches (one mile north of here) to . . . — — Map (db m61451) HM
Rendezvous for Indians, Spanish, French and English Explorers. In 1865, Three Confederate Brigades, outnumbered 10 to 1, engaged the Army of West Mississippi (Union Forces) in the last battle of the War Between the States. March 26~April 9, 1865. — — Map (db m100844) HM
In 1813, people on the United State’s southwestern frontier were fearful. The Redstick faction of the Creek Indian Nation opposed growing American influence in the area and had voted for war. However, Creeks living in the Tensaw . . . — — Map (db m66394) HM
Here in Creek Indian War 1813-14 took place most brutal massacre in American history.
Indians took fort with heavy loss, then killed all but about 36 of some 550 in the fort.
Creeks had been armed by British at Pensacola in this phase . . . — — Map (db m86293) HM
Approximately one mile south-southwest of here stood Fort Browder, a small wooden fortification built in 1836 for protection in the last war with the Creek Indians and named for Isham Browder, a prominent . . . — — Map (db m60895) HM
The Butler Massacre
On March 20, 1818, Capt. William Butler, Capt. James Saffold, William Gardener, Daniel Shaw and John Hinson left Fort Bibb to meet Col. Sam Dale. They were attacked near Pine Barren Creek by Savannah . . . — — Map (db m83259) HM
One hundred feet east was one site where "The Trail of Tears" began. On May 23, 1838 the Indians of this general area, who had been held in a chestnut log stockade after being gathered by the U.S. Army, began their long trek to Oklahoma.
The . . . — — Map (db m114398) HM
Near this site, is the gravesite of Maj. Jeremiah Austill, folk hero & prominent figure in the early settlement of Clarke County. Born in 1794 in S. C., he lived, along with his parents, Capt. Evan and Sara Austill, among the . . . — — Map (db m101588) HM
This marks the site of pioneer stockade
commanded by Captains Sam Dale and
Evan Austill. Choctaw Chieftain
Pushmattaha often here. Expedition
terminating in noted Canoe Fight on
Alabama River immediately east of
this site, was . . . — — Map (db m101566) HM
Site of Fort Warren, built in 1816 by Colonel Richard Warren, who owned considerable land in this vicinity. This facility was used as a refuge for settlers who feared for their lives in the early days of the aftermath of the Creek Indian Wars of . . . — — Map (db m47689) HM
By 6pm General James H. Wilson had moved the 4th U.S. Cavalry, down Summerfield Road through the outer works and had ordered Captain Robinson of the Chicago Board of Trade Battery to do the same. After the main assault most of the regiments of . . . — — Map (db m81930) HM
Redoubt No. 15 located just to the west of Summerfield Road was defended by Colonel Pinson's 1st Mississippi Cavalry Regiment of Anderson's Brigade. Their 400 men held positions on the west side of the road and the rest of . . . — — Map (db m81925) HM
The Lightening Brigade of the 2nd Division would spearhead the attack between Redoubts No. 13 - No. 16. Artillery covered all the approaches. At 5 p.m. General Long ordered the Second Division forward. "As Long's Second Division charged . . . — — Map (db m83682) HM
In 1837 Federal Troops arrived in this area to select a fort location for the collection, holding and removal of the Cherokee. Part of a much larger compound, this site contained a cabin seized by the troops for use as part of the fort. Today a . . . — — Map (db m100286) HM
The fort, consisting of a log house and large stockade, was built in 1838 by order of General Winfield Scott, commander of military forces responsible for the removal of Cherokee Indians.
Soldiers occupying the fort were commanded by Captain . . . — — Map (db m28030) HM
At this site stood Fort Toulouse,
later Fort Jackson, named in honor of
Gen. Andrew Jackson
March 27, 1814,
defeated the Creek Indians in a
decisive battle at Horseshoe Bend.
Peter Forney Chapter D.A.R. . . . — — Map (db m69705) HM
Fort Crawford was established in 1816 by elements of the 7th U.S. Infantry under orders from Major General Andrew Jackson. Purpose was to monitor Spanish activities in West Florida and curtail hostile Creek Indian activities.
Named after . . . — — Map (db m84373) HM
The frontier village of Franklin was established here by Colonel Robert Irwin in 1814 on the site of the Indian town of Cheeska Talofa. It was the first colonial village in east Alabama. Fort Gaines, Georgia, was constructed in 1816 to protect the . . . — — Map (db m71844) HM
Alabama’s Winter Waterfowl
The Tennessee River Valley is the winter home for thousands of waterfowl. These birds migrate from across the northern US and Canada down through the center of the continent to the Tennessee River.
Careful . . . — — Map (db m106298) HM
The United States flag that flies at the base of this hill stands as a sentry over the site that was the home of Fort Willingham Armory from 1937-1979. The Armory was named after Dr. Henry J. Willingham, president of Florence State . . . — — Map (db m83987) HM
Following the signing of the Creek Treaty in 1832, the early white settlers constructed a 16 by 30 foot hand hewn log fort for protection against a possible Indian uprising from Cussetaw Indian Village on Osanippa Creek just north of here. Walls of . . . — — Map (db m71643) HM
Fort Henderson Built on this site in 1863 by federal forces occupying Athens. It was a five-sided earthen fort with some frame buildings and underground bomb-proofs. Abatis lined the fifteen-foot deep perimeter ditch, a small portion of which . . . — — Map (db m41787) HM
This cistern is the last remnant of Trinity School located here 1865-1907. The cistern was used to store rainwater collected from the roof. No physical evidence remains of the Ross Hotel, the Chapman Quarters, and other buildings on this block, . . . — — Map (db m72219) HM
On Sept. 25, 1864 Gen. N.B. Forrest's Confederate cavalry, with Morton's battery of 4 guns, attacked and captured the Union fort near here. The fort consisted of a square redoubt, rifle pits, two blockhouses, and some frame buildings. It protected a . . . — — Map (db m60870) HM
Side A (North side) In the fall of 1806 a group of settlers led by William and James Sims, traveled from east Tennessee on flatboats down the Tennessee River and up the Elk River to this area. They landed near Buck Island and spread out . . . — — Map (db m85454) HM
Fort Louis de la Louisiane
Founded 1702 by
Pierre Le Moyne d’Iberville
Under orders of Louis XIV
First Capital of French Louisiana
Fort . . . — — Map (db m70588) HM
The Confederates built Fort Powell on Tower Island, an oyster shell bank fifty feet north of Grant's Pass. The Pass provided an easy route from Mobile Bay to New Orleans through Mississippi Sound. C.S. Lieutenant Colonel James M. Williams, only . . . — — Map (db m87239) HM
Once Farragut was in the Bay, capture of Fort Gaines and Powell would prevent his isolation there. So at 4:00 pm, August 3, 1864, 1,500 soldiers commanded by U.S. General Edward Canby (but under the operational direction of General Gordon . . . — — Map (db m87219) HM
At 7:25 a.m., August 5, 1864, Admiral Farragut’s lead monitor Tecumseh steered into the torpedo field at the mouth of Mobile Bay. The admiral had ordered Commander Tunis Craven, the Tecumseh’s captain, to engage the ram . . . — — Map (db m87234) HM
This anchor came from the U.S.S. Hartford, Admiral Farragut's flagship during the Civil War "Battle of Mobile Bay" in August of 1864. It was there that he uttered the now famous words, "Damn the Torpedoes—Full Speed Ahead!" — — Map (db m87244) HM
To Wait and Watch
In late August 1864 the Federals controlled Mobile Bay but could not attack Mobile. Admiral Farragut could not reach the City even with his light draft vessels, because the channels in the upper Bay had been obstructed. . . . — — Map (db m87243) HM
Manufactured at Tredegar Iron Works
This cannon was used by Alabama Confederate Forces in the
defense of Mobile during the War for Southern Independence
It was mounted at Ft. Powell, guarding . . . — — Map (db m86727) HM
Ill. 76th Vol. Inf.
of our Heroes
Who Fell at
Fort Blakely, Ala.
April 9, 1865
2nd Brig. 2nd Div.
13th Army Corps.
William T. Duke • Micajah S. Moore • William Crimes • George H. Hopkins • George . . . — — Map (db m86870) WM
Since colonial rulers were unable to attract large numbers of settlers to Mobile, the Port City’s population remained small and never grew above 500. Because the majority of Mobile’s population was military personnel, the city was built around the . . . — — Map (db m87207) HM
Spain, America's ally, declared war on Great Britain in June 1779. Bernardo de Galvez, governor of Spanish Louisiana at New Orleans, led the attack against the British along the lower Mississippi River and Gulf Coast. In February 1780, Galvez laid . . . — — Map (db m86355) HM
Site three miles east. Border fort and port of entry into the United States while the 31st parallel was the southern border. Aaron Burr was held prisoner here after capture near McIntosh in 1807. — — Map (db m70592) HM
In 1811, the Mount Vernon Cantonment, located on a hill about three miles west of the Mobile River, was laid out by Col. Thomas H. Cushing. The cantonment was on the site of a spring called Mount Vernon Springs. In 1814, the garrison at Mt. Vernon . . . — — Map (db m85911) HM
Built by Gen. Ferdinand L. Claiborne as a base for his invasion of the Alabama country with U.S. Regulars, Lower Tombigbee Militia, and friendly Choctaws. Claiborne’s campaign culminated in the American victory over the Creeks at the Holy Ground. — — Map (db m47641) HM
Piache, an Indian town visited by DeSoto in 1540 was near here.
DeLuna made a settlement here, Nanipacna in 1560.
Fort Claiborne was erected on the south bluff, in 1813.
LaFayette was entertained here, 1825.
. . . — — Map (db m47639) HM
Decatur played a key role in the Federal defenses of the vital rail lines in North Alabama. These defenses were configured in a three-tiered system. First, a number of lightly armored gunboats, constructed on the Tennessee River and nicknamed . . . — — Map (db m86476) HM
As Hood’s Army of Tennessee encircled Decatur, sharpshooters advanced upon the Union defenses. Colonel Doolittle’s men responded with heavy artillery and musket fire. During the early afternoon of October 27, the Confederates approached the Federal . . . — — Map (db m28241) HM
Built during Creek War 1813 by Georgia Militia on main Indian trade route to Tombigbee River.
U.S. Troops stationed here until 1837. 1836 Lower Creeks corralled here for forced removal to the West. — — Map (db m26069) HM
This military graveyard was established soon after Fort Mitchell was built by General John Floyd of the Georgia Militia. Located just south of the stockade, the cemetery was used between 1813 and 1840 during the fort's occupation by Georgia and . . . — — Map (db m26122) HM
Approximately one mile due east of this marker, back down the Old Federal Road, called by frontiersmen and Indians the Three Notched Trail or the Three Chopped Way, stood Fort Mitchell, an early 19th century American fort that in 1836 was one of the . . . — — Map (db m26100) HM
East of here, on the Chattahoochee River, was the "fort among the Apalachicolas," most northern of the Spanish settlements in eastern North America. A palisaded "strong house" built by Captain Enrique Primo de Rivera to check activities of English . . . — — Map (db m101252) HM
Russell County occupies land that once sat at the heart of the Creek Nation. Within the county's boundaries were several important Creek towns, many of which would figure prominently in the Creek and Seminole Wars era and the saga of Removal. . . . — — Map (db m111596) HM
1736: First settlement by French at Ft. Tombecbee.
1830: U.S. got Choctaw Indian lands by Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek.
1832: County created by Act of State Legislature -- named for Gen. Thomas Sumter, "The Gamecock," South . . . — — Map (db m92663) HM
Built in 1735 by British from Carolina in futile attempt to gain trade of the Creek Indians from the French, located at Fort Toulouse, 40 mi. S. Okfuskee was the largest town in Creek Confederacy. — — Map (db m22232) HM
Commemorating the Founders
World War II Veterans
and their families
who bought Fort Wm. H. Seward in 1947
and pioneered their futures here.
Steve Homer • Ted and Mimi Gregg • Carl and Betty Heinmiller • Marty and . . . — — Map (db m70803) HM WM
There are two markers on a single kiosk
Apache Pass is a low divide separating the massive Chiricahua Mountains from the Dos Cabezas Mountains. This landscape formed a rugged corridor through which people and goods were moved. The Pass . . . — — Map (db m100810) HM
Pottery fragments found around Apache Spring suggest it was used by prehistoric Mogollon Indians before the Apache arrived. Journals of early Spanish explorers described Apache trails radiating from the spring. The Butterfield Trail was constructed . . . — — Map (db m100823) HM
This massive adobe structure was among the earliest built at the new fort. By the mid-1880s, it had a shingled and pitched roof, attractive porches, kerosene lamps, and landscaping. The kitchen was behind the barracks; the mess hall adjacent.
. . . — — Map (db m100998) HM
Palatable food during the fort's early days was a constant problem; the soil was poor quality, lacking nutrients, and other sources of fresh food were distant. Though neighboring ranches supplied some vegetables and meats, they were still a day's . . . — — Map (db m100956) HM
The fort's most elaborate structure, a two story, Victorian-style mansion, was built in 1884-1885 for about $4,000.00. An expensive home at that time! Among its thirteen rooms (originally designed as a duplex) were a drawing room, a sewing room with . . . — — Map (db m101000) HM
Enlisted infantrymen found that privacy was not a feature of barracks life. Privates and corporals bunked together in the main room; sergeants occupied small adjoining rooms.
Each soldier stored his military gear and personal belongings on a . . . — — Map (db m101002) HM
Mining activity in Apache Pass started when members of the California Volunteers discovered a, “...gold and quartz bearing ledge...” in 1864. The “Harris Lode” as it became to be known, was later developed by the Apache Pass . . . — — Map (db m100811) HM
Established 1862 following the Battle of Apache Pass, largest conflict in Arizona Indian Wars. Massed Apaches under Cochise and Mangas Coloradas were routed by howitzers fired by California Volunteers attacked in the pass. Fort Bowie overlooked only . . . — — Map (db m6994) HM
The Post Cemetery predated the establishment of Fort Bowie, when soldiers of the California Column were interred here in 1862. The area was unfenced until 1878, when a four-foot adobe wall was erected to protect the graves from desecration by post . . . — — Map (db m68858) HM
The equivalent of the modern army post exchange, the post trader offered for sale items not supplied by the army – toilet articles, sewing supplies, tobacco, medicinal cure-alls, fresh vegetables, canned fruits, and a wide variety of . . . — — Map (db m101003) HM
This frame building with a shingled roof was constructed in 1883 to enlarge the storage space available to the quartermaster. The original adobe storehouse, built in 1868, is immediately to the south.
The post quartermaster and his staff . . . — — Map (db m100954) HM
Two years after the 1872 peace agreement with Cochise, the great Apache chief died. Several hundred Chiricahuas were relocated on the San Carlos Indian Reservation. However, Geronimo and over a hundred of his followers escaped the roundup, to begin . . . — — Map (db m100953) HM
Lt. John A. Rucker, 6th Cav. U.S.A. perished in proximity in flooded White River July 11, 1878 attempting to save life of Lt. Austin Henely
Also on this site 1884-1943 ranch headquarters of Gray - Hampe - Rak — — Map (db m42057) HM
Camp Supply served as the base for two companies of Indian Scouts: Company C commanded by 2nd Lieutenant John A. Rucker, and Company D led by 1st Lieutenant Austin Henely. Each Company included between 32 and 40 Scouts who enlisted for 6 months at a . . . — — Map (db m42080) HM
Situated on the southern route to the Pacific Ocean, it brought law and order to the Arizona Territory, protecting settlers, miners, travelers and immigrants. Its troops won the surrender of Geronimo. Generals Pershing and Wood served here.
As . . . — — Map (db m27897) HM
Under the direction of General George Crook this trail was built in the early 1870's. Starting at Fort Whipple, it winds down to Fort Verde then eastward across the Mogollon Rim to Fort Apache covering 200 miles. It was used as a supply route by . . . — — Map (db m67419) HM
Under the direction of General George Crook this trail was built in the early 1870's. Starting at Fort Whipple, it winds down to Fort Verde then eastward across the Mogollon Rim to Fort Apache covering 200 miles. It was used as a supply route by . . . — — Map (db m67420) HM
This important military post protected central Arizona settlements from the Tonto Apaches during the Indian wars 1865-1886. Its function as a military post ended in 1890 and it became a reservation by executive order, September 15, 1909 as home of . . . — — Map (db m27681) HM
An adobe-walled refuge against Apaches
Built by the Lehi Pioneers of March 6, 1877
First Mormon colonists in central or southern Ariz.
Daniel W. Jones
• Harriet E. Jones
• Daniel P.
• Wiley C.
• Edwin . . . — — Map (db m49930) HM
Western anchor of a military road across Northern Arizona. Near here in 1858 Beale's camel expedition was ferried across the Colorado River on the steamer General Jessup. The fort was abandoned at the start of the Civil War. Was activated again in . . . — — Map (db m32207) HM
This camp, established March 25, 1871 by Company F, 12th Infantry commanded by Capt. Thomas Bryne, was located at a spring used by Indians for centuries. It was named for Navy Lt. Edward F Beale who established a wagon road along the 35th parallel. . . . — — Map (db m29411) HM
Built of adobe bricks in 1876, this is the third oldest surviving building at Fort Apache. Originally the Adjutant's Office (administrative office) of the post, it also served variously as post headquarters, military Post Office, telegraph office, . . . — — Map (db m36799) HM
The Club House was constructed by the Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1930 to provide housing and kitchen facilities for unmarried teachers employed at the Theodore Roosevelt School. The building was later converted to a clubhouse for use by the school . . . — — Map (db m36784) HM
These ruins represent the last surviving enlisted men's barracks, on the east end of Barracks Row. Much like Officer's Row defined the north side of the Parade Ground, Barracks Row made up the south side. This adobe barracks was one of two completed . . . — — Map (db m36874) HM
Throughout the military history of Fort Apache, enlisted men were housed with their units to the south of Officers' Row. The first company quarters, completed in February 1871, were 18 by 20 foot log squad huts built in rows running north and south . . . — — Map (db m36807) HM
The Boys' Dormitory was constructed in 1932. Located on the east end of the fort's Parade Ground, it is on the site of earlier military structures including a telegraph office. Sandstone was quarried for the building's construction from a site about . . . — — Map (db m36875) HM
An 1891 fire, sparked by a defective chimney and fanned by high winds, destroyed five sets of wood frame officers' quarters that had been constructed in this area between 1883 and 1886.
Using sandstone quarried just east of the Fort, these two . . . — — Map (db m36779) HM
A classic Victorian mansion, this building clearly represents some of the Army's architectural motivations. Recognizing the difficulties for officers and their families of being assigned to remote posts, the Army built homes such as this one to . . . — — Map (db m36782) HM
Built in 1889 to replace a smaller adobe structure, the Commissary Storehouse served as the Fort's food storage and distribution point until its closure in 1922. A solid building, the storehouse includes a stone cellar that extends three-fourth of . . . — — Map (db m36804) HM
This log cabin is the oldest surviving building at Fort Apache. The westernmost of a series of eight log cabins built in 1871 to form Officers' Row, this cabin was designated the Commanding Officer's Quarters. It was originally an 18 by 20 foot log . . . — — Map (db m36778) HM
This stone guard house was built around 1891 to replace the earlier, bed-bug infested structure still standing about 300 feet to the west of this site. Placed near the original main entrance to the fort, this building provided housing for guards and . . . — — Map (db m36805) HM
Constructed in 1888 in the architectural style of Fort Apache's Officers' Row, these residences housed junior officers or non-commissioned officers and their families.
Like other quarters on the east end of Officers' Row, these residences were . . . — — Map (db m36800) HM
This frame officer's quarters in the only one of seven built between 1883 and 1886 to have survived without significant modifications. Like many of the post's residences, it was built around a large central hallway that runs the length of the house. . . . — — Map (db m36794) HM
These three officers' quarters were constructed between 1883 and 1888 to house junior officers and their families. With clipped-corner porches and symmetrical front elevations, these quarters reflect the architectural style established by the . . . — — Map (db m36796) HM
The first guardhouse at Fort Apache was built of logs and located on this site. In 1876, this stone building – the second oldest surviving structure on the post – was constructed to replace the original log structure. It was replaced as . . . — — Map (db m36806) HM
This large open field between Officers' Row and the enlisted men's Barracks Row was used by the army for drill practice, training, and review. When called to action, troops would assemble here prior to departure. It also provided a prime location . . . — — Map (db m36781) HM
This house was constructed by the Bureau of Indian Affairs around 1930 to house Theodore Roosevelt School teachers and families. It deviates in style, though not in size, from the typical Officers' Row quarters.
Initially the house had a flat . . . — — Map (db m36803) HM
Camp Lowell was established at this location in 1866 by the U.S. Army in recognition of the strategic military importance of Tucson. The local populace was fearful of Apaches, and the camp provided military protection as well as bringing financial . . . — — Map (db m83013) HM
From here west to the intersection of Craycroft and Fort Lowell Roads stood 2 cavalry barracks, 20 by 145 feet, and 1 band barracks, 20 by 92 feet. The 21 troops of the 2nd, 4th, 5th, and 6th cavalry regiments lived here. The band barracks housed . . . — — Map (db m100691) HM
Planted shortly after Fort Lowell was established in 1873. The trees were irrigated by acequias or open ditches with water diverted from Pantano Wash. The beautiful shade trees made Fort Lowell an oasis in an otherwise barren area. After the fort . . . — — Map (db m26197) HM
The military post, established in 1862
near downtown Tucson, was moved to
this location in 1873. One of many
active forts on the Arizona frontier,
Lowell served also as a major supply
depot, influencing the economy and
social life of the . . . — — Map (db m83031) HM
Largest of the early Arizona military installations
this was the supply base for military posts in southern Arizona during the long warfare against the Apaches. Built in 1873, it was Gen. Nelson A. Miles' headquarters in the final campaign against . . . — — Map (db m83032) HM
The army originally established Camp Lowell in 1866 on the outskirts of Tucson. Because of unsanitary conditions there, in 1873 the army moved the post here, 7 miles northeast of Tucson. Fort Lowell, so designated in 1879, boasted four companies of . . . — — Map (db m100687) HM
The nerve center of Fort Lowell was the 56-by-56-foot adobe building. The post commander and post adjutant made their offices here. When the regimental commander and his staff were on post, they lived in the building. It . . . — — Map (db m100693) HM
The infantry barracks (no longer in existence) were 75 feet north of the hospital. The one-story building, like all of the barracks at Fort Lowell, had walls 20 inches thick, a dirt roof, and a wooden porch. The barracks were 20 feet wide and 145 . . . — — Map (db m100689) HM
The main gate of the presidio was located near what is now Alameda Street, just north of this spot. The gate was built from mesquite timbers and had a platform above, where a guard stood watch. In the late 1860's, the families of Milton Duffield, . . . — — Map (db m83204) HM
The officers of Fort Lowell and their families lived in 7 adobe homes-officers' row. During peak periods of military activity, up to three families lived in each building. After 1889, two smaller houses for married non-commissioned officers were . . . — — Map (db m100712) HM
The post surgeon was the cornerstone of army medical care. He was either a medical officer or a local civilian. At Fort Lowell, 21 men served in this capacity, assisted by enlisted hospital stewards. The surgeon maintained the health of all military . . . — — Map (db m100688) HM
For about 80 years, the adobe walls of the Tucson Presidio protected the residents of the area from attacks by Apache groups, who opposed Spanish and Mexican peoples and their native allies beginning in the 1600s. The Spanish military designated the . . . — — Map (db m83211) HM
This marker locates the northwest corner of the adobe wall which surrounded the Royal Spanish Presidio San Agustín del Tucson. In 1776 the new outpost was garrisoned by seventy Spanish cavalry troopers and Indian scouts, transferred from Tubac under . . . — — Map (db m83212) HM
Fort Lowell was a major supply depot for forts around southern Arizona Territory. The Quartermaster and Commissary Depot in on private property directly west, across Craycroft Road and north of Fort Lowell Rd. The Quartermaster Department supplied . . . — — Map (db m100692) HM
Excavations beneath this lawn in 1998 located the west adobe wall of the Tucson Presidio and a portion of the presidio blacksmith shop. The tower at the southwest corner remains buried beneath the nearby city hall parking lot. Soldiers stood guard . . . — — Map (db m83230) HM
This statue was erected in February 1991 to honor the enlisted men who served in the Southwest during the Apache Wars in the 1870s and 1880s. It was cast in bronze by Desert Crucible, Inc., of Tucson. One and one-half times life-size, it stands . . . — — Map (db m100695) HM WM
The flagstaff has been the one constant feature of all military establishments since the creation of the U.S. Army in 1784.No matter what era or architectural style, the flagstaff has remained at the center of the parade ground and at the center of . . . — — Map (db m100713) HM
Dedicated to the enduring memory of the men and women who faithfully served in the military forces of the United States of America and in grateful acknowledgment of their contribution to this nation, which in time of peril, found in them its . . . — — Map (db m28932) HM
A military camp established in Nogales, Arizona, in November of 1910, was for a generation an integral part of the economic and social life of the community. The post was renamed on December 14, 1915, for Private Little killed in action during the . . . — — Map (db m81716) HM
Originally an Indian village, Tubac is the oldest European settlement in Arizona. It was established as the Royal Spanish Presidio San Ignacio de Tubac in 1752, after an uprising of Pima Indians. In 1775 Captain Juan Bautista de Anza led an . . . — — Map (db m27119) HM
Here stood the original Spanish presidio or fort established as San Ignacio de Tubac after the Pima uprising of 1751. Captain Juan Bautista de Anza was in command in 1775, when he led his famous expedition to California to found San Francisco. The . . . — — Map (db m68026) HM
The oldest settlement in the Verde Valley. Site of historic Fort Verde. The first settlers came into the valley in February, 1865, followed by the military in August, 1865. Original military and historic buildings still stand. — — Map (db m40814) HM
The Mythology of a Western Fort
Fort Verde is typical of western forts built in the 1870's and 1880's but our vision of forts comes from movies. Log stockades with towers and John Wayne fearlessly firing his rifle at attacking Indians. The . . . — — Map (db m40815) HM
A farming community of perhaps 200 people prospered here for more than three centuries. The Castle was home to 35 or so of these people. Archeologists suggest they may have fled what is today the Flagstaff area due to overpopulation around A.D. . . . — — Map (db m40840) HM
Here’s another “castle” – this one called “A” by the archeologists who excavated it in the 1930s.
Like neighboring Montezuma Castle, Castle A was occupied by Sinagua farmers between A.D. 1200 and 1450. However, with . . . — — Map (db m40863) HM
In 1859, steamboat entrepreneur George Alonzo Johnson built a riverside home for his bride, Estefana Alvarado. Now known as the Commanding Officer's Quarters, the home is believed to be Arizona's oldest Anglo-built adobe building. In the devastating . . . — — Map (db m28999) HM
This adobe building was constructed in 1872 as an office for the Fort Yuma Quartermaster Depot. It replaced a room in a corner of the depot storehouses where, according to Captain J. G. C. Lee, Quartermaster, ". . .the noise of the arrivals and . . . — — Map (db m29000) HM
A steam pump located at the edge of the river propelled muddy Colorado River water through pipes to an elevated holding tank constructed of local rock and mortar with a wood shingle roof to decrease evaporation. Sediment fell to the bottom of the . . . — — Map (db m29001) HM
The Confederate scouts were alarmed. Looking down river to your right, one exclaimed, "One could hardly see anything in the background but smokestacks."
Union soldiers disembarked from their transports. All night, knee deep in mud, they . . . — — Map (db m108509) HM
You wouldn't have got us had it not been for your damned gunboats.
John Dunnington, colonel, chief of ordnance
Fort Hindman's cannon fired at the nine gunboats
bearing down on them. Confederate gunners had . . . — — Map (db m108072) HM
The succession of outposts here, remote from centers of New
World empire, symbolized a dream of the imperial age: to
connect the Gulf of Mexico to North America's vast interior
by the great rivers that drained it.
Following British . . . — — Map (db m108485) HM
Arkansas Post was not a single fort and trading center. From
1686 until 1863 there were no fewer than seven posts on the
Arkansas River between here and the Missişsippi. The flags
of five nations flew over them.
The 1686 post . . . — — Map (db m108464) HM
During the American Revolution, Arkansas Post
belonged to the Spanish, allies of the American
patriots. In 1783, British partisans led by James
Colbert raided the Spanish village and fort here.
It was one of the last engagements of the . . . — — Map (db m108483) HM
Standing here in January 1863, you would have seen
Confederate Fort Hindman. In what is now the water, the
fort stood atop a 25-foot high bluff The fort's cannon could
fire a mile up or down the river to protect the breadbasket
of Arkansas. The . . . — — Map (db m108511) HM
The blockhouse is a replica of a structure that was built on this site in the late 18th century. The building was a multiple use structure, but constructed originally for defense purposes. It was used as a trading post, as a residence, and as a . . . — — Map (db m96645) HM
On Aug. 24, 1864, Confederate Gen. J.O. Shelby and his men, wearing captured Union uniforms, attacked a series of forts protecting hay-cutting operations between modern-day Carlisle and Hazen. Confederate artillery blasted the forts held by the 54th . . . — — Map (db m96453) HM
Thousands of refugee slaves came with the Union army into Helena and they continued to come. Helena became an island of freedom in a slave state.
The Union Army Recruits Freedmen
In the . . . — — Map (db m107912) HM
The Confederates Take Battery C
"Both brigades moved forward on the instant, rapidly, steadily
unflinchingly, and in perfect order under a storm of Minie balls,
grape, and canister, which poured upon them not only . . . — — Map (db m107958) HM
You are facing Battery D. One half-mile southeast of here, it was the closest of the fortifications on Crowley's Ridge to Battery C. During the Battle of Helena, Union troops at these batteries aided each other with artillery fire.
— Map (db m107950) HM
The Union Army Takes Helena, July 1862
When General Samuel Curtis marched into Helena he was
not sure if he would remain. But the city's location on the
Mississippi River made it a valuable strategic resource . . . — — Map (db m107916) HM
Confederate General Theophilus Holmes wanted to regain control of Helena, an island of Union control in Confederate Arkansas. His attack failed. Miscommunication, lack of information, and the determined resistance of the Union troops, who vowed not . . . — — Map (db m107941) HM
You are facing Battery A, which stood on Rightor Hill, a high spot on Crowley's Ridge. Defended by the 29th and 36th Iowa and the 33rd Missouri, it anchored the north end of the Union line, approximately one and one-quarter mile northeast of here. . . . — — Map (db m107973) HM
Shortly after the capture of Helena in July 1862, the Union army took
measures to protect the city. Engineers designed a large earthen fort,
which African American laborers completed in October 1862. General
Benjamin Prentiss named the heavily . . . — — Map (db m108033) HM
When the Union army built Fort Curtis in 1862, the 34-star flag flew over the fort.
The day the Battle of Helena was fought, July 4, 1863, the 35-star flag became the official U.S. flag. The new star represented West Virginia, admitted to the . . . — — Map (db m109134) HM
The Confederates tested Fort Curtis once, during the Battle
of Helena on July 4, 1863.The battle ended in a decided
Union victory. For the rest of the war, Fort Curtis stood over
Helena, a symbol of the power of the Union army.
— Map (db m108036) HM
The gunboat U.S.S. Tyler gave the Union defenders a decided advantage in the
Battle of Helena. Her captain could move the gunboat and its heavy artillery
where it was needed most, and that is exactly what he did.
— Map (db m107975) HM
Confederate General Theophilus Holmes wanted to regain control of Helena, an island of Union control in Confederate Arkansas. His attack failed. Miscommunication, lack of information, and the determined resistance of the Union troops, who vowed not . . . — — Map (db m107937) HM
"such a slaughter was never greater on any battlefield west of the Mississippi" Sgt. Henry S. Carroll, 33rd Missouri
A Strong Position
Fort Curtis sat on the brow of a low ridge above Helena, . . . — — Map (db m107938) HM
The muzzles of six 24-pounders and one 32-pounder extended over the fort walls. The "pounder" designation meant that the cannon fired 24 or 32-pound balls respectively.
These large guns were usually found at coastal forts, where they provided . . . — — Map (db m109133) HM
Mr. Ronnie Nichols, then-director of the Delta Cultural Center,
first proposed building a reconstruction of Civil War Fort Curtis
in 1992. Twenty years later, his vision was realized. New Fort
Curtis was dedicated on May 11, . . . — — Map (db m108040) HM
Thousands of escaped slaves, known as Contraband, followed
the Union army to Helena in July 1862. Within weeks, the army
put hundreds of Contraband to work building Fort Curtis.
Hard Labor in Hot . . . — — Map (db m108032) HM
In 1817, the first Fort Smith was built at Belle Point at the junction of the Poteau and Arkansas Rivers by Major William Bradford, for the mutual protection of the pioneers and Indians. He was in command until 1822. It was named in honor of . . . — — Map (db m77874) HM
The building in front of you is very much as it appeared in the 1890s. First used as a military barracks, it was later converted for use as a courthouse and jail. Over time its appearance changed to accommodate the different needs of the people . . . — — Map (db m82354) HM WM
When army engineers originally designed the second Fort Smith in 1838, they planned for it to withstand attack. A key feature in achieving this goal was a stone wall about twelve feet high and from two to three feet thick. This wall surrounded the . . . — — Map (db m58434) HM
The “castle,” built in 1890–1894, is the most significant example of Romanesque Revival architecture in the Mother Lode. It was built to house the Preston School of Industry, established by the State Legislature as a progressive . . . — — Map (db m100594) HM
Approximately 2 miles north of this point, Fort Washintgon was built in the spring of 1850 by Wiley B Cassity (Cassady or Cassidy), Charls D. Gibbes, Major Lane and others. This fort, probably the first building erected in Fresno County, served as . . . — — Map (db m28013) HM
The site of Fort Miller (1851-1866) lies about one mile north and that of the pioneer town of Millerton (1851-1874) about one and one-half miles northwest on the then Visalia - Stockton Road. Both sites are now covered by the waters of Millerton . . . — — Map (db m47248) HM
Here on September 23, 1849, Liet. Cave J. Couts, Escourt Commander, International Boundary Commission, established Camp Salvation. From September till the first of December 1849, it served as a refugee center for distressed emigrants attempting to . . . — — Map (db m50586) HM
In 1774, Spain opened an overland route from Sonora to California but it was closed by Yuma Indians in 1781. In 1822, Mexico attempted to reopen this route. Lt. Romualdo Pacheco and soldiers built an adobe fort at this site in 1825-26, the only . . . — — Map (db m50589) HM
Near this spot,situated on the west bank of the Colorado river, about 45 miles of fort Yuma, Fort Gaston was established in 1859 by Captain Henry S. Burton, Company F 3rd Artillery. The Camp served as a supply post for the Hoffman Exposition in . . . — — Map (db m86209) HM
Originally called Camp Calhoun, the site was first used as a U.S. Military Post in 1849. A fire destroyed the original buildings. By 1855 the barracks had been rebuilt. Called Camp Yuma in 1852 it became Fort Yuma after reconstruction. Transferred . . . — — Map (db m50585) HM
Jefferson Davis, “Father of National Highways,” as Secretary of War 1853-57 sponsored the importation of 33 camels for transporting military supplies to the west coast. The camel trail survey ran from San Antonio, Texas to Fort Tejon . . . — — Map (db m32823) HM
This military post was established by the United States Army on June 24, 1854, to suppress stock rustling and for the protection of Indians in the San Joaquin Valley. As regimental headquarters of the First Dragoons, Fort Tejón was an important . . . — — Map (db m81718) HM
Built in July 1854 by Isaac N. Roop. First called Roop's House, and used as stopping place by emigrant trains. It was the locale of the "sagebrush war" fought in 1863 between Plumas County and Lassen County citizens. — — Map (db m10266) HM
On this site stood
Fort Moore built by the
Mormon Battalion during
the War with Mexico
This memorial honors the troops who helped to win the South West.
The Flag of the United States was raised here on July 4th 1847
by United . . . — — Map (db m81688) HM
1862 * Drum Barracks * 1868
Supply Depot, Department of
the Southwest, U.S. Army.
In memory of the historic past of this
building and the importance of its
association with early American
history . . . — — Map (db m52631) HM
Battery Alexander, fully armed by 1906, mounted eight 12-inch mortars designed to fire shells in a high arc - up and then down onto the decks of enemy battleships. Low-trajectory gunfire from nearby batteries, aimed close to the enemy's waterline, . . . — — Map (db m102819) HM
Never named because it was never finished, this battery was designed for the biggest, most powerful guns ever used by the United States military - 16-inch caliber weapons that fired 2,100-pound shells and could hit ships 26 miles out to sea. . . . — — Map (db m102778) HM
Battery Mendell's mission was to keep enemy warships farther from San Francisco's harbor than any of the earlier coastal defences were equipped to do. Built in 1905, the battery was positioned as far west on the headlands as possible and armed with . . . — — Map (db m102829) HM
The Marine Mammal Center is built on the site of the former Nike Missile Launch Area, SF 87L. In the 1950s, the army constructed two batteries in the Marin Headlands equipped with surface-to-are missiles, one near Fort Cronkhite and a second across . . . — — Map (db m102832) HM
Despite its imposing appearance, Construction 129 was never used - or even completed. It was to have been armed with 2 guns having massive, 16" diameter barrels. Each weapon weighed almost 1,000,000 pounds and could accurately fire a 2,100 pound . . . — — Map (db m102784) HM
For the first three-quarters of the 20th century, the Marin Headlands were fortified with weapons that evolved from cannon to nuclear warheads. The guns became more and more powerful, able to hit warships miles out to sea. Antiaircraft guns appeared . . . — — Map (db m102828) HM
Built in 1911, this concrete barracks building could house 686 men. By WW II, Fort McDowell has quarters for about 4,500 soldiers, including fourteen additional wooden barracks that once stood between the baseball field and this 600-man barracks. . . . — — Map (db m69276) HM
A great morale builder, Fort McDowell’s bowling alley opened in 1944, sporting six lanes. Fort McDowell’s bowling teams – the “Jail Birds,” “Brass Hats,” and the "McDowell Mermaids” competed against teams from . . . — — Map (db m69299) HM
Battery Ledyard, built in 1899, was one of three Angel Island batteries installed to defend San Francisco Bay. Located at Point Knox, it was armed with two five-inch wire wound guns. Battery Ledyard was named for Lt. August C. Ledyard, 6th Infantry, . . . — — Map (db m69251) HM
The Post Exchange, or PX, was built in 1910 to be a “one stop shopping place” for soldiers at Fort McDowell. Soldiers purchased clothing toiletries, and other supplies here. The PX also offered a restaurant, soda fountain, barbershop, . . . — — Map (db m69279) HM
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