“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
126 entries match your criteria. The first 100 are listed. The final 26 ⊳

Historical Markers and War Memorials in Orange County, Virginia

Clickable Map of Orange County, Virginia and Immediately Adjacent Jurisdictions image/svg+xml 2019-10-06 U.S. Census Bureau, Abe.suleiman; Lokal_Profil;; J.J.Prats/dc:title> Orange County, VA (126) Albemarle County, VA (91) Culpeper County, VA (119) Greene County, VA (8) Louisa County, VA (41) Madison County, VA (48) Spotsylvania County, VA (385)  OrangeCounty(126) Orange County (126)  AlbemarleCounty(91) Albemarle County (91)  CulpeperCounty(119) Culpeper County (119)  GreeneCounty(8) Greene County (8)  LouisaCounty(41) Louisa County (41)  MadisonCounty(48) Madison County (48)  SpotsylvaniaCounty(385) Spotsylvania County (385)
Adjacent to Orange County, Virginia
    Albemarle County (91)
    Culpeper County (119)
    Greene County (8)
    Louisa County (41)
    Madison County (48)
    Spotsylvania County (385)
Touch name on list to highlight map location.
Touch blue arrow, or on map, to go there.
1Virginia (Orange County), Barboursville — D-22 — Barboursville
A short distance south are the ruins of Barboursville, built, 1814-1822, by James Barbour partly after plans made by Jefferson. It was burned, December 25, 1884. James Barbour, buried here, was governor of Virginia, 1812-1815, United States Senator, . . . Map (db m30179) HM
2Virginia (Orange County), Barboursville — Barboursville RuinsHistoric Landmark
Designed by Thomas Jefferson for Governor James Barbour. Built 1814, Destroyed by Fire Christmas Day, 1884.Map (db m30178) HM
3Virginia (Orange County), Barboursville — JJ-28 — Governor James Barbour
Here at Barboursville lie the ruins of the family home of James Barbour, Virginia's governor during the War of 1812. As commander of Virginia's militia forces, Barbour planned, organized, and directed the defense of Virginia from January until . . . Map (db m89899) HM
4Virginia (Orange County), Flat Run — Germanna FordGrant Takes Command — Lee Vs. Grant - The 1864 Campaign —
In March 1864, President Abraham Lincoln placed Gen. Ulysses S. Grant in charge of the Union’s overall military effort. Grant’s strategy was simple: attack the Confederates simultaneously on all fronts, overwhelming them by sheer force of numbers. . . . Map (db m3587) HM
5Virginia (Orange County), Flat Run — Germanna FordInto the Wilderness — Lee Vs. Grant - The 1864 Campaign —
When the 1864 Overland Campaign started, Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia held the upper fords of the Rapidan River, blocking the Union army's route to Richmond. Rather than attack Lee head on, Grant chose to cross here at Germanna . . . Map (db m3588) HM
6Virginia (Orange County), Gordonsville — F-23 — Church of the Blind Preacher
Near here was the church of James Waddel, the blind Presbyterian preacher. Waddel, who had been a minister in the Northern Neck and elsewhere, came here about 1785 and died here in 1805. William Wirt, stopping in 1803 to hear a sermon, was impressed . . . Map (db m4766) HM
7Virginia (Orange County), Gordonsville — Gordon Inn
Built by Nathaniel Gordon, 1787. Visited by Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Philip and James Barbour, Clark, Rives, Randolph, Wirt, Waddell, and other celebrities of Revolutionary, post-Revolutionary, and Confederate War periods. Lafayette . . . Map (db m4794) HM
8Virginia (Orange County), Gordonsville — Gordonsville's Legendary Chicken Vendors
"Fried Chicken Capital of the World" January 1, 1840 celebrated the arrival of the Louisa Railroad to Gordonsville. The introduction of rail service contributed to the growth and vitality of the town as a prime rail junction. The two railroads . . . Map (db m8162) HM
9Virginia (Orange County), Gordonsville — In Memory of the Soldiers, Both Confederate and Union
In Memory of, the soldiers, both Confederate and Union, who died here at the Exchange Hotel used during the Civil War as the General Receiving Hospital. Gordonsville, VA 1861 –– 1865Map (db m25545) HM
10Virginia (Orange County), Gordonsville — JJ 36 — Madison-Barbour Rural Historic District
This rural historic district encompasses 50 square miles of the Piedmont. Native Americans lived here for more than 12,000 years before settlers of European descent, drawn to the fertile soil, arrived early in the 1700s. Several notable houses, . . . Map (db m117220) HM
11Virginia (Orange County), Gordonsville — D-20 — Montebello
Here was born Zachary Taylor, twelfth President of the United States, November 24, 1784. Taylor, commanding an American Army, won the notable Battle of Buena Vista in Mexico, 1847.Map (db m30181) HM
12Virginia (Orange County), Gordonsville — Z-277 — Orange County / Louisa CountyArea 359 Square Miles / Area 516 Square Miles
Orange County. Formed in 1734 from Spotsylvania, and named for the Prince of Orange, who in that year married Princess Anne, daughter of King George II. President James Madison lived in this county and President Zachary Taylor was born here. . . . Map (db m17747) HM
13Virginia (Orange County), Gordonsville — Z 277A — Orange County / Louisa County
(South Facing Side): Orange County Formed from Spotsylvania County in 1734, Orange County, a pastoral Piedmont county, was probably named in honor of William IV, the Dutch prince of Orange, who married Anne, the Princess Royal, daughter . . . Map (db m108411) HM
14Virginia (Orange County), Gordonsville — The Maplewood Memorial Association
. . . Map (db m4791) HM
15Virginia (Orange County), Lake of the Woods — Battle of the Wilderness
On This Site Stood a Union 6th Corps Field Hospital On Spotswood's Farm were 4 Medical Wagons, 14 Six-Mule Wagons, 24 Tents, 3 Medical Officers and 34 Attendants, in addition to about 15 Ambulances and 80 Men from the Corp's Ambulance Company. . . . Map (db m64981) HM
16Virginia (Orange County), Lake of the Woods — Battle of the WildernessMay 5th, 1864
1st NC Cavalry and Ewell's lead infantry regiments fought Sedgwick's three divisions throughout Lake of the Woods Golf Course. Regiments from Nine States in Lake of the Woods May 5, 1864 Union Infantry Maine 5th, 6th, 7th New Jersey 1st, 2nd, 3rd, . . . Map (db m65281) HM
17Virginia (Orange County), Lake of the Woods — Captain John Spotswood
Spotswood park is dedicated to Captain John Spotswood born circa 1748, grandson of Royal Lieutenant Governor Alexander Spotswood of Virginia. Captain John Spotswood, soldier of the American Revolution, served honorably as a member of the Continental . . . Map (db m19159) HM
18Virginia (Orange County), Lake of the Woods — Gordon's Flank AttackBattle of the Wilderness
Before Sunset on May 6, 1864 From this site, you would have seen Confederate Brig. Gen. John B. Gordon quietly assembled ten regiments between here and the woods, across the lake, at Madison Cir. In those woods, Union Brig. Gen. T. Seymour had . . . Map (db m65280) HM
19Virginia (Orange County), Lake of the Woods — Orange Grove 1728 - 1864
This is the story of Orange GroveYou are standing on land that was owned by the same family for over 200 years, from colonial days to the beginning of Lake of the Woods. Alexander Spotswood, Lt. Gov. of the Colony of Virginia 1710 - 1722, . . . Map (db m19156) HM
20Virginia (Orange County), Lake of the Woods — Orange Grove 1865 - 1967
Alexander Dandridge SpottswoodHe spelled his name with two t's, known "as a gentleman of the old school," he referred back to the spelling of the name his ancestors used in Scotland, Spottiswoode. 1836 - Born in the house at Orange Grove on . . . Map (db m19071) HM
21Virginia (Orange County), Lake of the Woods — Spotswood Family CemeteryAt Orange Grove c. 1786-1924
• In 2012, local historians recorded 15 field stones in rows that resembled the manner in which graves were marked in colonial and antebellum days before permanent granite headstones became popular. • In 2013, they used Ground Penetrating Radar . . . Map (db m103240) HM
22Virginia (Orange County), Lake of the Woods — The Apperson Family and Lake of the Woods
Alfred Apperson was born in 1806. He married Malinda Jones in 1816 and managed a plantation until he had saved enough money to purchase 120 acres of farm land in 1846. That land would become part of Lake of the Woods 120 years later. Alfred and . . . Map (db m103268) HM
23Virginia (Orange County), Lake of the Woods — Wilderness Battlefield MemorialRemembering Those Who Remain Long After the Battle was Over
The Battle of the Wilderness, May 5-7, 1864 resulted in almost 29,000 Union and Confederate casualties. Both armies attempted to find and bury the dead, but moved on before completing the process. Over the next few years, many dead were disinterred . . . Map (db m103276) HM WM
24Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — "A Wild, Wicked Roar"The Battle of the Wilderness
The arrival of Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell's Confederate Second Corps here along the Orange Turnpike on the morning of May 5 challenged the Union march through the Wilderness. At midday more than 6,000 troops of the Union Fifth Corps moved forward on . . . Map (db m155685) HM
25Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — “A Wild, Wicked Roar”The Battle of the Wilderness — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
The arrival of Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell’s Second Corps here along the Orange Turnpike on the morning of May 5 challenged the Union march through the Wilderness. The Federals responded with a massive attack. At midday more than 12,000 Federal . . . Map (db m155684) HM
26Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — “Stonewall” Jackson’s ArmThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
Here, in the Jones family cemetery, lie the remains of “Stonewall” Jackson’s left arm. The Confederate general lost the limb during the Battle of Chancellorsville, where he was mistakenly shot by his own troops. Surgeons removed the . . . Map (db m157352) HM
27Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — “Stonewall” Jackson’s ArmThe Battle of the Wilderness — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
Here, in the Jones family cemetery, lie the remains of “Stonewall” Jackson’s left arm. The Confederate general lost the limb during the Battle of Chancellorsville, where he was mistakenly shot by his own troops. Surgeons removed the . . . Map (db m157417) HM
28Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — 140th New York State Vols.
First Brigade First Division Fifth Corps Number engaged 529 Casualties 23 killed 118 wounded 114 missing May 5, 1864Map (db m6047) HM
29Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — A Busy PlaceThe Battle of the Wilderness
You are now standing in what was commonly referred to as "the yard," that part of the plantation where many of the slaves lived and did their daily chores. Depending on the time of year, you might have seen slaves here boiling soiled laundry in a . . . Map (db m112320) HM
30Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — A Military SceneThe Battle of the Wilderness — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
As one of the few large open areas in the Wilderness, the broad fields north and east of Ellwood assumed instant importance during the battle here. While fighting raged a miles to the west, the fields around Ellwood filled with artillery and . . . Map (db m12947) HM
31Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — A.P. Hill Escapes CaptureThe Battle of the Wilderness — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
On the morning of May 6, General A.P. Hill stretched his battle lines across the Chewning farm, closing a dangerous gap in the Confederate line. Before Hill's troops arrived, a Union regiment broke into the clearing from the east, startling the . . . Map (db m19162) HM
32Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — An Uneasy PartnershipThe Battle of the Wilderness — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
At the battles of the Wilderness and Spotsylvania Court House, Grant would not only struggle against Lee’s army, but also against the conservative, sometimes timid, methods of the Union Army of the Potomac. George G. Meade, commander of that . . . Map (db m6026) HM
33Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Archeology at EllwoodThe Battle of the Wilderness — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
The National Park Service acquired Ellwood in 1977. Since then, archeologists have conducted three studies of the site: test excavations around the base of the house (1978) and in the cellar (1979), and a geophysical survey of the grounds (1984). . . . Map (db m12948) HM
34Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Arm of Stonewall Jackson
Arm of Stonewall Jackson May 3, 1863 ———Map (db m3846) HM
35Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — JJ-20 — Battle of the Wilderness
Ewell's Corps, the left wing of Lee's Army, moving down this road from Orange, came into conflict near here with Warren's Corps of Grant's Army, May 5, 1864. The fight moved to and fro until Ewell finally drove Warren back and entrenched here. Late . . . Map (db m5450) HM
36Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Battle of the Wilderness
Here May 5, 6, 1864, 70,000 Confederates under Lee defeated 120,000 Federals under Grant. Confederate loss 11,500. Federal 18,000. This battle, fought with conspicuous bravery, in a Wilderness on fire, will take it’s place among the great battles of . . . Map (db m6007) HM
37Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Battle of the WildernessWilderness Exhibit Shelter — East Wall —
The Armies The Army of the Potomac Throughout the winter of 1863-1864, the armies rested and refitted on opposite sides of the Rapidan River. The ranks of the Union army swelled with thousands of new draftees and recruits - soldiers whose . . . Map (db m155689) HM
38Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Clash on the Orange TurnpikeWilderness Exhibit Shelter — East Wall —
The Battle of the Wilderness On May 5, 1864, Lee moved swiftly eastward through Orange County and struck the Federals along two roads - the Orange Plank Road and the Orange Turnpike. Two bloody, largely separate battles exploded. They would . . . Map (db m7392) HM
39Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Collision of GiantsWilderness Exhibit Shelter — North Wall —
Collision of Giants By 1864 the war had become not just a clash of armies, but of ideas. To be resolved on the fields of Virginia and Georgia that year was not only the fate of the Union, but also the fate of Southern society. The armies on both . . . Map (db m6077) HM
40Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Z-176 — Culpeper County / Orange County
(East Facing Side): Culpeper County Area 384 Square Miles Formed in 1748 from Orange and named for Lord Culpeper, Governor of Virginia, 1680-1683. The Battle of Cedar Mountain, 1862, was fought in this county (West Facing Side): . . . Map (db m4322) HM
41Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — EllwoodThe Battle of the Wilderness — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
“The house stands on Wilderness Run, in a lonely place about half a mile south of the Culpeper plank road; it is a good-sized farmhouse, built of wood, square, with two porticos and painted a dove color. From the apex of the roof a . . . Map (db m6121) HM
42Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Face OffMine Run Campaign
"Men, there is no use denying it, but three-quarters of you are to be left in that marsh with your toes turned up; but remember the Fourteenth never quailed yet, and I'll shoot the first man who does it now." Lt. Col. Samuel Moore to the men . . . Map (db m116470) HM
43Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Fighting on the Evening of May 5, 1864
Confederate General Leroy A. Stafford of Louisiana fell mortally wounded in this vicinity during the afternoon fighting. General Ewell, however, continued to reinforce this line, extending it farther to the north, your left. When the Federals . . . Map (db m7382) HM
44Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — First Blood in Saunders FieldThe Battle of the Wilderness
"The regiment melted away like snow. Men disappeared as if the earth had swallowed them." -Captain Porter Parley 140th New York Infantry Shortly after noon on May 5, the battleline of the 140th New York burst from the woods to your right-rear . . . Map (db m6022) HM
45Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — J-34 — Germanna
Here Governor Alexander Spotswood established a colony of Germans in 1714. At that time the Rapidan River was the frontier of Virginia. On August 29, 1716, Spotswood left from this place with the Knights of the Golden Horseshoe on his exploring . . . Map (db m3900) HM
46Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — J–35 — Germanna Ford
One of the principal crossings of the Rapidan River from colonial times. Here a part of the Army of the Potomac crossed the river, April 30, 1863, preceding the Battle of Chancellorsville. Here a part of Meade’s army crossed on the way to Mine Run, . . . Map (db m116528) HM
47Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Gordon Flank Attack TrailThe Battle of the Wilderness
In this field and its surrounding woods fell nearly one-third of the men killed or wounded in the Battle of the Wilderness. The two-mile Gordon Flank Attack Trail tracks the Battle of the Wilderness in all its horrible forms: the open-field Union . . . Map (db m7378) HM
48Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Gordon's Attack Falters
Union reinforcements rushed to the sound of fighting as twilight turned to darkness in these gloomy woods. The Confederates lost direction and momentum in the smoky gloaming, and eventually the firing died away. Gordon's attack had achieved only a . . . Map (db m7389) HM
49Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Gordon's Flank Attack
The right flank of the Union line rested here in the early evening of May 6. Two Union brigades occupied this area with the benefit of neither strong works nor substantial artillery support. Suddenly, the Rebel yell echoed through the forest. North . . . Map (db m7388) HM
50Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Grant Comes to VirginiaThe Battle of Fredericksburg
This short trail leads to "Grant's Knoll." For three days Gen. Ulysses S. Grant made his headquarters here, issuing orders that would determine the fate of armies and men. President Abraham Lincoln had recently appointed Grant general-in-chief over . . . Map (db m7403) HM
51Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Grant’s HeadquartersThe Battle of the Wilderness — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
On May 5, 1864, this knoll was bordered by a second growth of scraggly pines and scrub oak. From here Grant and Meade could see little of the battle. Instead, they relied on subordinates to keep them apprised of the situation at the front. In the . . . Map (db m6024) HM
52Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — John Gordon Proposes a Flank Attack
On the morning of May 6, Confederate General John B. Gordon occupied the far Confederate left, in this vicinity, with his brigade of Georgians. Gordon reconnoitered to his left and front and discovered the Union right flank to be vulnerable to an . . . Map (db m7384) HM
53Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Key TerrainThe Battle of the Wilderness — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
The fighting in the Wilderness centered on two thoroughfares: the Orange Turnpike and the Orange Plank Road. Between them yawned a gaping void of dense trees and brush, broken only by a few fields and the track of the Parker's Store Road, still . . . Map (db m19164) HM
54Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Mine Run Campaign
Amidst numbing cold and stinging rain, in late 1863 Union General George G. Meade and his Army of the Potomac attempted a year-end stroke against Robert E. Lee. This effort climaxed along Mine Run, two miles in front of you. Since . . . Map (db m4693) HM
55Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — JJ-10 — Mine Run Campaign
Meade, advancing south from the Rapidan River to attack Lee, found him in an entrenched position here on November 28, 1863. Heavy skirmishing went on until December 1. Then Meade, thinking Lee's lines too strong to assault, retired across the . . . Map (db m162667) HM
56Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — JJ-10 — Mine Run Campaign
Union Maj. Gen. George G. Meade's Army of the Potomac crossed the Rapidan River on 26 Nov. 1863 in a last effort to strike Gen. Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia before winter. The next day, fighting erupted near here at . . . Map (db m162668) HM
57Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Morning of May 6
On the morning of May 6, the main focus of the battle shifted more than two miles south, to the Orange Plank Road. Here, north of the Orange Turnpike, both armies planned early morning attacks as diversions to prevent the enemy from detaching more . . . Map (db m7383) HM
58Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Z-167 — Orange County / Spotsylvania County
(East Facing Side): Orange County Formed from Spotsylvania County in 1734, Orange County, a pastoral Piedmont county, was probably named in honor of William IV, the Dutch prince of Orange, who married Anne, the Princess Royal, daughter . . . Map (db m159382) HM
59Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — JJ-15 — Robinson's Tavern
Near here stood ancient Robinson's Tavern. Here Meade wished to concentrate his army in the Mine Run Campaign, November 1863, but one corps, coming up late, disarranged his plans. Here Ewell, moving east from Orange in the Wilderness Campaign, . . . Map (db m126046) HM
60Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Saunders FieldBattle of the Wilderness — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
"The last crop of the old field had been corn and among its stubble that day were sown the seeds of glory." Morris Schaff, USA Staff Tucked away in the Wilderness's trackless forest were several small clearings, where families with names . . . Map (db m155690) HM
61Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Struggle on the Orange Plank RoadWilderness Exhibit Shelter — East Wall —
Crisis at the Crossroads Crises followed one after another on May 5. No sooner had Grant and Meade learned about Ewell's approach on the Orange Turnpike than they discovered General A.P. Hill's corps moving up the Orange Plank road. If Hill . . . Map (db m7394) HM
62Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The "Enchanted Castle" at Germanna, circa 1720-1750
Home of Colonial Governor Alexander Spotswood and formerly the site of Fort Germanna, 1714 Archaeological excavation by Mary Washington College, Center for Historic PreservationMap (db m64139) HM
63Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Battle of Payne’s FarmThe Walking Trail
“The ground in my front for about 500 yards was thickly wooded and brushy, and beyond that was a cleared field owned by a man named Payne.” — Gen. Edward Johnson, CSA “On account of the density of the . . . Map (db m43158) HM
64Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Battle of Payne’s FarmThe Worm Fence
“We gained a slight rise in the land behind an old worm fence. The enemy had fallen back under cover of a piece of woods well in our front. Soon they came out in splendid battle array, with waving banners, and charged our position. It was a . . . Map (db m43165) HM
65Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Battle of Payne’s FarmThe Stonewall Brigade
“We soon struck the Yankee skirmishers and drove them back through the woods to an open field, where we ran into French’s entire corps and into about the hottest place that could be imagined.” — Capt. William B. Colston, 2nd . . . Map (db m43167) HM
66Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Battle of Payne’s FarmThe Confederate Wheel
“Several efforts were made to charge the hostile line, but as these attempts were made by single brigades, without proper deliberation and without co-operation on the part of the other forces to the right and left, they naturally resulted . . . Map (db m43168) HM
67Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Battle of Payne’s FarmA Fruitless Campaign
“In the fight of Johnson’s Division on last Friday I was under as warm a musketry fire as I have experienced for a good while—certainly worse than I have been in since Sharpsburg.” — Lt. Col. Alexander S. . . . Map (db m43170) HM
68Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Battle of Payne’s FarmUnexpected Encounter
“There was a sudden commotion in the train ahead and several of the ambulances turned and came back in confusion. General [George H.] Steuart promptly ordered them back to their places, faced the brigade into line to the left and deployed . . . Map (db m116476) HM
69Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Battle of Payne’s FarmStalemate at the Crossroads
“Gen. [Edward] Johnson … cheered us on to the fight with ‘Hurrah for North Carolina, go it North Carolina—give it to them boys!’ … The Federals were as thick as black birds in our front.” — Capt. Thomas Boone, 1st . . . Map (db m116478) HM
70Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Battle of Payne’s FarmBaptism of Fire
“[It was] … as warm a contest as this regiment was ever engaged in. … It seemed as if the enemy was throwing minie-balls upon us by the bucket-full, when the battle got fairly under way.” — Member of the 3rd North Carolina . . . Map (db m116530) HM
71Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Battle of the Wilderness
On no American battlefield did the landscape do more to intensify the horror of combat. One soldier called the Wilderness "a wild, weird, region... [a] dense and trackless forest." For decades loggers had cut and re-cut these forests to fuel nearby . . . Map (db m155691) HM
72Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — OC-22 — The Campaign of 1781Lafayette's Maneuvers
In the campaign of 1781, the Marquis de Lafayette marched through the Wilderness to rendezvous with Brig. Gen. "Mad Anthony" Wayne. On 3 June 1781, Lafayette's army camped to the south of the Wilderness Bridge across Wilderness Run from Ellwood. The . . . Map (db m25877) HM
73Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Capture of Winslow's BatteryThe Battle of the Wilderness
The May 5 fighting in Saunders Field was waxing hot when Captain George B. Winslow received orders to rush two guns of Battery D, 1st New York Artillery, to the front to support Union attacks here. Dashing down the turnpike at a trot, Winslow's men . . . Map (db m155692) HM
74Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Confederate Defense
Confederate troops commanded by General Richard S. Ewell arrived on this ridge line on the morning of May 5. Ordered by General Lee not to initiate a battle, Ewell placed 10,000 men along this high ground on either side of the Orange Turnpike . . . Map (db m155698) HM
75Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Confederate LineThe Battle of the Wilderness
Dick Ewell was raring for a fight. When a subordinate approached him early on May 5, 1864, and asked Ewell about his orders, the balding, pop-eyed general piped up cheerily: "... Just the orders I like - to go right down the [turnpike] and strike . . . Map (db m72886) HM
76Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Culpeper Mine Road
The road trace in front of you is the Culpeper Mine Road, typical of the woods trails that composed the primitive transportation network in the Wilderness. Even a path like this possessed military significance, and Confederate troops from the famous . . . Map (db m7380) HM
77Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Federals Fall Back
In front of you are the remains of trenches manned by the Union army on May 5-6, 1864. When Gordon attacked these works from the north, your left, the Federals abandoned them and fell back to a new position one mile to your front and right. The . . . Map (db m7391) HM
78Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Fighting Ends in StalemateWilderness Exhibit Shelter — South Wall —
Stalemate Two days of bitter fighting had left the bleak Wilderness landscape charred and smoking from fire. Corpses littered the contested ground, now scarred by miles of earth-and-log entrenchments. Unwilling to attack Lee's strong position, . . . Map (db m7397) HM
79Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Higgerson FarmThe Battle of the Wilderness — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
Before you are the fields of the Higgerson Farm, one of only a few major clearings on the Wilderness Battlefield. On the afternoon of May 5, Union troops swept across this open space, bound for bewildering combat in the thickets to the north and . . . Map (db m155696) HM
80Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Mine Run CampaignMeade vs. Lee
“The promptness with which this unexpected attack was met and repulsed reflects great credit upon General Johnson and the officers and men of his division.” — Gen. Robert E. Lee, CSA “The delay in the movements . . . Map (db m42085) HM
81Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Mine Run CampaignThe Battle of Payne’s Farm
“The brave officers and men of this division, attacked by a greatly superior force from an admirable position, turned upon him and drove him from the field, which he left strewn with arms, artillery and infantry ammunition, his dead and . . . Map (db m42089) HM
82Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The WildernessDark, Close Wood — The Battlefield Becomes a Park —
Marker Front: The Wilderness of today looks little like the tangled landscape soldiers found here in 1864. For decades before the war, loggers had cut and recut these forests to fuel nearby iron furnaces, leaving behind an impenetrable . . . Map (db m59518) HM
83Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Union HeadquartersThe Battle of the Wilderness — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
Ellwood stood in the midst of the Wilderness, a dark, forbidding forest characterized by stunted trees and densely tangled undergrowth. When the Confederates challenged General Ulysses S. Grant’s advance through the Wilderness on May 5, 1864, the . . . Map (db m155694) HM
84Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — Civil War & Gilmore Farm Trail
Roundtrip: One mile of level woodland trails An easy walk through a Confederate winter camp to the Gilmore Farm, home of freed Montpelier slave, George Gilmore and his wife, Polly. Montpelier During the War After Dolley Madison sold . . . Map (db m103579) HM
85Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — Civil War Encampment
Guided by the discoveries of local relic collectors, archaeologists have found an extensive Confederate Army encampment within these woods. Excavations have uncovered the remains of huts built by the soldiers during the winter of 1863 and 1864. The . . . Map (db m24157) HM
86Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — Confederate Camp & Freedman's Farm Trail
After Dolley Madison sold Montpelier in 1844, the estate witnessed many important historic events, few more significant than those of the 1860s. Throughout the winter of 1863 and 1864, as many as 4,500 Confederate troops camped here, part of a . . . Map (db m31715) HM
87Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — Confederate EncampmentReconstructing a Company Street
Modern re-enactors from the 3rd Regiment of the Army of Northern Virginia constructed these huts. Like the South Carolina Brigade before them, the re-enactors cut these logs from the surrounding woods. The trees around you are about the same age as . . . Map (db m103406) HM
88Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — JJ-29 — Dolley Madison(1768-1849)
Born to Quaker parents in North Carolina, Dolley Payne lived with her family in Hanover County, Virginia until 1783. Following the death of her first husband, John Todd, she married Congressman James Madison in 1794. As First Lady of the United . . . Map (db m63669) HM
89Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — Gilmore Family Cemetery
George and Polly Gilmore's Graves This area contains several graves of the Gilmore family. Most prominent among these are the graves of George and Polly Gilmore who are buried beneath the depressions in front of this sign. These depressions . . . Map (db m103407) HM
90Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — JJ-26 — Gilmore Farm
George Gilmore was born into slavery at Montpelier about 1810. Like millions of African Americans throughout the South, Gilmore made the transition to freedom after the Civil War. Many emancipated slaves worked on the same plantation where they once . . . Map (db m23986) HM
91Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — Gilmore FarmA Freedman's Home
George Gilmore, born a slave on the Montpelier plantation about 1810, was freed with the Federal occupation of Orange County in 1865. With his wife Poly and three children, he established a small farmstead near the plantation where he had been . . . Map (db m103408) HM
92Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — Homes for Enslaved Familiesc. 1820s
Slaves who worked in the Madison's household lived in this nearby area known as the "south yard." The yards of these homes, where most of the household activities took place, were in direct sight of the mansion. As a result, the Madisons would have . . . Map (db m23968) HM
93Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — 22 — Madison Farm Complex1760s - 1840s
In the fields in front of you, archaeologists have found the extremely well-preserved remains of James Madison's plantation farm complex, which served as the hub of the working farm and the home for several generations of field slaves. This complex, . . . Map (db m24050) HM
94Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — JJ 35 — Madison-Barbour Rural Historic District
The Madison-Barbour Rural Historic District, encompassing 32,520 acres of the Piedmont, has been inhabited for more than 12,000 years and contains almost 200 identified prehistoric archaeological sites. Nearby was the likely location of Stegara, a . . . Map (db m117219) HM
95Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — Montpelier Flag Stop
Train service first came to Montpelier in 1880 when the rail line from Orange to Charlottesville was completed. After 1910, a Southern Railway station agent managed the freight, passenger, and telegraph operations, and beginning in 1912, served as . . . Map (db m31752) HM
96Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — Montpelier Train StationIn the Time of Segregation
"We tend to shy away from our past...we should face up to it, live with it, otherwise it will live with you, and haunt you, and distort you, for all your days." John Hope Franklin, historian, Speaking at the Montpelier slave descendants . . . Map (db m31723) HM
97Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — 23 — Mount Pleasant c. 1750sFirst Madison Family Home Site
James Madison's grandfather, Ambrose Madison, had his slaves construct Mount Pleasant sometime after 1723. Ambrose moved his family here in 1732 from Virginia's Tidewater and unexpectedly died within a few months. Court records show that three . . . Map (db m24115) HM
98Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — Post-Emancipation
With emancipation, African-Americans found themselves in a complex situation. By law, slavery was abolished, promising freedom and citizenship, but few owned land or had resources to support themselves, and prejudice against them was widespread. . . . Map (db m24159) HM
99Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — Slave Cemeteryc. 1820s
The burial ground where you are standing is the final resting lace for many members of Montpelier's enslaved community. Slaves' belief in a spiritual world - originating in African religions - was reinforced by Christianity. This drawing shows . . . Map (db m24120) HM
100Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — 19 — The African American CemeteryDiscovering Madison
"I walk in the graveyard, I walk through the graveyard To lay this body down. I lay in the grave and stretch out my arms; I lay this body down." -African American spiritual from the era of slavery, as recorded in James Weldon Johnson, the . . . Map (db m24118) HM

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Apr. 11, 2021