Geographic Sort Canada, Historic Sites and Monuments Board Historical Markers
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
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Canada, Historic Sites and Monuments Board Historical Markers

Mandated to advise the Government of Canada, through the Minister of the Environment, on the commemoration of nationally significant aspects of Canada's history, the Board authorizes Parks Canada to install plaques inscribed with a bilingual text describing the historic significance of the subject. They are sometimes also written in a third language, particularly when the commemorated subject is linked to the history of Aboriginal peoples or ethnocultural communities.
Turner Valley Gas Plant Marker image, Touch for more information
By Dawn Bowen, June 30, 2008
Turner Valley Gas Plant Marker
1Alberta (Foothills County), Turner Valley — Turner Valley Gas Plant
This plant, which was critical to the development of the Turner Valley oil field, is the earliest gas processing facility built in Canada and the only survivor of its type. The present complex was begun in 1921 after a fire destroyed the original . . . Map (db m8825) HM
2Alberta (Foothills County), Turner Valley — Turner Valley Oilfield
Turner Valley is Alberta’s first great oilfield. Initially the field, which began production in 1914, yielded mainly natural gas. Local plants, which provided the only extensive gas-processing system in the province, extracted the marketable . . . Map (db m9204) HM
3Alberta (Improvement District No. 12), Jasper — Arthur Oliver Wheeler(1860-1945)
A preeminent topographical surveyor, Wheeler represented British Columbia on the commission which located and marked the boundary with Alberta between 1913 and 1925. His party surveyed and mapped the 1000 km-long mountain section, using photographs . . . Map (db m108876) HM
4Alberta (Improvement District No. 9), Banff — Banff Park Museum
Opened in 1895, the Banff Park Museum was moved into this building in 1903. Its cross-log motif exemplifies an architectural style common in the town at the time. Norman Bethune Sanson, the museum’s curator from 1896 to 1932, energetically developed . . . Map (db m8836) HM
5Alberta (Improvement District No. 9), Banff — Banff Springs HotelL'Hôtel Banff Springs
This hotel is among the largest and most renowned of the fashionable resort hotels established along railway and steamship routes in Canada during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Constructed by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company in stages . . . Map (db m100084) HM
6Alberta (Improvement District No. 9), Banff — John Murray Gibbon1875-1952
Born in Ceylon and educated in Scotland and Germany, Gibbon studied painting before turning to journalism. As publicity agent for the Canadian Pacific Railway from 1913 to 1945 he combined advertising with the promotion of a Canadian identity, . . . Map (db m108632) HM
7Alberta (Improvement District No. 9), Banff — Sulphur Mountain Cosmic Ray StationLa Station d'étude des Rayons Cosmiques du Mont Sulphur
Located at the top of Sulfur Mountain, the cosmic ray station was completed by the National Research Council in 1956, in preparation for International Geophysical Year (1957–1958) an undertaking involving 66 countries and a dozen scientific . . . Map (db m109422) HM
8Alberta (Improvement District No. 9), Banff — The Cave and Basin
The Cave and Basin Springs were brought to public attention after being located by CPR construction workers in 1883. These and the Upper Hot Springs soon drew private entrepreneurs and tourists. Growing support for public ownership prompted the . . . Map (db m108877) HM
9Alberta (Leduc County), Devon — Leduc-Woodbend Oil FieldLe Site Pétrolifière Leduc-Woodbend
The development of this field in 1947 marked a turning point in the history of the Alberta petroleum industry. After the drilling of Leduc No. 1, the geographical focus of the industry shifted from Turner Valley northward to the central plains area, . . . Map (db m8856) HM
10Alberta (Wood Buffalo Regional Municipality), Fort McMurray — Methye Portage
The earliest trade route between eastward and northward flowing waters followed the Clearwater River and the Methye Portage. Discovered by Peter Pond in 1778 and used continuously for more than a century for more than a century by fur-traders . . . Map (db m8814) HM
11British Columbia (Alberni-Clayoquot Regional District), Port Alberni — Forest Industry in British ColumbiaL’Industrie Forestiere en Colombie-Britannique
Harvesting of the forest has long been an important aspect of life on the Pacific Coast. The native people were the first to utilize this valuable resource in the construction of dwellings, canoes, and implements. In the nineteenth century, spars . . . Map (db m9192) HM
12British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Brentwood Bay — The Butchart Gardens / Les Jardins Butchart
Jennie Butchart began to shape this magnificent landscape in 1904. She established, in the style of the grand estates of the period, several distinct gardens to evoke a range of aesthetic experiences. An abandoned limestone quarry was . . . Map (db m74419) HM
13British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Central Saanich — Black Pioneers in British ColumbiaLes Pionniers Noirs de la Colombie-Britannique
In 1858, nearly 800 free Blacks left the oppressive racial conditions of San Francisco for a new life on Vancouver Island. Governor James Douglas had invited them here as promising settlers. Though still faced with intense discrimination, these . . . Map (db m72868) HM
14British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Colwood — Fisgard LighthouseLe Phare Fisgard
The first permanent lighthouse on the Pacific coast of Canada, Fisgard was erected in 1859-60 by the British and Colonial Governments to guide mariners into Esquimalt Harbour. Brought from England with the first lightkeeper, the lantern became . . . Map (db m70876) HM
15British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Colwood — Hatley Park
This superb example of an Edwardian park was laid out for James and Laura Dunsmuir in the early 20th century. At its centre stands a Tudor Revival mansion, whose picturesque design is enhanced by a rich array of decoration and fine craftsmanship. . . . Map (db m72870) HM
16British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Colwood — Victoria-Esquimalt FortificationsLes Fortifications de Victoria-Esquimalt
From 1878 to 1956 coast artillery installations protected the city of Victoria and the naval base at Esquimalt. Temporary batteries were constructed in response to the Anglo-Russian crisis of 1878, and in the 1890s Canada negotiated with Great . . . Map (db m72872) HM
17British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Esquimalt — Esquimalt Naval SitesLes Sites Navals d'Esquimalt
The long naval presence here has produced a unique legacy among defence sites in Canada. From its establishment in 1865 until Britain's Royal Navy withdrew in 1906, Esquimalt served as headquarters of the vast Pacific Station. In the Dockyard, the . . . Map (db m72867) HM
18British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Esquimalt — The Canadian Women's Army Corps (CWAC)Le Corps Féminin de l'Armée Canadienne (CFAC)
Canadian Women's Army Corps (CWAC) Women's service in the military during the Second World War challenged the tradition of all-male armed forces. Between 1941 and 1946, close to 22,000 volunteers enlisted in the CWAC and were posted to bases at home . . . Map (db m72873) HM
19British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Oak Bay — Chinese CemeteryLe Cimetière Chinois
This place, chosen by the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association in 1903 for its harmonized elements of Nature expressing the principles of "feng shui", is a significant legacy of the first Canadians of Chinese origin. Traditionally it was a . . . Map (db m72874) HM
20British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Amor De Cosmos, 1825-1897
[English] Amor De Cosmos (Lover of the Universe) was the name adopted by William Smith of Windor, Nova Scotia, while in the California goldfields. In 1858 he arrived in Victoria and founded the opposition journal, the Colonist. For over two decades . . . Map (db m49079) HM
21British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Congregation Emanu-El
The Congregation Emanu-El Synagogue was built in 1863, just five years after the arrival if the first members of Victoria's Jewish community during the Fraser River gold rush period. Its opening was widely celebrated in Victoria for, despite their . . . Map (db m72875) HM
22British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Craigdarroch
Built for coal magnate Robert Dunsmuir, Craigdarroch symbolized the desire of late 19th-century industrialists to assert their social position through conspicuous displays of wealth. Completed in 1890, the eclectic mansion features . . . Map (db m72876) HM
23British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Creation of the Province of British ColumbiaCréation de la Province de Columbie-Britannique
[English] The province of British Columbia was created on July 20, 1871. Formerly a crown colony established by the union in 1866 of Vancouver Island with the mainland colony of British Columbia, the addition of the Pacific coast province made . . . Map (db m49038) HM
24British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Emily Carr1871-1945
[English] Artist and author Emily Carr was born here and lived most of her life in this neighbourhood of Victoria where she died. Her compelling canvases of British Columbia landscape offer a unique vision of the forest an shore, while her . . . Map (db m49241) HM
25British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Empress HotelL’Hotel Empress
[English] This hotel was built between 1904 and 1908, and has since been enlarged twice. The architect, Francis M. Rattenbury, followed the practice of the Canadian Pacific Railway in employing the Chateau style, identifiable by the steep slate . . . Map (db m49238) HM
26British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway RoundhouseLa Rotonde de l'Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway
This imposing brick roundhouse is a particularly fine example of an industrial structure associated with the steam railway era in Canada. Built in 1913, the ten-stall roundhouse with attached machine, boiler and blacksmith's shops is part of a . . . Map (db m72877) HM
27British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Estate of the Lieutenant Governor of British ColumbiaLe Domaine du Lieutenant-Gouverneur de la Colombie-Britannique
This magnificent estate, residence of the Crown's representatives in British Columbia, is a cultural landscape that boasts a long and remarkable association with this high office. In 1865 the government of the colony purchased Cary Castle, a house . . . Map (db m72878) HM
28British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — European exploration in the Strait of Juan de FucaLes Européens explorent le Détroit de Juan de Fuca
Competition for sovereignty and trade drew Europeans to the Pacific Northwest coast in the 1780s. Although long known to First Nations people, the strait received its present name in 1787 when Charles Barkley identified it as the legendary . . . Map (db m80552) HM
29British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Former Victoria Law CourtsL’Ancien Palais de Justice de Victoria
[English] Opened in 1889, the Victoria Law Courts was the first major public building constructed by the provincial government after union with Canada. Previously, court sessions had been held in one of the colonial administration buildings located . . . Map (db m49098) HM
30British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fort Victoria
The mooring rings on the rocks below are the only surviving fragment of Fort Victoria built by the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1843. From 1846, when the Oregon boundary was drawn at the 49th parallel, this post served as grand depot and headquarters of . . . Map (db m9195) HM
31British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Fort Victoria
Founded by the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1843, Fort Victoria became, after 1846, the head-quarters of the Company’s trade in British territory west of the Rocky Mountains. When the Colony of Vancouver Island was formed in 1849 Victoria was the . . . Map (db m48542) HM
32British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Modeste Demers1809-1871
Born near Levis, Demers was trained at the Seminary of Quebec, ordained in 1836 and sent in 1838 as a missionary to the Columbia. His ministry extended from the interior of British Columbia to Oregon. First pastor of St. John's Church of Oregon . . . Map (db m72879) HM
33British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Old Victoria Custom HouseAncien Édifice de la Douane de Victoria
(English) Completed in 1875 in the Second Empire style, Victoria’s original Custom House is a distinguished example of the buildings erected by the new Federal Government after Confederation. It regulated the trade of the West Coast’s busiest port . . . Map (db m49077) HM
34British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Robert Dunsmuir(1825-1889)
Born into a family of Ayrshire coalmasters, Robert Dunsmuir achieved renown as a leading Canadian businessman. He developed the Wellington Mine near Nanaimo, which soon made him one of the richest men in Canada and, through his labour practices, one . . . Map (db m72880) HM
35British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Royal TheatreLe Théâtre Royal
Constructed in 1912-1913 during the Victoria building boom, this structure originally opened as the Royal Victoria Theatre, owned by a group of local entrepreneurs. Theatres of this type, presenting live dramatic, musical and vaudeville . . . Map (db m72881) HM
36British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Sir Anthony Musgrave1828-1888
A career Imperial civil servant, Anthony Musgrave served as governor of Newfoundland (1864 - 69) and British Columbia (1869 - 71). Both terms of office were marked by a strong personal effort to encourage the two colonies to unite with the new . . . Map (db m72882) HM
37British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Sir James Douglas1803-1877
[English] Justifiably described as “the father of British Columbia”, Douglas was born in Demerara. He joined the North West Company in 1819, serving at Fort William and Ile a la Crosse where he was taken into the Hudson’s Bay Company. . . . Map (db m48769) HM
38British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Sir Matthew Baillie Begbie1819 – 1894
[English] Begbie practised [sic] law in England for fourteen years before his appointment in 1858 as the first judge of the mainland Colony of British Columbia. During the gold rush, he won the respect of lawless miners of the Fraser River and . . . Map (db m49082) HM
39British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — St. Andrew's Roman Catholic CathedralLa Cathédrale Catholique St. Andrew
Soaring skywards with its bold array of coloured brick, stone and slate, St. Andrew's Roman Catholic Cathedral displays the confident spirituality that characterizes the best religious architecture of the High Victorian Gothic style. Designed in . . . Map (db m70881) HM
40British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — St. Ann's Academyl'Académie St. Ann
For over a century, St. Ann's played an important role in the educational life of Western Canada. It served as the regional motherhouse for the Sisters of St. Ann, the major female Roman Catholic teaching and nursing order in British Columbia, which . . . Map (db m72883) HM
41British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — The Church of Our Lord
This picturesque building is one of the finest expressions in wood of the Gothic Revival style in Canada. It was constructed in 1875 for the Reformed Episcopal church in Victoria by the Reverend Edward Cridge. Architect John Teague enhanced the . . . Map (db m72884) HM
42British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Victoria City HallHôtel de Ville de Victoria
Victoria’s first city hall was designed in 1875. The building was begun three years later and completed in 1890. The designer was John Teague, an Englishman long resident in Victoria, who was responsible for planning many of the city’s . . . Map (db m49126) HM
43British Columbia (Capital Regional District), Victoria — Victoria’s ChinatownLe Quartier Chinois de Victoria — 域 多 利 唐 人 街 —
[English] This district, first settled in 1858, is the oldest and most intact Chinatown in Canada, representing an important chapter in the long history and heritage of Chinese Canadians. As the major immigrant port of entry on the west coast in . . . Map (db m52980) HM
44Manitoba (Division No. 1), Gardenton — St. Michael’s Ukrainian Orthodox Church
Constructed in 1899, this church is a fine early example of Ukrainian ecclesiastical architecture in Canada. Its distinctive massing, plan and bulbous cupolas reflect the Byzantine-influenced architectural heritage of the homeland of the settlers in . . . Map (db m8421) HM
45Manitoba (Division No. 10), Headingley — Dominion Lands Survey System
The first marker of the Dominion Lands Survey was placed 10 July, 1871, on the Principal Meridian, about half a mile south of this site. The system, then inaugurated by Lieutenant Colonel J.S. Dennis, Surveyor-General, extends across the prairies . . . Map (db m8489) HM
46Manitoba (Division No. 11), Winnipeg — Forks of the Red and AssiniboineFourche de la Rouge et de L'Assiniboine
Strategically located at the junction of two major rivers which form part of a vast continental network, this spot has witnessed many of the key events of Western Canadian history. This was a traditional native stopping place and for this reason La . . . Map (db m106447) HM
47Manitoba (Division No. 11), Winnipeg — The Creation of ManitobaLa Création du Manitoba
Angered that they had not been consulted about the transfer of the Hudson's Bay Company territories to Canada, the inhabitants of the Red River Settlement, led by Louis Riel, in 1869 proclaimed a Provisional Government which took control of the . . . Map (db m106489) HM
48Manitoba (Division No. 13), Gimli — St. Andrews Caméré Curtain Dam
This is the only Caméré curtain bridge-dam built in North America, and by far the largest ever constructed. H.E .Vautelet, the Canadian engineer responsible for its design, adapted a French technological advancement to deal with the . . . Map (db m9205) HM
49Manitoba (Division No. 13), St. Andrews — St. Andrew’s Rectory
Erected between 1852 and 1854, this large limestone dwelling housed the rector of nearby St. Andrew’s church and complemented the massive construction of that building. The rectory, built for the Reverend William Cockran was one of the first stone . . . Map (db m8449) HM
50Manitoba (Division No. 13), St. Andrews — St. Andrews Anglican Church
Beginning in 1828 the Rev. W. Cockran held religious services in the homes of settlers in this area. In 1829 he established a permanent residence at Grand Rapids on the Red River and by 1831 had built a small wooden church. His growing congregation . . . Map (db m8445) HM
51Manitoba (Division No. 13), St. Andrews — Twin Oaks
Built in the mid-1850s, this house was the residence for a private girls’ school run by Matilda Davis until 1873. The school was supported by families of the Red River Settlement and by officers of the Hudson’s Bay Company from across western Canada . . . Map (db m8450) HM
52Manitoba (Division No. 16), Inglis — Inglis Grain Elevators
This impressive grouping of five standard-plan wooden grain elevators is a rare survivor of the long rows that once dominated Prairie towns. The row was built between 1922 and 1941, Manitoba's golden age of elevators, by a cross-section . . . Map (db m8491) HM
53Manitoba (Division No. 18), Gimli — New Iceland
New Iceland represents a distinctive episode in the early settlement of the Canadian West. In 1875 and 1876, more than a thousand Icelandic immigrants settled a large tract of land reserved for them by the federal government along the western shore . . . Map (db m8453) HM
54New Brunswick (Albert County), Hillsborough — Combat of the/du Petitcodiac
Near this town on 3rd September 1755, a detachment of Major Frye's troops, sent from Fort Cumberland to destroy Acadian settlements on the river and compel the people to surrender for deportation, was defeated by a French force under Charles . . . Map (db m106630) HM
55New Brunswick (Albert County), Hopewell Cape — Right Honourable Richard Bedford BennettPrime Minister of Canada — August 7, 1930 - October 22, 1935 —
Viscount of Mickelham, Calgary and Hopewell [Burgundy marker on monument] Rt. Hon. Richard Bedford Bennett 1870-1947 Born at Hopewell Hill, New Brunswick, Bennett moved to Calgary in 1897. A member of the legislature of the North . . . Map (db m106707) HM
56New Brunswick (Carleton County), Woodstock — Connell House/Maison Connell
Lumber merchant and politician, Charles Connell had this house constructed circa 1840. Its pedimented front and freestanding columns make it a fine example of the Greek Revival style. Such houses inspired by classical temples are rare . . . Map (db m139149) HM
57New Brunswick (Charlotte County), St. Andrews — Greenock Church / L’Église Greenock
English: This elegant church marks the growth of Presbyterianism and the Kirk of Scotland in New Brunswick. Built in 1821-1824, the structure successfully combines the American meeting house form with the British Palladian style. The . . . Map (db m137515) HM
58New Brunswick (Charlotte County), St. Andrews — St. Andrews BlockhouseLe Blockhaus de St. Andrews — (West Point Blockhouse) —
This marker consists of two side-by-side plaques, one in English and the other in French. English: The West Point Blockhouse and a battery were erected by the townspeople of St. Andrews at the outbreak of the War of 1812-14 in anticipation . . . Map (db m77240) HM
59New Brunswick (Charlotte County), St. Andrews — St. Andrews Historic DistrictArrondissement Historique de St. Andrews
English Founded by Loyalists in 1783, St. Andrews is a fine and rare surviving example of a Canadian town whose plan and character clearly reflect its 18th-century origins. The town retains the four key elements of a British colonial . . . Map (db m77398) HM
60New Brunswick (Charlotte County), St. Stephen — St. Stephen Post OfficeBureau de Post de St. Stephen
English Built in 1885-1887, this building was constructed to house the post office, customs and internal revenue. Designed under federal chief architect Thomas Fuller, the structure is one of a series of building erected to establish a . . . Map (db m77238) HM
61New Brunswick (Gloucester County), Caraquet — The Return of the AcadiansLe retour des Acadiens
English: Because of the vicissitudes of war, the Acadians, pioneers of this country, were dispersed in 1755. The arrival of Alexis Landry at Ste. Anne de Bocage, soon after 1755, symbolizes the return of the Acadians to their beloved . . . Map (db m80579) HM
62New Brunswick (Kent County), Saint-Louis-de-Kent — Marcel-François Richard(1847-1915)
Français: Né à Saint-Louis-de-Kent et ordonné prêtre en 1870, Mgr Richard fut l'une des figures de proue de la renaissance acadienne. Il stimula la colonisation afin de centrer l'exode yeti les États-Unis, fonda des écoles, des . . . Map (db m139702) HM
63New Brunswick (Madawaska County), Edmundston — Archibald Fraser(1869-1932)
English: From a start in his family's small sawmill in the 1880s, Archibald came a prominent pioneer of the New Brunswick pulp industry. As the lumber trade fell into decline, he sought new ways to exploit the province's vast forest . . . Map (db m137447) HM
64New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — 1 Chipman Hill
English: Remarkable for the range of trompe l'œil effects and skillful execution, the wall and ceiling paintings inside this residence, part of a row of similar town houses, reflect the taste of the High Victorian era, . . . Map (db m140107) HM
65New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Carleton Martello Tower
Construction of this tower was begun by the British Army during the War of 1812 as one of the projected series of fortifications intended to block the western land approach to Saint John. Subsequent to its completion in 1815 the tower was largely . . . Map (db m120628) HM
66New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — First Marine Compound EngineLa Première Machine Compound de Marine
English The first vessel in the world propelled by a compound steam engine was the REINDEER launched for service on the Saint John, in 1845. Both the vessel and engine were designed by Benjamin Tibbets, a native of Queen’s County, New . . . Map (db m77428) HM
67New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — First Steam Fog HornLa Premiere Corne de Brume a Vapeur
English In 1854, Robert Foulis of St. John, N.B., first advocated the use of a steam horn or whistle to give warning to vessels in foggy weather. An apparatus devised by him was installed on Partridge Island in 1859. This was the first . . . Map (db m77430) HM
68New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Fort HoweMajor Gilfrid Studholme — Indian Treaty of 1778/Le Traité Indien de 1778 —
Three markers are mounted on this monument Fort Howe English Late in 1777 Major Gilfred Studholme hurriedly fortified this ridge overlooking the mouth of the Saint John River. Throughout the remainder of the American . . . Map (db m77537) HM
69New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Fort La Tour / Le Fort La Tour
English: In 1631, Charles de Sainte-Étienne de La Tour built a fort here on ground traditionally used by First Nations people, for some 4000 years. The fort became one of the earliest centres of the French fur trade with the . . . Map (db m139998) HM
70New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Founding of New BrunswickLa Fondation du Nouveau-Brunswick
English The increase of population consequent upon the large influx of Loyalists in 1783 and 1784 convinced the British government of the desirability of creating the Province of New Brunswick. This was done on 16 August 1784. Brigadier . . . Map (db m77519) HM
71New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Imperial TheatreLe Théâtre Imperial
English Constructed in 1912-1913 to the designs of Philadelphia architect A.E. Westover, this structure was built by the Keith-Albee chain of New York City and its Canadian subsidiary, the Saint John Amusements Company. Dramatic, musical . . . Map (db m77506) HM
72New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Loyalist House / La Maison Loyaliste
English: This gracious building is a well-preserved example of the homes built by prosperous United Empire Loyalists and their descendants. Constructed before 1820 by the merchant David Merritt, this house was maintained with . . . Map (db m139999) HM
73New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — No. 2 Mechanics’ Volunteer Company Engine HouseCaserne No 2 des Mécaniciens Pompiers Volontaires
English The cry “Fire!” so terrified Canadians in the early 19th century that communities began to construct permanent fire stations. Erected in 1840, this elegant Neoclassical building is a pioneer example of a firehall . . . Map (db m77508) HM
74New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Prince William Streetscape / La Rue Prince William
English: This historic streetscape is distinguished by its rare concentration of homogeneous, primarily late 19th century architecture. Traditionally referred to as “Wall Street,” the area contains major public . . . Map (db m137519) HM
75New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Saint John City MarketLe Marché de Saint John
English Built between 1874 ad 1876, the Saint John City market narrowly escaped the fire that swept through the town in 1877 and stands today as a rare and distinguished example of a 19th century market building. Designed in the Second . . . Map (db m77535) HM
76New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — St. John's (stone) Church / L'Église St. John
English: Constructed in 1824-1825, St. John’s is one of the earliest Gothic Revival churches in Canada. Its name, the Stone Church, reflects the high quality of its regularly coursed masonry. The skillful treatment of its Gothic . . . Map (db m140105) HM
77New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — The Marco PoloLe Marco Polo
English A three-masted full-rigged ship with a modified clipper hull, the Marco Polo earned a reputation as the “fastest ship in the world” and drew international attention to New Brunswick shipyards. Built in 1851 by . . . Map (db m77456) HM
78New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — The Landing of the LoyalistsDébarquement des Loyalistes
English On 10 May 1783 the Spring Fleet, carrying over 2,000 Loyalists, arrived at the Saint John River mouth. The exiles, mostly civilians from the Middle Colonies, established themselves in the newly-surveyed townsites of Parr and . . . Map (db m77432) HM
79New Brunswick (Saint John County), St. Martins — Shipbuilding in New Brunswick / L’Industrie de la Construction Navale au Nouveau-Brunswick
English: From its origins in the late 18th century, the shipbuilding industry profoundly influenced New Brunswick history. Craftsmen in the colony built over 6,000 vessels during the 19th century, a third of the total tonnage produced in . . . Map (db m137643) HM
80New Brunswick (Westmorland County), Shediac — Men of LettersHommes de Lettres
English: Born in or near Shediac, Pascal Poirier (1852-1933), historian and first Acadian senator; Placide Gaudet (1850-1930), historian and genealogist; John Clarence Webster (1863-1950), historian, Professor, and eminent surgeon, all . . . Map (db m80578) HM
81New Brunswick (York County), Fredericton — Alexander "Boss" Gibson(1819-1913)
English: Lumber and railway baron and generous benefactor, Gibson was a pivotal figure in the economy of the Maritimes at a time of transformation and integration within the national economy. A leading entrepreneur in mid-to-late . . . Map (db m139997) HM
82New Brunswick (York County), Fredericton — Charles Fisher(1808-1880)
English: Born in Fredericton, Fisher practised law before entering politics. Excepting the period 1850-1854 he represented York as a member of the Legislature continuously from 1837 until his retirement in 1868. Entering the . . . Map (db m139900) HM
83New Brunswick (York County), Fredericton — Christ Church Cathedral / Cathédrale Christ Church
English: Christ Church Cathedral, begun in 1845, is one of the best and earliest examples of the Gothic Revival in Canada. Its stone walls, crossing tower and picturesque massing, echoing the internal parts of the church, were . . . Map (db m139987) HM
84New Brunswick (York County), Fredericton — First Ministry of Health / Le Premier Ministère de la Santé
English: The Legislature of New Brunswick, recognizing the growing importance of health as a matter of public concern, established, in 1918, a department of government with specific and exclusive responsibilities in that field. . . . Map (db m139899) HM
85New Brunswick (York County), Fredericton — Fredericton City Hall / L'Hôtel de ville de Fredericton
English: Built in 1875-1876 to the design of architects McKean and Fairweather, this is the oldest municipal hall in Atlantic Canada still used for civic administration. Its imposing exterior and the many functions it has . . . Map (db m139800) HM
86New Brunswick (York County), Fredericton — Fredericton Military Compound / Le Complexe Militaire de Frédéricton
English: This building is one of four remaining structures of the British establishment which housed the garrison at Fredericton from 1784 until the withdrawal of Imperial troops in 1869. Occupying the area between York and Regent . . . Map (db m139996) HM
87New Brunswick (York County), Fredericton — Lemuel Allan Wilmot1809-1878
English: Born in Sunbury County, educated at King’s College, and called to the bar in 1832, Wilmot entered politics as a reformer and represented York County in the Legislature (1835-51). A member of the Executive Council . . . Map (db m139897) HM
88New Brunswick (York County), Fredericton — Sir Howard Douglas1776-1861
English: Born in England, Douglas was Lieutenant-Governor and Commander in Chief of New Brunswick (1823-1831). He encouraged agriculture and fostered pioneer work in steam navigation and lighthouse construction. In 1828 he founded . . . Map (db m139898) HM
89New Brunswick (York County), Fredericton — St. Paul's United Church
English: Built in 1886, St. Paul's is a fine example of High Victorian Gothic Revival architecture, fashionable in Canada during the second half of the 19th century. The style is marked by a bold and vigorous approach to design, . . . Map (db m139980) HM
90New Brunswick (York County), Fredericton — The 104th Regiment / Le 104e Régiment
English: Six companies of this Fredericton-based regiment made a 700-mile, 52-day march to Quebec and Kingston between February and April 1813. The feat was accomplished in the face of hunger, cold and heavy snows, with remarkably . . . Map (db m139995) HM
91New Brunswick (York County), Fredericton — York County Court House / Le Palais de Justice du Comté de York
English: Opened about 1858, this building is the earliest surviving New Brunswick court house constructed of brick. It represents the beginning of the trend toward the widespread use of brick and stone in public buildings in the . . . Map (db m139799) HM
92Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), Blackhead — Cape Spear LighthouseLe Phare du Cap Spear
English Cape Spear, Newfoundland’s oldest surviving lighthouse, has served as the chief approach light for St. John’s harbour since 1836. Constructed by local builders Nicholas Croke and William Parker, it consists of a stone towner . . . Map (db m79112) HM
93Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), Ferryland — Colony of AvalonLa colonie d’Avalon — Sir David Kirke, c. 1597-1654 —
Two plaques are mounted on this monument. English: Near this site stood the “Mansion House” built between 1621 and 1625 by Captain E. Wynne, resident governor of the Colony of Avalon, for the proprietor, Sir . . . Map (db m79466) HM
94Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), Placentia — Castle Hill
English In 1693 the French began construction of Fort Royal to guard the harbour at Placentia. When it was completed in 1703, several batteries and outworks supported the main fortifications. The defences, however, were precariously . . . Map (db m78917) HM
95Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), St. John's — Battle of Signal HillLa bataille de Signal Hill
English This hill was the site of the decisive assault by British troops on the French lines, September 15, 1762, in the last phase of the battle in North America between the forces fo Great Britain and France. The victorious attack, led by . . . Map (db m78938) HM
96Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), St. John's — Former Bank of British North AmericaL’ancienne Bank of North America
English This Italianate style building recalls evolution of banking in Newfoundland, Designed by Halifax architect David Stirling for the Bank of British North America, it opened in 1850 at a time when British investors controlled banking . . . Map (db m79034) HM
97Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), St. John's — Former Newfoundland Railway HeadquartersL’ancien siège social du chemin de fer de Terre-Neuve
English This remarkable building served as the headquarters and terminus of the Newfoundland railway system. Begun in 1881, the railway played a significant role in the development of the island. Its benefits were evident by the eve of . . . Map (db m79109) HM
98Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), St. John's — Mary Meager Southcott(1862-1943)
English Educator, suffragist, and prominent nursing leader, Mary Southcott led the campaign to professionalize nursing in early 20th-century Newfoundland. Trained in London, England, she founded the St. John’s General Hospital School of . . . Map (db m79031) HM
99Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), St. John's — St. John the Baptist Anglican CathedralCathédrale Anglicane St. John the Baptist
English Begun in 1847, under the direction of Bishop Feild, this cathedral was designed by the noted British architect George Gilbert Scott and is an internationally important monument of the Gothic Revival style. Its historical . . . Map (db m79058) HM
100Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 1 (Avalon Peninsula)), St. John's — St. John’s Court HouseLe Palais de justice de St. John’s
English The St. John’s Court House, built 1900-1094, is by far the most striking and elaborate courthouse in the province. Set into a steep hill it commands a dramatic view of the harbour. The Romanesque Revival building was designed by . . . Map (db m79032) HM

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Sep. 28, 2021