143 entries match your criteria. The first 100 are listed. The final 43 ⊳
Trail of Tears Historical MarkersThe Indian Removal Act of 1830 opened a dark chapter in American history. Thousands of Native-Americans died during their forced removal from their eastern homelands to the Oklahoma Territory, along what is now called the Trail of Tears.
By Angela Nichols, May 11, 2016
Barry Springs Indian Stockade Marker
|One hundred feet east was one site where "The Trail of Tears" began. On May 23, 1838 the Indians of this general area, who had been held in a chestnut log stockade after being gathered by the U.S. Army, began their long trek to Oklahoma.
The . . . — — Map (db m114398) HM|
| Side A Prehistoric man arrived in this area bout 10,000 years ago.
Later Indian cultures left many stone artifacts and pottery vessels.
In the 1780s, a French trading post and Indian village were located near the mouth of Spring Creek. . . . — — Map (db m83389) HM|
| Side 1
Oka Kapassa (Ococoposa), meaning "Cold Water", was the Chickasaw name given to Spring Creek and to a trading post established near the Tennessee River about 1780. About 1817, Michael Dickerson and others were greeted at what by . . . — — Map (db m83393) HM|
| Panel 1
Tuscumbia and much of the Shoals area played an integral part in the "Trail of Tears" with the Tennessee River route and the overland routes. In 1825, the U.S. Government formally adopted a removal policy, which was carried out . . . — — Map (db m83403) HM|
| Under the provisions of the Cherokee Removal Act of 1830, a log stockade was built, “Two hundred yards Northeast of Big Spring.” The spring supplied abundant water for the Cherokees, the soldiers and livestock. Fort Payne was used as . . . — — Map (db m36743) HM|
|In 1837 Federal Troops arrived in this area to select a fort location for the collection, holding and removal of the Cherokee. Part of a much larger compound, this site contained a cabin seized by the troops for use as part of the fort. Today a . . . — — Map (db m100286) HM|
|Also resting place of
Supt Ard Hoyt
Missionary to the
Here and at Brainerd
1818-1828 — — Map (db m36965) HM|
The first detachment of 1,103 Cherokees to emigrate under their own officers, prior to leaving for the west held a final council at Rattlesnake Springs (near present-day Charleston, TN) and, by unanimous vote, declared their . . . — — Map (db m113846) HM|
|In May 1838 soldiers, under the command of U.S. Army General Winfield Scott, began rounding up Cherokee Indians in this area who had refused to move to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. About 16,000 Cherokees were placed in stockades in . . . — — Map (db m18047) HM|
|Thousands of Cherokee Indians passed through Waterloo in the 1830s when they were forced by the U.S. government to move West on the "Trail of Tears". Most came by boat from Tuscumbia and camped here to await transfer to larger steamboats. During the . . . — — Map (db m84301) HM|
|Form the late 1700's to 1807 a Cherokee Chief named Doublehead guarded this area, that was claimed by both the Cherokee and Chickasaw Nations as sacred hunting grounds against encroachment of white settlers.
Chief Doublehead had the reputation . . . — — Map (db m84646) HM|
|In May 1838 soldiers, under the command of U.S. Army General Winfield Scott, began rounding up Cherokee Indians in this area who had refused to move to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. About 16,000 Cherokees were placed in stockades in Tennessee and . . . — — Map (db m33318) HM|
|Early in the 1800's gold was found from Virginia to Alabama including a rich belt on Cherokee Indian land in what is now Dahlonega, GA.
causing a huge influx of miners and a land grab by new settlers.
Pressure and greed from politicians led to . . . — — Map (db m85838) HM|
|(Side A) This area's proximity to the Tennessee River and Indian trails made it a crossroads for early habitation, settlement, and trade. Archaeological studies reveal it was first inhabited about 12,000 years ago by Paleo-Indians. They . . . — — Map (db m33305) HM|
|Approximately one mile due east of this marker, back down the Old Federal Road, called by frontiersmen and Indians the Three Notched Trail or the Three Chopped Way, stood Fort Mitchell, an early 19th century American fort that in 1836 was one of the . . . — — Map (db m26100) HM|
|The Trail of Tears led thousands of Creek Indians through Tuscaloosa, capital of Alabama in 1836. Chief Eufaula addressed the legislature with these words:
"I come here, brothers, to see the great house of Alabama and the men who make laws and . . . — — Map (db m119308) HM|
|He extended state laws into Indian lands and actively encouraged illegal white settlement there. A treaty with the Creek Indians in 1832 forced them to leave the state and resulted in nine new counties in east Alabama. Their "Trail of Tears" took . . . — — Map (db m29028) HM|
|About 1800 near this spot white man established the first trail from East to West across Baxter County. Later some of the Cherokee Indians were moved to Oklahoma using this route which was known as the Trail of Tears. — — Map (db m62248) HM|
| "Decr 23rd 1837, Buried Rainfrogs daughter. Marched at 8 o'c A.M. halted at Reddix, 3 o'c. P.M. encamped and issued corn & fodder & beef, 16 miles today.
-B.B. Cannon, Detachment Leader
Not Far to Go
Here, members of William . . . — — Map (db m21085) HM|
|"Long time we travel on way to new land.... Womens cry... Children cry and men cry...but they say nothing and just put heads down and keep on go towards West. Many days pass and people die very much." -Recollection of a survivor of the Trail of . . . — — Map (db m35436) HM|
|After Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, May 28, 1830, the Government forceably relocated about 60,000 Indians from the southeastern U.S. to what is now Oklahoma. This included the five (5) civilized tribes Cherokee, Chickasaw, Creek, Choctaw, . . . — — Map (db m97912) HM|
|In 1807, citizens of Crystal Hill built a road to connect Cadron and Arkansas Post. From Cadron the road was built almost due east and continued until they reached the Wattensaw. At the Wattensaw swamps they found an Indian path that led south to . . . — — Map (db m116694) HM|
|"The steamer Warren brought news... of the loss of the steamboat Monmouth, and the death of at least one-half of her infamously crowded passengers. This fatal, and most appalling, accident arose from a collision between these two boats; but from the . . . — — Map (db m52028) HM|
|"I have no more land, I am driven away from home, driven up the red waters, let us all go, let us all die together and somewhere upon the banks we will be there." - Sin-e-cha's Song, heard on several removal boats along the Trail of . . . — — Map (db m52027) HM|
|"The route which the Choctaws and Chickasaws will
travel, in emigrating to their new homes, is not yet, we
believe, fully determined on; but it is quite probable
that a large proportion of them will cross the Mississippi
at Helena, and White . . . — — Map (db m116572) HM|
|"Long time we travel on way to new land.... Womens
cry.... Children cry and men cry...but they say nothing
and just put heads down and keep on go towards
West. Many days pass and people die very much."
-Recollection of a . . . — — Map (db m116602) HM|
|The Indian parties followed an ancient trail that became known as the Southwest Trail. The primitive trail took the tribal groups by where you are standing. William S. Lockhart was the first permanent settler in the area, arriving in 1815, at a . . . — — Map (db m96596) HM|
|"The Cherokees have been kept on a small spot, surrounded by a strong guard… obliged to live very much like brute animals… exposed to wind and rain, and herd[ed] together… like droves of hogs…” —Reverend Butrick, June 1838 . . . — — Map (db m156907) HM|
|The removal of the Chickasaw from their southeast homelands began in the early 1800s. Government traders who forced tribal members into debt would demand tribal lands as payment. By 1818, the Chickasaw had unwillingly yielded property in Alabama, . . . — — Map (db m156906) HM|
|"No part of the land granted them shall ever be embraced in any… State; but the U.S. shall forever secure said Choctaw Nation, from and against all laws except such as… may be enacted in their own National Councils." With such U.S. . . . — — Map (db m156905) HM|
| The Muscogee (Creek) people are descendants of a remarkable culture that, before A.D. 1500, spanned the entire region now known as the southeastern United States. The Muscogee were not one tribe, but rather a union of several that evolved into a . . . — — Map (db m156904) HM|
| The Seminole people originated in Florida from the mixing of many indigenous groups throughout the southeast. Encroachment by white settlers and slave-hunters onto tribal territory started the Seminole wars in 1817. Sporadic warfare continued until . . . — — Map (db m156903) HM|
| Florida Seminole. After the Third Seminole War (1858), nearly 3,000 Indians were forcibly sent to the Oklahoma Territory. A small number of Seminoles continued to live in relative isolation in southern Florida into the 1900s. Flood control and . . . — — Map (db m167203) HM|
|Early Migrants More Than Snowbirds The earliest migrants to Florida, determined by archeological evidence, date back to 500 A. D. Among them were the Deptford People, the Weeden Island People, the St. John's People and the Timican . . . — — Map (db m167202) HM|
| Oklahoma Seminoles. The Seminole Nation in the State of Oklahoma is the largest of the three recognized Seminole governments in the United States. They are descendants of the 3,000 Seminoles who were forcibly removed from Florida in the middle . . . — — Map (db m167204) HM|
One mile east of here is the site of the town of Pilaklikaha, established in 1813 by Black Seminoles. Meaning "many ponds" in the Mikasuki language, Pilaklikaha was the largest and most prosperous Black Seminole town in Florida, . . . — — Map (db m114467) HM|
|One-half mile north is the site of Fort Buffington, built in the 1830’s by local militia. It was one of about 25 stockades in the Cherokee Indian Nation used by Federal and State troops during the Cherokee Removal in 1838. In May and June, 1838, . . . — — Map (db m51190) HM|
|Just East of the railroad from here and 200 yards North of Wauhatchie Spring and Branch, stood the home of Wauhatchie, Chief of the Cherokees. In the War of 1812 he served in a company of Cherokees under Capt. John Brown, Col. Gideon Morgan and Maj. . . . — — Map (db m57996) HM|
| At this house’s core is the 1790s log home of Major Ridge (c.1771-1839), a leader in the Cherokee Nation. His 223-acre plantation supported numerous outbuildings, orchards and slaves while the family served as ferryboat operators and merchants. It . . . — — Map (db m14981) HM|
|General Winfield Scott put the Cherokee removal into action in 1838. The Cherokee remained in their homes despite continuous warnings and directives to gather at the forts. “Cherokees! The President of the United States has sent me with a . . . — — Map (db m171956) HM|
|In 1838, the majority of the Cherokees, approximately 12,000, were forced onto the “Trail of Tears”. Only about 8,000 made it to the new Cherokee Nation – what is now called Tehlequah, Oklahoma. After being imprisoned for several . . . — — Map (db m171953) HM|
In 1838, 1100 Cherokee Indians
were assembled at this site in
preparation for the evacuation
to Oklahoma Territory on
The Trail of Tears — — Map (db m98987) HM|
|Home of the Cherokee Indian Chief Whitepath stood from 1800 to 1982, 338 yards S.W. of this marker. Aaron Pinson born Feb. 5, 1784 lived here from 1838 until his death Dec. 7, 1843 — — Map (db m98998) HM|
| During the early 1800’s, northern Georgia was heart of the sovereign, independent Cherokee Indian Nation. By this time Cherokee were the most progressive Indian tribe in North America. In 1821, they became the first American Indians with a written . . . — — Map (db m11567) HM|
| The New Echota Treaty of 1835 relinquished Cherokee Indian claims to lands east of the Mississippi River. The majority of the Cherokee people considered the treaty fraudulent and refused to leave their homelands in Georgia, Alabama, North . . . — — Map (db m10051) HM|
|This is the site of one the forts or stations used by the United States Government in Cherokee country in 1838 to round up the Cherokee Indians for their removal to western reservations. General Winfield Scott, commander of the troops used to . . . — — Map (db m30369) HM|
|Built of locally made brick in 1804, this house, the finest in the Cherokee Nation, was the home a Town Chief, James Vann, son of a Scotch trader, Clement Vann, and his wife, a Cherokee chieftain's daughter. Around his home were several of his . . . — — Map (db m18595) HM|
| Author of "Home, Sweet Home," suspected as a spy of the Cherokee Indians was imprisoned here in 1835, but released.
Erected by Old Guard of Atlanta Oct. 6, 1922;
Jos. A. McCord; Commandant — — Map (db m18592) HM|
|Here stood a Cherokee Indian stockade with blockhouse on hill, built by U.S. Government in 1836.
Capt. Samuel Fariss and a company of Georgia volunteers guarded Cherokee Indians here before their removal to the west.
This fort was . . . — — Map (db m12907) HM|
|This comfortable two-story log house was the home of Cherokee Chief John Ross from boyhood until he went west over the "Trail of Tears," losing his Indian wife enroute. Although only one-eighth Indian himself, Ross was the elected "Principal Chief" . . . — — Map (db m12673) HM|
|At this point, just north of the safest ford in the Chattahoochee River, the first white settlers in this area built their campfires in 1822. A trading post was soon established on the site and Indians traded gold nuggets and gold-dust to the . . . — — Map (db m43704) HM|
|Early removal plans called for transporting Cherokee by boat to Indian Territory. The first three detachments passed by here on steamships in the summer of 1838 as they descended the Ohio River. With low water levels and impassable shoals preventing . . . — — Map (db m161480) HM|
|Home to thousands of men, women, and children, the Cherokee Nation at the time of removal spread across parts of today's Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee and Alabama. The 1830 Indian Removal Act required that the Cherokee and other southeastern . . . — — Map (db m161483) HM|
|Home to thousands of men, women, and children, the Cherokee Nation once spread across parts of Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Alabama. The 1830 Indian Removal Act required that the Cherokee and other southeastern tribes surrender their land . . . — — Map (db m154723) HM|
|In 1851, when the Illinois Central Railroad began surveying land in Union County, the county seat of Jonesboro was thought to be the logical choice for the location of the tracks. However, the city fathers declined to pay the required $50 surveying . . . — — Map (db m161071) HM|
| Home to thousands of men, women, and
children, the Cherokee Nation once spread
across parts of Georgia, North Carolina,
Tennessee, and Alabama. The 1830 Indian
Removal Act required that the Cherokee
surrender their land and move west.
In . . . — — Map (db m161434) HM|
|Union County was created January 2, 1818, when Illinois was still a territory. County commissioners established Jonesboro as the county seat on land donated by John and Juliet Grammer.
During the frigid winter of January 1839, thousands of . . . — — Map (db m161167) HM|
|At this point on the "Varmintrace" Road from Princeton toward Cumberland River the Cherokee Indians in 1838 camped on the 1200 mile "Trail of Tears." The enforced trek began in the Great Smoky Mountains and led westward to Indian Territory, costing . . . — — Map (db m123861) HM|
|By the early 1800's white settlers in present-day Georgia, Alabama, and Tennessee wanted the Cherokee farms, especially after the discovery of gold on Cherokee land. In 1830 the U. S. Congress passed the Indian Removal Act; in 1835 three hundred . . . — — Map (db m105690) HM|
|The Cherokee people once occupied much of the mid-Atlantic territory of North America. During the American Revolution they sided with the British against encroaching settlers and were forced to live in the mountains of Georgia, Tennessee, and North . . . — — Map (db m105691) HM|
|A camping ground, Oct. 1838, for a part of the Cherokee Indians who were forcibly moved from their homes in the Smoky Mountain region of N. Car. and Tenn. to Indian Terr., now Okla. Badly clothed and fed, hundreds became ill and many died, among . . . — — Map (db m88883) HM|
In 1838 this lot, then in woods, was
used as camping grounds for 13,500
Indians removed along this route
from the southern states to
Oklahoma, in detachments of 1500.
Among those who died in camp
were two noted Cherokees
Chief . . . — — Map (db m88886) HM|
|Chief Whitepath served with Chief John Ross on the six-person Management Committee for Cherokee Removal and Subsistence, arranging for ration stops along the "Trail of Tears".
Cherokee Memorial Park in Hopkinsville, Kentucky, was one of the sites. . . . — — Map (db m105687) HM|
Mantle Rock is the largest freestanding arch east of the Mississippi River. It is 188 feet long and 30 feet high. Some of the plants found here are not known to grow anywhere else in Kentucky. This very beautiful and historic place has many . . . — — Map (db m159929) HM|
With the black scorch of burned riverfront warehouses before them, the Cherokee on the Drane detachment moored at Paducah in July 1838. The waterfront was still recovering from a great fire two months earlier. The Cherokee . . . — — Map (db m154711) HM|
|Home to thousands of men, women, and children, the Cherokee Nation once spread across parts of Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Alabama. The 1830 Indian Removal Act required that the Cherokee and other southeastern tribes surrender their land . . . — — Map (db m154722) HM|
|Lebanon, lying 1,265 feet above sea level, in Missouri's Central Ozarks, was founded in 1849 as the seat of newly organized Laclede County. Southern settlers named the town for Lebanon, Tenn. The county name honors the founder of St. Louis. When . . . — — Map (db m44872) HM|
"Traveled 12 miles to Waynesville on Roberdeou Creek, a branch of the Gasconade—clear and present day..."
Dr. W. I. Morrow's diary, March 5, 1839
During the Trail of Tears, the only way Cherokee could cross the creek . . . — — Map (db m158042) HM|
"...halted at Waynesville, MO o'c P.M. encamped and issued corn and fodder, beef and cornmeal. Weather extremely cold."
B. B. Cannon's diary, December 9, 1837
If you had been here the afternoon of December 9, 1837, you . . . — — Map (db m158038) HM|
"This morning word came that a Cherokee woman was dying. I hastened to her tent...She was put in the wagon which carried her family when the detachment started, but soon expired."
Rev. Daniel S. Butrick diary, March 11, . . . — — Map (db m158035) HM|
On December 9, 1837, United States Army Conductor, B.B. Cannon and 330 Cherokee Treaty Party "Volunteers" camped near this site. Ten additional detachments, led by Cherokees themselves, passed through here on the Northern Route of the "Trail of . . . — — Map (db m158046) HM|
From 1837 to 1839, thousands of Cherokee traveled along local roads and through what is now Laughlin Park on their way to Indian Territory in the West. Some groups encamped here on their journey.
The Cherokee, or the "Principal People" or . . . — — Map (db m158039) HM|
|Fort Delaney, the U.S. Army’s post for the 1838 forced removal of Cherokee citizens from the upper Valley River Valley, was located due south of here in present-day Andrews. East Tennessee Mounted Volunteers built the fort in October 1837, . . . — — Map (db m156070) HM|
|Welcome to Konehete, the Long Valley Place that white’s shortened to Valleytown, the first name of Andrews. For centuries, the Long Valley was home to Cherokee communities such as Little Tellico, Tomatla, Conostee, Quotoconechito, Nehowee, Dasetsi, . . . — — Map (db m156076) HM|
In 1838, the United States government deported more than 16,000 Cherokee Indian people from their homelands in Tennessee, Alabama, North Carolina, and Georgia, and sent them to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). Thousands of . . . — — Map (db m156080) HM|
In 1838, the United States government deported more than 16,000 Cherokee Indian people from their homelands in Tennessee, Alabama, North Carolina, and Georgia, and sent them to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). Thousands of . . . — — Map (db m156081) HM|
|One of forts in which Gen. Winfield Scott gathered the Cherokee before moving them west in 1838. Stood ¼ mile southwest. — — Map (db m57945) HM|
Genl. Winfield Scott
during the round up
of the Cherokee
Indians for removal
to Oklahoma in 1837-1838
— — — — — — —
Donated to Town of Murphy
by Tar Heel . . . — — Map (db m99008) HM|
|In 1838, the United States government deported more than 16,000 Cherokee Indian people from their homeland in Tennessee, Alabama, North Carolina, and Georgia, and sent them to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). Thousands of Cherokee perished during . . . — — Map (db m120337) HM|
|In 1838, the United States government deported more than 16,000 Cherokee Indian people from their homeland in Tennessee, Alabama, North Carolina, and Georgia, and sent them to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). Thousands of Cherokee perished during . . . — — Map (db m120343) HM|
|One of the forts where General Winfield Scott's United States Forces gathered the Cherokee before moving them west, stood 3/4 mi. N. W. — — Map (db m41936) HM|
|Cherokee who resisted removal & escaped from U.S. troops; executed nearby, 1838. Story inspired Unto These Hills. — — Map (db m39694) HM|
|The rugged terrain of the Smoky Mountains determined patterns of human settlement. Residents of the Smokies - be they native Cherokees or European emigrants and their descendants - gravitated to valleys or coves. Settlement was confined to areas far . . . — — Map (db m20054) HM|
|In 1838, the United States government deported more than 16,000 Cherokee Indian people from their homelands in Tennessee, Alabama, North Carolina and Georgia, and sent them to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). Thousands of Cherokees perished during . . . — — Map (db m73923) HM|
|Cherokee - - - 1764-1843
Artist and tribal leader
Famous inventor of the Cherokee Alphabet
Sculptor Leonard McMurry
— — Map (db m28103) HM|
The United States Government, unable to conclude an agreement with the duly authorized leaders of the Cherokee Nation, signed a treaty with a minority faction willing to cede the last remaining portion of the original Cherokee . . . — — Map (db m77932) HM|
| [front side] The signing of the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek on Sept. 27, 1830, was the final negotiation to remove the Choctaws from their ancestral homelands in Mississippi and Alabama to Indian Territory. The trip covered 600 miles. . . . — — Map (db m165637) HM|
|Cut from Washington, Ark., to Fort Towson in 1831 for removal of Choctaws from Miss., became known as Choctaw Trail of Tears after thousands of suffering Indians used it to reach new lands. Road served as major east-west artery for Choctaw Nation . . . — — Map (db m24398) HM|
|In 1873, Bennet Cooper (1797-1886) gave one-quarter of an acre of land for a family burying ground. His first wife, Lydia, was buried there along with several other family members. The cemetery is located on a ridge behind the Cooper Homeplace which . . . — — Map (db m81367) HM|
|"Long time we travel on way to new land...Womens cry... Children cry and men cry... but they say nothing and just put heads down and keep go towards West. Many days pass and people die very much."
-Recollection of a survivor of the Trail of . . . — — Map (db m29815) HM|
|This sculpture is a small piece of theater, a tableau to engage the spectator in the heartbreak of the Cherokee walking west on the two routes of the Trail of Tears that crossed in Pulaski. Fear, suffering, survival, and resolve are expressed within . . . — — Map (db m81562) HM|
|Bell's Route of the Cherokee Trail of Tears in Tennessee, Arkansas, and Oklahoma, 1838-1839 Overview
The detachment headed by John Bell differed from the parties under Cherokee Chief John Ross's supervision. Bell's detachment was composed of . . . — — Map (db m29811) HM|
|John Benge's Route of the Cherokee Trail of Tears in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma, 1838-1839
John Benge led one detachment of approximately 1100 Cherokee with 60 wagons and 600 horses that left from Alabama on . . . — — Map (db m29812) HM|
|The Trail of Tears Interpretive Center Popularly known as the Rock Church, this beautiful chapel of Gothic architectural design was constructed by native limestone and was dedicated as the Immaculate Conception Catholic Church on August 10, 1941. A . . . — — Map (db m29810) HM|
|The 1830 Indian Removal Act mandated the removal of all American Indian Tribes East of the Mississippi River to lands in the West. Pulaski, Tennessee is where the Bell and Benge routes crossed in 1838. Benge's route left Fort Payne, AL on September . . . — — Map (db m81601) HM|
|On October 11, 1838, the last group of 650-700 treaty party Cherokees (so-called), led by conductor John A. Bell, also Cherokee, left Ft. Cass in Charleston, TN, headed for their new homes in the West. With them was U.S. Army LT. Edward Deas, . . . — — Map (db m167640) HM|
The Cherokees refused to emigrate and on May 26, 1838 the Army and civilian volunteers began the brutal roundup of the Cherokees. They captured men and women in their homes, farmers working in fields, and children at play. The captives were often . . . — — Map (db m165896) HM|
Indian and United States government relations were defined by treaties between sovereign nations and recognized as law by our Constitution. In exchange for land that became Alabama and Mississippi, President Thomas Jefferson made an agreement in . . . — — Map (db m165866) HM|
Witnessed a young Sam Houston, who gained favor with Chief Jolly on Hiwassee Island nearby, witnessed the Indian removal and countless events that shaped Meigs County, the State of Tennessee and points westward.
Commemorated in 2016 to . . . — — Map (db m165865) HM|
|John Ross was the grandson of John McDonald and the son of Daniel Ross natives of Scotland and partners in a trading post established at Ross’s Landing. He dedicated himself to the education of the Cherokee Nation. JOHN ROSS is called the greatest . . . — — Map (db m36278) HM|
143 entries matched your criteria. The first 100 are listed above. The final 43 ⊳