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Historical Markers and War Memorials in Winchester, Virginia

 
Clickable Map of Frederick County, Virginia and Immediately Adjacent Jurisdictions image/svg+xml 2019-10-06 U.S. Census Bureau, Abe.suleiman; Lokal_Profil; HMdb.org; J.J.Prats/dc:title> https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Usa_counties_large.svg Frederick County, VA (178) Clarke County, VA (73) Shenandoah County, VA (212) Warren County, VA (44) Winchester Ind. City, VA (126) Berkeley County, WV (103) Hampshire County, WV (72) Hardy County, WV (43) Jefferson County, WV (346) Morgan County, WV (102)  FrederickCounty(178) Frederick County (178)  ClarkeCounty(73) Clarke County (73)  ShenandoahCounty(212) Shenandoah County (212)  WarrenCounty(44) Warren County (44)  (126) Winchester (126)  BerkeleyCountyWest Virginia(103) Berkeley County (103)  HampshireCounty(72) Hampshire County (72)  HardyCounty(43) Hardy County (43)  JeffersonCounty(346) Jefferson County (346)  MorganCounty(102) Morgan County (102)
Winchester is in Frederick County
    Frederick County (178)
    Clarke County (73)
    Shenandoah County (212)
    Warren County (44)
    Winchester (126)
    Berkeley County, West Virginia (103)
    Hampshire County, West Virginia (72)
    Hardy County, West Virginia (43)
    Jefferson County, West Virginia (346)
    Morgan County, West Virginia (102)
 
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1Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — "Like A Thousand Bricks"The Union Cavalry Charge — The Third Battle of Winchester (September 19, 1864) —
Time: Late Afternoon Standing on this spot on the afternoon of September 19, 1864, you would have witnessed — about a mile to your front — one of the most spectacular scenes of the Civil War... and one of the largest cavalry charges . . . Map (db m155040) HM
2Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — “Shrapnel Rained On Us”The Union Attack Across Redbud Run — The Third Battle of Winchester (September 19, 1864) —
Time: Mid-Afternoon At 3 pm, Union Gen. George Crook advanced Col. Isaac Duval's division through the fields of the Huntsberry Farm on the north bank of Red Bud Run, which you can see directly across from you. On this side of the run, . . . Map (db m159418) HM
3Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — 1790 Stone Church
These native limestone steps are in their original position and mark the main entrance to a 40' x 60' stone church built on this site in 1790. The entrance was in the center of its east wall with the pulpit area against the west wall. This church . . . Map (db m2634) HM
4Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — 2nd Battle of WinchesterJune 13–15, 1863
General Richard S. Ewell with 14,000 Confederates defeated General Robert H. Milroy with 6,900 Federals. Prior to his second invasion of the North, Lee sent Ewell to Winchester to clear the Valley of Federals. Dividing his forces, Ewell on June 14th . . . Map (db m2518) HM
5Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — 2nd Battle of Winchester / 3rd Battle of Winchester
2nd Battle of Winchester June 13-15, 1863 3rd Battle of Winchester September 19, 1864Map (db m159481) HM WM
6Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — 3rd Battle of WinchesterSeptember 19, 1864
In the late summer of 1864 General Philip H. Sheridan with 41,000 Federals was ordered to take the vital Shenandoah Valley. Opposing this force was a Confederate army of 18,000 under General Jubal A. Early stationed north and east of Winchester. On . . . Map (db m155165) HM
7Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — A Murderous FireConfederate Horse Artillery on Huntsberry Farm — The Third Battle of Winchester (September 19, 1864) —
Time: Late Morning (sidebar) Six Confederate cannon were positioned here during the battle, erupting with flame and smoke as they sent a rain of deadly shells across Red Bud Run. The noise would have been deafening. This was one of . . . Map (db m159159) HM
8Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — A-2 — Action of Rutherford’s Farm
Near here, the Confederate General Stephen D. Ramseur was attacked by General William W. Averell and pushed back toward Winchester, July 20, 1864.Map (db m12091) HM
9Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — AlabamaBattle's Brigade — Third Battle of Winchester —
(front) During the Third Battle of Winchester on September 19, 1864, it was near this spot that Brig. Gen. Battle's Alabama Brigade reached their farthest advance. Erected by the family of CDR. Craig A. Morin USNR (Ret.) 2019 . . . Map (db m155706) WM
10Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — A-9 — Battle of Kernstown
On the hill to the west, Stonewall Jackson late in the afternoon of March 23, 1862 attacked the Union force under Shields holding Winchester. After a fierce action, Jackson, who was greatly outnumbered, withdrew southward, leaving his dead on the . . . Map (db m3150) HM
11Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Battle of KernstownMarch 23, 1862
General James Shields with 7,000 Federals defeated Stonewall Jackson with 3,500 Confederates. Jackson's object was to create a diversion which would prevent troops being sent to McClellan for the attack on Richmond. He arrived south of Kernstown in . . . Map (db m33024) HM
12Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Battle of Kernstown
March 23, 1862Map (db m159147) WM
13Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Battle of Rutherford's FarmUnion Victory
Confederate Gen. Jubal A. Early attacked the defenses of Washington, D.C., in July 1864, then retreated to the Shenandoah Valley. Union Gen. Horatio G. Wright pursued him, and after a sharp fight and Confederate victory at Cool Spring on July 18, . . . Map (db m13988) HM
14Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Captain Robert Young Conrad
In Memory of Robert Young Conrad Captain Co. I, 116th Inf. 29th Division Son of Major Holmes and Georgia Byran Conrad who was mortally wounded while leading a charge on a machine gun nest at Ormont Farm in the Meuse . . . Map (db m136364) WM
15Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — A-3 — Capture of Star Fort
The fort on the hilltop to the southwest, known as Star Fort, was taken by Colonel Schoonmaker of Sheridan’s Army in the Battle of September 19, 1864.Map (db m2275) HM
16Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Civil War Earthworks"Where they are compelled by nature ... to resort to it"
During the Civil War, armies of both sides built earthwork fortifications of varying sizes and shapes. The star fort was one of the most difficult types to construct. Although the design afforded the defenders the potential to fire into an attacking . . . Map (db m100976) HM
17Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Z-122 — Clark County / Frederick County
Clark County. Area 171 Square Miles. — Formed in 1836 from Frederick and added to from Warren. Named for George Rogers Clark, conqueror of the Northwest. Lord Fairfax and General Daniel Morgan, Revolutionary Hero, lived in this . . . Map (db m156734) HM
18Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — B-16 — Colonel John Singleton Mosby
This road, along which many of his skirmishes took place, is named for Colonel John Singleton Mosby, commander of the 43rd Battalion of the Confederate Partisan Rangers. Their activities in this area helped keep the Confederate cause alive in . . . Map (db m2668) HM
19Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Constructing Star Fort"It was hard work"
Union Gen. Robert H. Milroy and his division entered Winchester on January 1, 1863. The abolitionist general, who vowed to enforce the Emancipation Proclamation aggressively, soon set to work strengthening the town's defenses. His soldiers rotated . . . Map (db m100975) HM
20Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Counterattack!“Rodes Stops the Federal Breakthrough” — The Third Battle of Winchester (September 19, 1864) —
Time: Early Afternoon You're standing at the point of the pivotal Confederate counterattack that dramatically changed the course of the battle. By 12:30 pm, the tide of the battle had turned in favor of the Union. The Confederate . . . Map (db m159421) HM
21Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — J-16 — Defenses of Winchester
The fort on the hilltop to the north is one of a chain of defenses commanding the crossings of the Opequon. It was constructed by Milroy in 1863.Map (db m80324) HM
22Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Early Moves to Battle"The fire of battle veritably flashing in his eyes." — The Third Battle of Winchester (September 19, 1864) —
(sidebar) On September 18, 1864, Confederate Gen. Jubal Early, commander of Confederate forces in the Shenandoah Valley, was in Martinsburg, West Virginia, 23 miles north of here, with half of his army. While there, he learned that Union . . . Map (db m155062) HM
23Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Fight for the High Ground
The Shenandoah Valley's strategic location and rich farmland caused it to be the scene of two major Civil War campaigns that comprised hundreds of battles and skirmishes. Many Valley farms, like Rose Hill, became battlefields or campgrounds . . . Map (db m3498) HM
24Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — First Battle of Kernstown
Was fought here Sunday, March 23, 1862 Confederates under Gen. T.J. “Stonewall” Jackson attacked Federals under Gen. James Shields. The fighting was chiefly west of the road and continued from early afternoon until nightfall. When Jackson retired . . . Map (db m2635) HM
25Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — A-11 — First Battle of Winchester
Here Confederate Maj. Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson and his army, early on the morning of 25 May 1862, defeated Union Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Bank’s forces during Jackson’s Shenandoah Valley campaign. Banks, outnumbered and outflanked, hastily . . . Map (db m2596) HM
26Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — A-4 — Fort Collier
Just to the east, a redoubt known as Fort Collier was built by Joseph E. Johnston in 1861. Early’s left rested here during the Third Battle of Winchester, September 19, 1864.Map (db m2481) HM
27Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Fort Collier“I never saw such a sight”
Confederate troops constructed Fort Collier in 1861 after the evacuation of Harpers Ferry. The earthworks, which surrounded the Benjamin Stine house here, commanded the approach to Winchester on the Martinsburg and Winchester Turnpike. The fort saw . . . Map (db m2492) HM
28Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Fort Collier1861 - 1864
General Joseph E. Johnston commanded all Confederate forces in Virginia from 1861 until late in May of 1862. His initial post had been at Harpers Ferry, thought to be the key to the defense of the Shenandoah Valley. Johnston, however, believed that . . . Map (db m2508) HM
29Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Fort Collier Civil War Center
Fort Collier is a Confederate earthwork fortification constructed in 1861, the site of the great Federal cavalry charge on September 19, 1864 that ended the Third Battle of Winchester. The Fort Collier Civil War Center, Inc., purchased this ten acre . . . Map (db m159482) HM
30Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Fury On The Fence LineBeal’s Brigade Holds the Line — The Third Battle of Winchester (September 19, 1864) —
Time: Early Afternoon You're standing at the fence line where Union troops stood and fought to hold off the advancing Confederates. After the initial success of the Union attack at 11:40 am, the tables had turned when a Confederate . . . Map (db m159434) HM
31Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Gen. Russell Hastings
23rd Ohio Inf Wounded 19 Sept. 1864Map (db m6316) HM
32Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Q 4a — General Daniel Morgan / Winchester
General Daniel Morgan. Morgan used this road in traveling from his home, “Saratoga,” to Winchester. He was a frontiersman, Indian fighter and the commander of Morgan’s famous riflemen in the Revolution. He won glory at Quebec and Saratoga, . . . Map (db m2290) HM
33Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Q 4c — George Washington in Winchester
In Mar. 1748, George Washington first visited Winchester, then known as Fredericktown, as a surveyor for Lord Fairfax. Washington purchased property in Winchester in 1753 and was an unsuccessful candidate for a House of Burgesses seat here in 1755. . . . Map (db m2663) HM
34Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — A-38 — Hackwood Park
One mile east is the site of Hackwood Estate House, built in 1777 by General John Smith. Documents reveal that the Hackwood House caught fire during the Third Battle of Winchester. Union troops used the buildings on the site for a hospital, . . . Map (db m168409) HM
35Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — How To See the Battlefield
On March 23, 1862, the opening conflict of the famous Valley Campaign began on the adjoining Glass and Pritchard farms. You are visiting the Glass Farm called Rose Hill. The neighboring Pritchard Farm is 1½ miles to the southeast (right) of . . . Map (db m154721) HM
36Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — In Memory of the Many Soldiers of the Revolution
In Memory of the many soldiers of the Revolution interred at Opequon Church of whom only seven are known. Major John Gilkeson • Captain William Chipley • Captain Samuel Gilkeson • Captain James Simrall • Captain Samuel Vance • . . . Map (db m2633) WM
37Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — In Memory of William Hoge (1660 - 1749) and His Wife Barbara Hume Hoge (1670 - 1745)Pioneer Settlers
Born in Scotland - Died in Kernstown. Who lived on this land - Gave of it for this church and cemetery and are buried here.Map (db m159150) HM
38Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — John Rutherford's FarmInterrupted by War
John H. Rutherford was born about 1820. He acquired approximately 275 acres here between 1843 and 1848 from the heirs of John Carter. About May 24, 1849, Rutherford married Camilla C. Baker. At first, the couple lived with Mrs. Susan Pitman Carter, . . . Map (db m14028) HM
39Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Kernstown Battles
Around this site and a mile to the west occurred two major battles of the Civil War. First Kernstown March 23, 1862 Stonewall Jackson attacked what appeared to be a withdrawing federal force led by federal Br. Gen. Shields. Desperate . . . Map (db m2632) HM
40Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Life on the Huntsberry FarmWar in the Front Yard — Third Battle of Winchester (September 19, 1864) —
(sidebar) 75 Yards in front of you stands the remnants of the Huntsberry Farm. At the time of the battle, the farm covered 400 acres north and south of Red Bud Run. After emigrating from Germany in the early 1700's, the Huntsberry . . . Map (db m156642) HM
41Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Q 4d — Lord Fairfax
Thomas Fairfax (1693-1781), sixth Baron Fairfax of Cameron, was the proprietor of the Northern Neck Proprietary, a vast landholding that lay between the Rappahannock and the Potomac Rivers, and extended to the Blue Ridge. Born in England, he came to . . . Map (db m2299) HM
42Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Lt. Collier’s Earthworks
From the time of Virginia’s secession from the Union on May 23, 1861, until just before the Battle of Manassas on July 21, 1861, the Confederate government in Richmond recognized the importance of defending the Lower Shenandoah Valley. When . . . Map (db m2494) HM
43Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Major General Robert Emmett RodesConfederate Army of the Valley District — Third Battle of Winchester —
(front) Near this spot around 1:00 P.M. on Sept. 19, 1864, Maj. Gen. Robert E. Rodes fell mortally wounded while ordering Brig. Gen. Battle’s Alabama Brigade to counterattack a gap in the Union line. Rodes' last words to the Alabamians . . . Map (db m168905) HM
44Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — North Carolina At Third Winchester
North Carolina remembers with honor her gallant sons who fought in defense of home and country in the Army of the Valley District, commanded by Lt. Gen. Jubal Early at the Battle of Third Winchester, September 19, 1864. Twenty-one regiments of . . . Map (db m158717) WM
45Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Northern Victory, Southern Defeat
As Southern units retreated and resistance fell apart, Northern victory was assured. Jackson found himself surrounded by a disorderly retreat of his soldiers. In the growing dark, a few fresh Southern units made gallant attempts to cover the . . . Map (db m3507) HM
46Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — 169 — Opequon Presbyterian ChurchAmerican Presbyterian and Reformed Historical Site
Early Years This historic church was established by Scotch-Irish and German settlers who migrated from eastern Pennsylvania in the early 1730’s. William Hoge donated two acres of land for a meeting house, and an additional two acres for a . . . Map (db m122175) HM
47Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — 169 — Opequon Presbyterian Church
Early Years This historic church was established by Scotch-Irish and German settlers who migrated from eastern Pennsylvania in the early 1730s. William Hoge donated an additional two acres for a burying ground Two log and two stone houses of . . . Map (db m159149) HM
48Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Opequon Village
Opequon Village Has been placed on the National Register Of Historic Places By the United States Department Of The Interior homestead of the Glass and Cartmell families from 1736 on the Great Road charted in . . . Map (db m140363) HM
49Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Pettus Cousins in the Battle of First Kernstown
On May 2, 1861, after hearing that their home state of Virginia had seceded from the Union, John Hudson Petus, his younger cousin John Overton Pettus, and four other cousins from the Eubank family enlisted in the Keysville Guards as privates for . . . Map (db m159179) HM
50Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Ricketts’s Attack“Then it came our turn to shoot” — The Third Battle of Winchester (September 19, 1864) —
Time: Late Morning After critical delays getting his troops on the field, Union commander Gen. Philip H. Sheridan was finally able to launch his first attack at 11:40 am. Gen. James B. Ricketts's division of the 6th Corps led the attack . . . Map (db m159422) HM
51Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Rose Hill — 1862 Valley Campaign —
The First Battle of Kernstown, on March 23, 1862, was also the first major Civil War battle fought in the Shenandoah Valley. Throughout the morning, 16 Union cannons on Pritchard’s Hill held off Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s . . . Map (db m170363) HM
52Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Rose Hill"I do not recollect having ever heard such a roar of musketry." — 1862 Valley Campaign —
The First Battle of Kernstown, on March 23, 1862, was also the first major Civil War battle fought in the Shenandoah Valley. Throughout the morning, 16 Union cannons on Pritchard’s Hill held off Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s overmatched . . . Map (db m183304) HM
53Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Rutherford's FarmIn the Path of Battle
In addition to the action of July 20, 1864, known as the Battle of Rutherford’s Farm, two other significant events occurred on or near John Rutherford’s property here. The first took place on June 14-15, 1863, during the Gettysburg Campaign, as . . . Map (db m154051) HM
54Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Second Battle of KernstownJuly 24, 1864
From this position near the Hoge Run creek bed, you have a view similar to that of the Confederate sharpshooters as they saw the Union defensive line along the stone wall by Pritchard's Lane. (Note that the creek bed has been significantly . . . Map (db m159170) HM
55Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — A-8 — Second Battle of Winchester
On June 14, 1863, Jubal A. Early moved west from this point to attack Federal fortifications west of Winchester.Map (db m2597) HM
56Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — B-19 — Second Battle of Winchester
Here Jubal A. Early, detached to attack the rear of Milroy, holding Winchester, crossed this road and moved eastward in the afternoon of June 15, 1863.Map (db m2666) HM
57Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Second Battle of Winchester"The guns in Star Fort greeted them" — Gettysburg Campaign —
(preface) After Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's stunning victory at Chancellorsville in May 1863, he led the Army of Northern Virginia west to the Shenandoah Valley, then north through central Maryland and across the Mason-Dixon Line into . . . Map (db m100973) HM
58Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Second Battle of Winchester"A scene ... I shall never forget" — Gettysburg Campaign —
While Union artillery from Star Fort dueled with Confederate gunners in West Fort on June 14, 1863, Winchester's civilians fretted for their safety. Some wondered if Union Gen. Robert H. Milroy would destroy Winchester by either burning or . . . Map (db m100978) HM
59Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Sheridan Renews The Attack“You haven’t begun to fight yet!” — The Third Battle of Winchester (September 19, 1864) —
Time: Mid-Afternoon Union Gen. William Emory's 19th Corps suffered heavy losses in the early combat on September 19, 1864, but Union Gen. Philip H. Sheridan was not done fighting. When Sheridan arrived on the scene, Emory explained . . . Map (db m159419) HM
60Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Star FortGuardian of Winchester
Three times during the Civil War, Star Fort played a major role in the defense of Winchester. Union Gen. Robert H. Milroy’s troops began constructing the fort in January 1863 on the site of artillery emplacements Confederate Gen. Thomas J. . . . Map (db m117368) HM
61Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Ten Thousand DevilsAttack and Defend: The Confederate Left Flank — The Third Battle of Winchester (September 19, 1864) —
Time: Mid-Afternoon Confederate Gen. John B. Gordon's 2,600-man division occupied the northern stretch of Gen. Jubal A. Early's battle line. Gordon's command primarily manned the Second Woods a short distance behind you, but moved into . . . Map (db m159416) HM
62Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Advance of Tyler’s Brigade
Northern Colonel Nathan Kimball saw the position of his troops on nearby Pritchard's Hill (1.5 miles left and in front of you) becoming indefensible. Southern artillery recently placed on the higher elevation of Sandy Ridge (just in front of you) . . . Map (db m3501) HM
63Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Battle of Rutherford's FarmJuly 20, 1864 — Early's Maryland Campaign —
"Indications are that [the] enemy must attack me in the morning....The probabilities are that I shall attack him." —Union Gen. William W. Averell After hearing from scouts that the Confederate army was moving towards . . . Map (db m155113) HM
64Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Cavalry Charge at Fort CollierSeptember 19, 1864
The shocking impact of the great charge and capture of Fort Collier unhinged Early’s entire line of battle. Confederate troops streamed south through the streets of Winchester, Confederate artillery continued firing from Star Fort, slowing the . . . Map (db m2509) HM
65Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Defense of the Stone Wall
Southern General Thomas Jackson was already going by the nickname "Stonewall" when he directed his troops to this location to support the Southern artillery on Sandy Ridge. Ironically, his troops' retreat from this stone wall led to Jackson's only . . . Map (db m154746) HM
66Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The First Battle of KernstownThe Beginning of “Stonewall” Jackson’s Valley Campaign
The First Battle of Kernstown, fought by 10,000 Americans on March 23, 1862, was the first battle waged in the Shenandoah Valley. Throughout the morning, sixteen Union cannon crowned the knolls of Pritchard’s Hill (the high ground immediately north . . . Map (db m2169) HM
67Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The First Battle of KernstownMarch 23, 1862 — Stonewall Jackson's Valley Campaign —
"Believing that [the enemy] had other forces near at hand, I did not propose to walk into the net." —Union Col. Nathan Kimball Explaining why he declined to attack the smaller Confederate force during the early stages of . . . Map (db m155106) HM
68Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The First Battle of KernstownFulkerson's Virginians Attack!
The low, marshy ground stretching from here to the distant road lay uncontested throughout the five-hour artillery duel that opened the First Battle of Kernstown. The scene changed dramatically at 2:00 p.m. when 900 Virginians marched toward this . . . Map (db m159183) HM
69Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The First Battle Of Kernstown
(sidebar) In the excitement of battle I could aim at them only forty or fifty yards from me, as coolly as I ever did at a squirrel. But now it seems very much like murder. They would throw up their hands and fall every time we would get a fair . . . Map (db m170230) HM
70Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The First Battle of WinchesterMay 25, 1862 — Stonewall Jackson's Valley Campaign —
"Our entrance into Winchester was one of the most stirring scenes of my life." —Confederate Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson Remembering the ... reaction when he entered Winchester after the battle At the . . . Map (db m155108) HM
71Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Glass Homestead and Mill
This Property Has Been Placed On The National Register Of Historic Places By the United States Department Of The Interior Map (db m140366) HM
72Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Q-4 — The Great Indian (and Wagon) Road
The Great Indian Road, called Philadelphia Wagon Road by many settlers, was developed by Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) warriors traveling in the 1700s through the Great Valley of the Appalachians (which they called Jonontore) from Cohongaronto (north of . . . Map (db m12089) HM
73Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Middle Field“This is a slaughterhouse“ — The Third Battle of Winchester (September 19, 1864) —
Time: Late Morning You're standing where the First Woods ended and the Middle Field began during the Third Battle of Winchester. The Middle Field then was much larger than it appears today. At the time of the battle, it stretched for . . . Map (db m159417) HM
74Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Order for Retreat
Northern commander Colonel Nathan Kimball 1.5 miles away (over the hill on your right) on Prichard's Hill faced the threat of defeat. He decided to seize the initiative and order a second assault against the Southern artillery atop Sandy Ridge. At . . . Map (db m3504) HM
75Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Pritchard HouseA Family Caught in the Midst of War!
The large brick dwelling before you is the Pritchard House, built in 1854 by Stephen Pritchard, Jr. and his son, Samuel Pritchard. During the Civil War Samuel, his wife Helen, and their two small children occupied the house. Fighting swirled . . . Map (db m159182) HM
76Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Second Battle of KernstownMulligan’s Final Stand
Late in the afternoon on July 24, 1864, 1,800 Union soldiers led by Colonel James A. Mulligan fell back to this lane. Major General John B. Gordon’s Confederate force attacked from the ground beyond Opequon Church. Mulligan held off Gordon briefly, . . . Map (db m154718) HM
77Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Second Battle of KernstownJuly 24, 1864 — Early's Maryland Campaign —
"I determined to attack the enemy at once [and] my whole force was put in motion for Winchester." —Confederate Gen. Jubal Early Upon learning that a large number of Union troops had departed the Valley, having only Cook's . . . Map (db m155117) HM
78Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Second Battle of WinchesterJune 13-15, 1863 — Lee's 1863 Gettysburg Campaign —
"Hurrah for the Louisiana boys! There's Early; I hope the old fellow won't be hurt!" —Confederate Gen. Richard E. Ewell Watching Jubal Early and the Louisiana Tigers make the pivotal attack on West Flank. At . . . Map (db m155111) HM
79Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterConfederate Horse Artillery
"A more murderous fire I never witnessed..."Col. Thomas Munford, C.S.A. In an effort to protect the Confederate left flank, Gen. Fitzhugh Lee placed a detachment of cavalry and six pieces of horse artillery, lighter cannons made . . . Map (db m3091) HM
80Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterFording Red Bud Run
"To stop was death. To go on was probably the same; but on we started again." Col. Rutherford B. Hayes, U.S.A. Red Bud Run is as wide and boggy today as it was in 1864. During their attack, the men of the Eighth Corps sank into the . . . Map (db m3159) HM
81Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterThe Attack of the Eighth Corps
"The order was to walk fast, keep silent, until within about one hundred yards of the guns, and then with a yell to charge at full speed." Col. Rutherford B. Hayes, U.S.A. At noon on September 19, Union General Sheridan's Sixth and . . . Map (db m153559) HM
82Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterSeptember 19, 1864 — Sheridan's 1864 Shenandoah Campaign —
"You haven't begun to fight yet! I've got Crook here with 10,000 men, and I am going to throw them in and whip these fellows." —Union Gen. Philip H. Sheridan Telling Union Gen. William Emory—who exclaimed "My dead . . . Map (db m155122) HM
83Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester
(Left Side): The Third Battle of Winchester - September 19, 1864 Bloodiest Battle of the Shenandoah Valley Gen. Jubal Early assuming that Gen. Phil Sheridan was yet another cautious Union commander, divided his roughly 14,000 troops on a . . . Map (db m158714) HM
84Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterThe Confederates Reform
"Unless this force were driven back, the day was lost." General Jubal A. Early, C.S.A. Standing here about noon during the battle, you would have seen Union troops under Gen. Henry Birge pursuing Gen. Clement Evans' Georgians from right . . . Map (db m159187) HM
85Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterConfederate Defense
In the mid-morning of September 19, Confederate Gen. John B. Gordon's infantry, veteran troops from Georgia, Louisiana, and Virginia, took position to your right on the other side of Hackwood Lane. At 11:40 a.m., at the sound of artillery fire, . . . Map (db m159220) HM
86Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterConfederate Defense
In the mid-morning of September 19, Confederate Gen. John B. Gordon's infantry, veteran troops from Georgia, Louisiana, and Virginia, took position to your right on the other side of Hackwood Lane. At 11:40 a.m., at the sound of artillery fire, . . . Map (db m159221) HM
87Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterHackwood House
Prominent Virginian John Smith was charged with guarding prisoners of war held in Winchester during the Revolutionary War. He purportedly had this stately home (in front of you) built by Hessian and British prisoners around 1777. During the . . . Map (db m159334) HM
88Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterHackwood House
Prominent Virginian John Smith was charged with guarding prisoners of war held in Winchester during the Revolutionary War. He purportedly had this stately home (in front of you) built by Hessian and British prisoners around 1777. During the . . . Map (db m159335) HM
89Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterHackwood Lane
You are standing on Hackwood Lane. Running east to west, it was part of a network of country lanes connecting the Berryville Pike and the Valley Pike in the mid-19th century. The trees on either side were not present during the battle.Map (db m159420) HM
90Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterThe West Woods
You are standing near the center of General Early's infantry line at what has come to be called the West Woods. Although these particular trees were not here during the Battle of Third Winchester, some are in the same location as those that stood on . . . Map (db m159425) HM
91Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterThe Middle Field - Bloodiest Encounter in the Shenandoah Valley
You are standing in the Middle Field - perhaps the bloodiest place in the Shenandoah Valley. After hours of preparation, Sheridan's Army of the Shenandoah was ready to advance against the Confederate position east of Winchester at 11:40 a.m. . . . Map (db m159603) HM
92Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterThe Second Woods
You are standing at the site of what is known as the Second Woods. The fighting in and around the Second Woods was so rapid and chaotic that many participants disagreed on the details and order of the events. But this is much clear: at 11:40 a.m., . . . Map (db m159864) HM
93Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterThe First Woods - A Perfect Slaughterhouse
As Confederates drove Union Gen. Grover's 2nd Division back across the fields in front of you, the 1st Division of the Nineteenth Army Corps was moving up to the edge of the First Woods behind you, (the tree line was then some 400 yards further . . . Map (db m161525) HM
94Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester
(Left Side): The Third Battle of Winchester - September 19, 1864 Bloodiest Battle of the Shenandoah Valley Gen. Jubal Early assuming that Gen. Phil Sheridan was yet another cautious Union commander, divided his roughly 14,000 troops on a . . . Map (db m163866) HM
95Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterCamp Averell
In the months after the Third Battle of Winchester, this area became home to Camp Averell, named after Union cavalry gen. William Woods Averell. Elements of six cavalry and "mounted infantry" regiments from New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia . . . Map (db m163955) HM
96Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterThe Union Rear
The First Woods saw little combat, but areas near the front lines were bustling with activity. Here, men of Grover's, Dwight's, and Thoburn's Union divisions formed for their attacks across the Middle Field. Union Generals rallied the broken . . . Map (db m164088) HM
97Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterThoburn's Attack
As the Nineteenth Corps tried to reorganize its lines, Union Col. Joseph Thoburn's division of the Eighth Army Corps came up from reserve and took position at the edge of the First Woods behind you. Union Gen. Philip Sheridan soon arrived and . . . Map (db m167487) HM
98Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of WinchesterUnion Victories in the Valley
After the successful attack of the Union Eighth Corps, it was only a matter of time before the Confederates lost the battle. As Confederate Gen. Early consolidated his lines closer and closer to Winchester, his men faced coordinated infantry . . . Map (db m167715) HM
99Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The West WoodsThird Winchester Battlefield Park — Shenandoah Valley Battlefields National Historic District —
(left panel) Shenandoah At War In 1996, Congress designated eight counties as the Shenandoah Valley Battlefields National Historic District, with a mission to preserve and interpret the region's Civil War battlefields and . . . Map (db m167489) HM
100Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — J-3 — Third Battle of Winchester
Here Confederate forces under General Jubal A. Early, facing east, received the attack of Sheridan’s army at noon on September 19, 1864. Early repulsed the attack and countercharged, breaking the Union line. Only prompt action by General Emory Upton . . . Map (db m2268) HM

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Oct. 25, 2021